Gene Symbol: PPO1
Description: Prophenoloxidase 1
Alias: CG42639, CG5779, DmePPOA1, Dmel\CG42639, Dmel_CG5779, Dox-A1, DoxA1, Mox, PO A1, PO54, PPO, PPO-1, PROPO-A1, Phox, ProPO, ProPO A1, ProPO54, ProPo, Propo, i12, pro-A, pro-PO, pro-POA[[1]], proPO, proPO A[[1]], proPO-A1, proPO54, prophenoloxidase 1, CG42639-PA, PPO1-PA, black cell, black cells, diphenol oxidase A1 subunit, monophenol oxidase, monophenoloxidase, phenoloxidase, pro-phenol oxidase A1, prophenol oxidase A1, prophenoloxidase, prophenoloxidase A1, prophenoloxidase A[[1]]
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Cerenius L, Soderhall K. The prophenoloxidase-activating system in invertebrates. Immunol Rev. 2004;198:116-26 pubmed
    ..This important process is controlled by the enzyme phenoloxidase (PO) that in turn is regulated in a highly elaborate manner for avoiding unnecessary production of highly ..
  2. Scherfer C, Tang H, Kambris Z, Lhocine N, Hashimoto C, Lemaitre B. Drosophila Serpin-28D regulates hemolymph phenoloxidase activity and adult pigmentation. Dev Biol. 2008;323:189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Its proenzyme prophenoloxidase (proPO) is proteolytically cleaved to active phenoloxidase by a cascade consisting of serine proteases and ..
  3. Hyrsl P, Dobes P, Wang Z, Hauling T, Wilhelmsson C, Theopold U. Clotting factors and eicosanoids protect against nematode infections. J Innate Immun. 2011;3:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We also provide biochemical and genetic evidence for an involvement of eicosanoids in the same infection model. Taken together, our results confirm the conserved nature of the immune function of clot formation...
  4. Binggeli O, Neyen C, Poidevin M, Lemaitre B. Prophenoloxidase activation is required for survival to microbial infections in Drosophila. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004067 pubmed publisher
    ..A key enzyme in the melanization process is phenoloxidase (PO), which catalyzes the oxidation of phenols to quinones, which subsequently polymerize into melanin...
  5. Li X, Ma M, Liu F, Chen Y, Lu A, Ling Q, et al. Properties of Drosophila melanogaster prophenoloxidases expressed in Escherichia coli. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;36:648-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Although there have been numerous studies dealing with the PPO activation cascade, the detailed biochemical behaviors of the PPO family proteins remain to be clearly established...
  6. Ahmad S, Sweeney S, Lee J, Sweeney N, Gao F. Genetic screen identifies serpin5 as a regulator of the toll pathway and CHMP2B toxicity associated with frontotemporal dementia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12168-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This fly model will be useful to further dissect genetic pathways that are potentially relevant to the pathogenesis and treatment of FTD. ..
  7. Lanot R, Zachary D, Holder F, Meister M. Postembryonic hematopoiesis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2001;230:243-57 pubmed
    ..Cells within all lymph gland lobes, including prohemocytes from posterior lobes, massively differentiate into a new cell type specifically devoted to encapsulation, the lamellocyte. ..
  8. Chen Y, Liu F, Yang B, Lu A, Wang S, Wang J, et al. Specific amino acids affecting Drosophila melanogaster prophenoloxidase activity in vitro. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;38:88-97 pubmed publisher
    Insect prophenoloxidase (PPO) is a key enzyme that induces melanization around invading pathogens and at wounds to prevent further infection...
  9. Ramet M, Lanot R, Zachary D, Manfruelli P. JNK signaling pathway is required for efficient wound healing in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2002;241:145-56 pubmed
    ..In addition, Drosophila appears as a good in vivo model to study morphogenetic processes requiring epithelial regeneration such as wound healing in vertebrates. ..

More Information


  1. Lebestky T, Chang T, Hartenstein V, Banerjee U. Specification of Drosophila hematopoietic lineage by conserved transcription factors. Science. 2000;288:146-9 pubmed
    ..Given the similarities of Srp and Lz to mammalian GATA and AML1 proteins, observations in Drosophila are likely to have broad implications for understanding mammalian hematopoiesis and leukemias. ..
  2. Nam H, Jang I, Asano T, Lee W. Involvement of pro-phenoloxidase 3 in lamellocyte-mediated spontaneous melanization in Drosophila. Mol Cells. 2008;26:606-10 pubmed
    b>Phenoloxidase (PO), a melanin-forming enzyme around the foreign bodies, is an important component of the host defense system in invertebrates. Pro-PO is the enzymatically inactive zymogen form of PO...
  3. Jung S, Evans C, Uemura C, Banerjee U. The Drosophila lymph gland as a developmental model of hematopoiesis. Development. 2005;132:2521-33 pubmed
    ..The cellular events identified in this analysis further establish Drosophila as a model system for hematopoiesis. ..
  4. Ye Y, Chenoweth S, McGraw E. Effective but costly, evolved mechanisms of defense against a virulent opportunistic pathogen in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000385 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa infection than previously reported. This work reveals novel pathways by which Drosophila can survive infection with a virulent pathogen that may be rare in wild populations, however, due to their cost. ..
  5. Matskevich A, Quintin J, Ferrandon D. The Drosophila PRR GNBP3 assembles effector complexes involved in antifungal defenses independently of its Toll-pathway activation function. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:1244-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that GNBP3 assembles "attack complexes", which comprise phenoloxidase and the necrotic serpin...
  6. De Gregorio E, Han S, Lee W, Baek M, Osaki T, Kawabata S, et al. An immune-responsive Serpin regulates the melanization cascade in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2002;3:581-92 pubmed
    ..Arthropod melanization is controlled by a cascade of serine proteases that ultimately activates the enzyme prophenoloxidase (PPO), which, in turn, catalyzes the synthesis of melanin...
  7. Kambris Z, Brun S, Jang I, Nam H, Romeo Y, Takahashi K, et al. Drosophila immunity: a large-scale in vivo RNAi screen identifies five serine proteases required for Toll activation. Curr Biol. 2006;16:808-13 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the existence of a common cascade of SPs upstream of Spz, integrating signals sent by various secreted recognition molecules via more specialized SPs. ..
  8. Tang H, Kambris Z, Lemaitre B, Hashimoto C. A serpin that regulates immune melanization in the respiratory system of Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;15:617-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Such signaling between local and systemic immune responses could represent an alarm mechanism that prepares the host in case a pathogen breaches epithelial defenses to invade internal tissues. ..
  9. Castillejo Lopez C, Hacker U. The serine protease Sp7 is expressed in blood cells and regulates the melanization reaction in Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;338:1075-82 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that Sp7 is required for phenoloxidase activation and its activity is restricted to a subclass of blood cells, the crystal cells...
  10. Takehana A, Yano T, Mita S, Kotani A, Oshima Y, Kurata S. Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-LE and PGRP-LC act synergistically in Drosophila immunity. EMBO J. 2004;23:4690-700 pubmed
    ..A role for PGRP-LE in the epithelial induction of antimicrobial peptides is also suggested. ..
  11. Bidla G, Dushay M, Theopold U. Crystal cell rupture after injury in Drosophila requires the JNK pathway, small GTPases and the TNF homolog Eiger. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1209-15 pubmed
    The prophenoloxidase-activating cascade is a key component of arthropod immunity. Drosophila prophenoloxidase is stored in crystal cells, a specialized class of blood cells from which it is released through cell rupture...
  12. Gajewski K, Sorrentino R, Lee J, Zhang Q, Russell M, Schulz R. Identification of a crystal cell-specific enhancer of the black cells prophenoloxidase gene in Drosophila. Genesis. 2007;45:200-7 pubmed
    In Drosophila, Black cells (Bc) encodes a Prophenoloxidase and is expressed late in the maturation of crystal cells, which are blood cells involved in wound healing and immune encapsulation...
  13. Scherfer C, Karlsson C, Loseva O, Bidla G, Goto A, Havemann J, et al. Isolation and characterization of hemolymph clotting factors in Drosophila melanogaster by a pullout method. Curr Biol. 2004;14:625-9 pubmed
    ..We show that clotting occurs in the absence of phenoloxidase and that the Drosophila clot binds bacteria...
  14. Lau G, Goumnerov B, Walendziewicz C, Hewitson J, Xiao W, Mahajan Miklos S, et al. The Drosophila melanogaster toll pathway participates in resistance to infection by the gram-negative human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infect Immun. 2003;71:4059-66 pubmed
    ..Additionally, our results provide the basis for future studies into interactions between P. aeruginosa virulence factors and components of the Toll signaling pathway, which is functionally conserved between flies and humans. ..
  15. Leclerc V, Pelte N, El Chamy L, Martinelli C, Ligoxygakis P, Hoffmann J, et al. Prophenoloxidase activation is not required for survival to microbial infections in Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:231-5 pubmed
    ..Here, we have isolated the first Drosophila mutant for a prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (PAE1)...
  16. Sorrentino R, Carton Y, Govind S. Cellular immune response to parasite infection in the Drosophila lymph gland is developmentally regulated. Dev Biol. 2002;243:65-80 pubmed
    ..We propose that, by affecting a specific pool of hematopoietic precursors, this pathway thus confers immune capacity to third-instar larvae. ..
  17. Liu F, Chen Y, Yang B, Wang J, Peng Q, Shao Q, et al. Drosophila melanogaster prophenoloxidases respond inconsistently to Cu2+ and have different activity in vitro. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;36:619-28 pubmed publisher
    Dipteran insects, like mosquitoes, possess more than two prophenoloxidase (PPO) genes, but it is unclear whether their gene products differ in biochemical properties and physiological functions...
  18. Braun A, Hoffmann J, Meister M. Analysis of the Drosophila host defense in domino mutant larvae, which are devoid of hemocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:14337-42 pubmed
    ..peptides is impaired (immune deficiency larvae) and in mutants that are deficient for humoral melanization (Black cells larvae)...
  19. Waltzer L, Ferjoux G, Bataillé L, Haenlin M. Cooperation between the GATA and RUNX factors Serpent and Lozenge during Drosophila hematopoiesis. EMBO J. 2003;22:6516-25 pubmed
    ..We propose that interaction and cooperation between GATA and RUNX factors may play an important role in regulating blood cell formation from Drosophila to mammals. ..
  20. Asano T, Takebuchi K. Identification of the gene encoding pro-phenoloxidase A(3) in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Mol Biol. 2009;18:223-32 pubmed publisher
    The fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, has three proPO genes (DoxA1, CG8193 and CG2952). DoxA1 has been shown to encode proPO A(1), one of the two proPO isoforms (A(1) and A(3))...
  21. Chang H, Dhanasingh I, Gou X, Rice A, Dushay M. Loss of Hemolectin reduces the survival of Drosophila larvae after wounding. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;36:274-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar experiments on hml mutant larvae gave different results, but feeding stage hml larvae were differentially sensitive to infections with different strains of Serratia marcescens. ..
  22. Fellowes M, Godfray H. The evolutionary ecology of resistance to parasitoids by Drosophila. Heredity (Edinb). 2000;84 ( Pt 1):1-8 pubmed
    ..Finally, the possible population and community ecological consequences of evolution in the levels of host resistance are examined. ..
  23. Benmimoun B, Polesello C, Waltzer L, Haenlin M. Dual role for Insulin/TOR signaling in the control of hematopoietic progenitor maintenance in Drosophila. Development. 2012;139:1713-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, our study highlights the role of the IIS/TOR pathways in orchestrating hematopoietic progenitor fate and links blood cell fate to nutritional status. ..
  24. Asada N, Sezaki H. Properties of phenoloxidases generated from prophenoloxidase with 2-propanol and the natural activator in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Genet. 1999;37:149-58 pubmed
    ..For prophenoloxidase activation, the optimum temperature was 30 degrees C and the optimum pH was 8...
  25. Kume K, Kume S, Park S, Hirsh J, Jackson F. Dopamine is a regulator of arousal in the fruit fly. J Neurosci. 2005;25:7377-84 pubmed
    ..These results provide direct evidence that dopaminergic signaling has a critical function in the regulation of insect arousal. ..
  26. Khadilkar R, Rodrigues D, Mote R, Sinha A, Kulkarni V, Magadi S, et al. ARF1-GTP regulates Asrij to provide endocytic control of Drosophila blood cell homeostasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:4898-903 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the conserved ARF1-Asrij endocytic axis modulates signals that govern hematopoietic development. Thus, Asrij affords tissue-specific control of global mechanisms involved in molecular traffic. ..
  27. Braun A, Lemaitre B, Lanot R, Zachary D, Meister M. Drosophila immunity: analysis of larval hemocytes by P-element-mediated enhancer trap. Genetics. 1997;147:623-34 pubmed
    ..We anticipate that this mutation, which we named domino, will prove a useful tool in the analysis of the role of hemocytes during the various aspects of immune response and melanotic tumor formation. ..
  28. Corbo J, Levine M. Characterization of an immunodeficiency mutant in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1996;55:211-20 pubmed
    ..One such mutant, which maps near the Black cells (Bc) gene, causes a severe impairment of the normal immune response, including attenuated induction of several ..
  29. Lesch C, Goto A, Lindgren M, Bidla G, Dushay M, Theopold U. A role for Hemolectin in coagulation and immunity in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Comp Immunol. 2007;31:1255-63 pubmed
    ..This demonstrates an immunological role of this clotting protein and reinforces the importance of the clot in insect immunity. ..
  30. Tokusumi T, Shoue D, Tokusumi Y, Stoller J, Schulz R. New hemocyte-specific enhancer-reporter transgenes for the analysis of hematopoiesis in Drosophila. Genesis. 2009;47:771-4 pubmed publisher
    ..While this work focused on the hematopoietic process, these new vectors can be used to mark multiple cell types or trace complex cell lineages during any chosen aspect of Drosophila development...
  31. Bobak I, Lisotskaia D, Belokon E. [Genetic control of phenoloxidase in the imago of Drosophila melanogaster]. Genetika. 1991;27:1503-11 pubmed
    ..Females are characterized by a higher level of A1-phenol oxidase activity than males. This may be caused by their reproduction function. ..
  32. Takehana A, Katsuyama T, Yano T, Oshima Y, Takada H, Aigaki T, et al. Overexpression of a pattern-recognition receptor, peptidoglycan-recognition protein-LE, activates imd/relish-mediated antibacterial defense and the prophenoloxidase cascade in Drosophila larvae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13705-10 pubmed
    ..Moreover, PGRP-LE activates the prophenoloxidase cascade, a proteolytic cascade in the hemolymph...
  33. Neyen C, Binggeli O, Roversi P, Bertin L, Sleiman M, Lemaitre B. The Black cells phenotype is caused by a point mutation in the Drosophila pro-phenoloxidase 1 gene that triggers melanization and hematopoietic defects. Dev Comp Immunol. 2015;50:166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..requires sequential activation of proteolytic enzymes in the hemolymph, including the final enzyme pro-phenoloxidase. Black cells (Bc) is a mutation causing spontaneous melanization of Drosophila crystal cells, a hemocyte cell ..
  34. Ferguson G, Martinez Agosto J. Kicking it up a Notch for the best in show: Scalloped leads Yorkie into the haematopoietic arena. Fly (Austin). 2014;8:206-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we propose additional areas of exploration that may provide mechanistic insight into the environmental and non-cell autonomous regulation of cell fate in the blood system. ..
  35. Wu K, Zhang J, Zhang Q, Zhu S, Shao Q, Clark K, et al. Plant phenolics are detoxified by prophenoloxidase in the insect gut. Sci Rep. 2015;5:16823 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that insect foreguts release prophenoloxidases into the lumen, and that the survival of prophenoloxidase-deletion mutants was impaired when fed several plant phenolics and tea extracts...
  36. Lavine M, Strand M. Insect hemocytes and their role in immunity. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2002;32:1295-309 pubmed
    ..Cross-talk between the immune and nervous system may also play a role in regulating inflammation-like responses in insects during infection. ..
  37. Dearolf C. Fruit fly "leukemia". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1377:M13-23 pubmed
  38. Galko M, Krasnow M. Cellular and genetic analysis of wound healing in Drosophila larvae. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E239 pubmed
    ..Cell biological and molecular parallels to vertebrate wound healing lead us to speculate that wound healing is an ancient response that has diversified during evolution. ..
  39. Lebestky T, Jung S, Banerjee U. A Serrate-expressing signaling center controls Drosophila hematopoiesis. Genes Dev. 2003;17:348-53 pubmed
    ..The expression of Serrate marks a discrete cluster of cells in the lymph gland, a signaling center, with functional similarities to stromal signaling in mammalian hematopoiesis. ..
  40. Bataillé L, Augé B, Ferjoux G, Haenlin M, Waltzer L. Resolving embryonic blood cell fate choice in Drosophila: interplay of GCM and RUNX factors. Development. 2005;132:4635-44 pubmed
    ..These results provide new insight into the mechanisms controlling Drosophila hematopoiesis and establish the basis for an original model for the resolution of the choice of blood cell fate. ..
  41. Hauling T, Krautz R, Márkus R, Volkenhoff A, Kucerova L, Theopold U. A Drosophila immune response against Ras-induced overgrowth. Biol Open. 2014;3:250-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our hope is that this will lead to a better understanding of the earliest stage of innate immune responses against tumors with implications for mammalian immunity. ..
  42. An C, Zhang M, Chu Y, Zhao Z. Serine protease MP2 activates prophenoloxidase in the melanization immune response of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79533 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that Drosophila serine protease MP2 directly cleaves both recombinant and native prophenoloxidase-1...
  43. Asada N, Fujimoto K, Tanaka M, Ohnishi E. Genetic polymorphism of prophenoloxidase A1 in Drosophila melanogaster. Jpn J Genet. 1993;68:219-27 pubmed
    Electrophoretic variations of prophenoloxidase were obtained from natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster...
  44. Markovic M, Kylsten P, Dushay M. Drosophila lamin mutations cause melanotic mass formation and lamellocyte differentiation. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:3245-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Lamins thus affect immunity in Drosophila, and lam mutations can serve as genetic tools to dissect cellular immune signaling and effector pathways. ..
  45. Lu A, Li X, HILLYER J, Beerntsen B, Soderhall K, Ling E. Recombinant Drosophila prophenoloxidase 1 is sequentially cleaved by ?-chymotrypsin during in vitro activation. Biochimie. 2014;102:154-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use recombinant Drosophila melanogaster prophenoloxidase 1 (rPPO1) to study the mechanism of PPO activation induced by a typical serine protease, ?-chymotrypsin...
  46. Belokon E, Chernik I, Bobak I, Pisotskaia D. [Phenoloxidase in the ontogeny of Drosophila melanogaster]. Ontogenez. 1990;21:274-9 pubmed
    Electrophoretic spectrum of phenoloxidase was studied in 5 wild type and 17 mutant lines of D. melanogaster. Low-molecular alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol) proved to be activators of the enzyme...
  47. Ferjoux G, Augé B, Boyer K, Haenlin M, Waltzer L. A GATA/RUNX cis-regulatory module couples Drosophila blood cell commitment and differentiation into crystal cells. Dev Biol. 2007;305:726-34 pubmed
    ..cis-regulatory module that ensures the crystal cell-specific expression of the three Drosophila melanogaster proPO. We demonstrate that activation of this module requires the direct binding of both Srp and Lz...
  48. Yang B, Lu A, Peng Q, Ling Q, Ling E. Activity of fusion prophenoloxidase-GFP and its potential applications for innate immunity study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64106 pubmed publisher
    Insect prophenoloxidase (PPO) is essential for physiological functions such as melanization of invading pathogens, wound healing and cuticle sclerotization. The insect PPO activation pathway is well understood...
  49. Fossett N, Tevosian S, Gajewski K, Zhang Q, Orkin S, Schulz R. The Friend of GATA proteins U-shaped, FOG-1, and FOG-2 function as negative regulators of blood, heart, and eye development in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:7342-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the fly and mouse FOG proteins function similarly in three distinct cellular contexts in Drosophila, but may use different mechanisms to regulate genetic events in blood vs. cardial or eye cell lineages. ..
  50. Grigorian M, Mandal L, Hartenstein V. Hematopoiesis at the onset of metamorphosis: terminal differentiation and dissociation of the Drosophila lymph gland. Dev Genes Evol. 2011;221:121-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Cells of the secondary lobes undergo a rapid phase of proliferation that lasts until 8 h APF, followed by expression of Pxn and dispersal. These hemocytes do not express P1, indicating that they disperse prior to full maturation...
  51. Burmester T. Molecular evolution of the arthropod hemocyanin superfamily. Mol Biol Evol. 2001;18:184-95 pubmed
    ..Within the arthropod hemocyanin superfamily, the phenoloxidase probably emerged early in the (eu-)arthropod stemline and thus form the most likely outgroup...
  52. Asada N, Yokoyama G, Kawamoto N, Norioka S, Hatta T. Prophenol oxidase A3 in Drosophila melanogaster: activation and the PCR-based cDNA sequence. Biochem Genet. 2003;41:151-63 pubmed
    ..The availability of prophenol oxidase cDNA should be useful in revealing the biochemical differences between A1 and A3 isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster that are refractory or unable to activate prophenol oxidase. ..
  53. Asada N, Kitamura S, Tanaka M, Yamazaki S, Namba M. Thermolabile variant, PHOX-S, of prophenol oxidase in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Genet. 2005;43:549-60 pubmed
    The Phox(S) strain of Drosophila melanogaster is an electrophoretically slow variant found in a wild population at Victoria, Australia...
  54. Dudzic J, Kondo S, Ueda R, Bergman C, Lemaitre B. Drosophila innate immunity: regional and functional specialization of prophenoloxidases. BMC Biol. 2015;13:81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study confirms that two PPOs produced by crystal cells, PPO1 and PPO2, contribute to the bulk of melanization in the hemolymph, upon septic or clean injury...
  55. Dobes P, Wang Z, Márkus R, Theopold U, Hyrsl P. An improved method for nematode infection assays in Drosophila larvae. Fly (Austin). 2012;6:75-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This newly established infection model in Drosophila larvae will be applicable in large scale screens aimed at identifying novel genes/pathways involved in innate immune responses. ..
  56. Fauvarque M. Small flies to tackle big questions: assaying complex bacterial virulence mechanisms using Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Microbiol. 2014;16:824-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, these small flies now appear to be a useful system for assaying chemicals with therapeutic potential. ..
  57. Aleporou Marinou V, Marinou H, Patargias T. A mini review of the high mobility group proteins of insects. Biochem Genet. 2003;41:291-304 pubmed
    ..The possible relatedness of these proteins to the formation of higher order nucleoprotein structures and their possible role in the regulation of transcription is discussed. ..
  58. Bidla G, Lindgren M, Theopold U, Dushay M. Hemolymph coagulation and phenoloxidase in Drosophila larvae. Dev Comp Immunol. 2005;29:669-79 pubmed
    ..Here we show the similarities between clots in Drosophila and Galleria by light- and electron microscopy. Phenoloxidase changes the Drosophila clot's physical properties through cross-linking and melanization, but it is not ..
  59. Chambers M, Jacobson E, Khalil S, Lazzaro B. Thorax injury lowers resistance to infection in Drosophila melanogaster. Infect Immun. 2014;82:4380-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This altered resistance appears to be independent of classical immune pathways and opens new avenues of research on the role of injury during defense against infection. ..
  60. Lemaitre B, Meister M, Govind S, Georgel P, Steward R, Reichhart J, et al. Functional analysis and regulation of nuclear import of dorsal during the immune response in Drosophila. EMBO J. 1995;14:536-45 pubmed
    ..These data underline the complexity of the Drosophila immune response. Finally, we observed that like other rel proteins, dl can control the level of its own transcription. ..
  61. Fujimoto K, Okino N, Kawabata S, Iwanaga S, Ohnishi E. Nucleotide sequence of the cDNA encoding the proenzyme of phenol oxidase A1 of Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:7769-73 pubmed
    ..It seems, therefore, likely that pro-PO originates from a common ancestor with arthropod hemocyanins, independently to the vertebrate and microbial tyrosinases. ..
  62. Asada N. Reversible activation of prophenoloxidase with 2-propanol in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Zool. 1998;282:28-31 pubmed
    In Drosophila melanogaster, activation of prophenoloxidase with 2-propanol was analyzed. Prophenoloxidases A1 and A3 were activated within 1 sec after addition of 2-propanol...
  63. Lu A, Peng Q, Ling E. Formation of disulfide bonds in insect prophenoloxidase enhances immunity through improving enzyme activity and stability. Dev Comp Immunol. 2014;44:351-8 pubmed publisher
    Type 3 copper proteins, including insect prophenoloxidase (PPO), contain two copper atoms in the active site pocket and can oxidize phenols. Insect PPO plays an important role in immunity...
  64. Waltzer L, Bataillé L, Peyrefitte S, Haenlin M. Two isoforms of Serpent containing either one or two GATA zinc fingers have different roles in Drosophila haematopoiesis. EMBO J. 2002;21:5477-86 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the inclusion or exclusion of the N-finger in the naturally occurring isoforms of Srp can provide an effective means of extending the versatility of srp function during development. ..
  65. Chosa N, Fukumitsu T, Fujimoto K, Ohnishi E. Activation of prophenoloxidase A1 by an activating enzyme in Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1997;27:61-8 pubmed
    An activating enzyme for prophenoloxidase A1 was isolated from pupae of Drosophila melanogaster, and the activation of purified prophenoloxidase A1 with this enzyme was analyzed...