Gene Symbol: ppk
Description: pickpocket
Alias: BG:DS06238.1, CG3478, Dmel\CG3478, PPK, PPK1, dmdNaC1, dmdNaCl, mdNaC1, pkt, ppk1, pickpocket, CG3478-PA, Pickpocket1, drifter, multidendritic neurons sodium channel 1, pickpocket 1, ppk-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Adams C, Anderson M, Motto D, Price M, Johnson W, Welsh M. Ripped pocket and pickpocket, novel Drosophila DEG/ENaC subunits expressed in early development and in mechanosensory neurons. J Cell Biol. 1998;140:143-52 pubmed
    ..We identified two novel Drosophila DEG/ ENaC proteins, Pickpocket (PPK) and Ripped Pocket (RPK). Both appear to be ion channel subunits...
  2. Häsemeyer M, Yapici N, Heberlein U, Dickson B. Sensory neurons in the Drosophila genital tract regulate female reproductive behavior. Neuron. 2009;61:511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These neurons express both fruitless (fru), a marker for neurons likely to have sex-specific functions, and pickpocket (ppk), a marker for proprioceptive neurons...
  3. Ainsley J, Kim M, Wegman L, Pettus J, Johnson W. Sensory mechanisms controlling the timing of larval developmental and behavioral transitions require the Drosophila DEG/ENaC subunit, Pickpocket1. Dev Biol. 2008;322:46-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic manipulations disrupting expression of the Degenerin/Epithelial Sodium Channel subunit, Pickpocket1(PPK1) or function of PPK1 peripheral sensory neurons caused defects in the timing of these behavioral ..
  4. Crozatier M, Vincent A. Control of multidendritic neuron differentiation in Drosophila: the role of Collier. Dev Biol. 2008;315:232-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Col is also required for the class IV da-specific expression of pickpocket (ppk), which encodes a degenerin/epithelial sodium channel subunit required for larval locomotion...
  5. Younger M, Muller M, Tong A, Pym E, Davis G. A presynaptic ENaC channel drives homeostatic plasticity. Neuron. 2013;79:1183-96 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pickpocket genes encode Degenerin/Epithelial Sodium channel subunits (DEG/ENaC)...
  6. Hwang R, Zhong L, Xu Y, Johnson T, Zhang F, Deisseroth K, et al. Nociceptive neurons protect Drosophila larvae from parasitoid wasps. Curr Biol. 2007;17:2105-2116 pubmed publisher
    ..The nociception behavior of Drosophila melanagaster larvae includes an innately encoded directional preference. Nociception behavior is elicited by the ecologically relevant sensory stimulus of parasitoid wasp attack. ..
  7. Grueber W, Ye B, Yang C, Younger S, Borden K, Jan L, et al. Projections of Drosophila multidendritic neurons in the central nervous system: links with peripheral dendrite morphology. Development. 2007;134:55-64 pubmed
  8. Johnson W, Carder J. Drosophila nociceptors mediate larval aversion to dry surface environments utilizing both the painless TRP channel and the DEG/ENaC subunit, PPK1. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32878 pubmed publisher
    ..mutations in either the Drosophila TRP channel, Painless, or the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel subunit Pickpocket1(PPK1), both expressed in mdIV nociceptors, showed the same inappropriate increased pupation height and lethal ..
  9. Wegman L, Ainsley J, Johnson W. Developmental timing of a sensory-mediated larval surfacing behavior correlates with cessation of feeding and determination of final adult size. Dev Biol. 2010;345:170-9 pubmed publisher
    ..a subset of peripheral sensory neurons expressing the Degenerin/Epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) subunit, Pickpocket1(PPK1). PPK1 neuron inactivation or loss of PPK1 function caused an absence of IST behavior...

More Information


  1. Emoto K, Parrish J, Jan L, Jan Y. The tumour suppressor Hippo acts with the NDR kinases in dendritic tiling and maintenance. Nature. 2006;443:210-3 pubmed
  2. Grueber W, Ye B, Moore A, Jan L, Jan Y. Dendrites of distinct classes of Drosophila sensory neurons show different capacities for homotypic repulsion. Curr Biol. 2003;13:618-26 pubmed
    ..Further, Drosophila da sensory neurons appear to exhibit at least three different types of class-specific dendrite-dendrite interactions: persistent repulsion by all branches, repulsion only by terminal dendrites, and no repulsion. ..
  3. Ainsley J, Pettus J, Bosenko D, Gerstein C, Zinkevich N, Anderson M, et al. Enhanced locomotion caused by loss of the Drosophila DEG/ENaC protein Pickpocket1. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1557-63 pubmed
    ..b>Pickpocket1 (PPK1) is a Drosophila subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) family displaying limited expression in ..
  4. Zheng Y, Wildonger J, Ye B, Zhang Y, Kita A, Younger S, et al. Dynein is required for polarized dendritic transport and uniform microtubule orientation in axons. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:1172-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Dynein is also necessary for the dendrite-specific localization of Golgi outposts and the ion channel Pickpocket. Axonal microtubules are normally oriented uniformly plus-end-distal; however, without dynein, axons contain ..
  5. Yang C, Rumpf S, Xiang Y, Gordon M, Song W, Jan L, et al. Control of the postmating behavioral switch in Drosophila females by internal sensory neurons. Neuron. 2009;61:519-26 pubmed publisher
    ..to produce behavioral changes, we found that six to eight sensory neurons on the reproductive tract labeled by both ppk-GAL4 and fruitless-GAL4 can sense sex peptide to control the induction of postmating behaviors...
  6. Jinushi Nakao S, Arvind R, Amikura R, Kinameri E, Liu A, Moore A. Knot/Collier and cut control different aspects of dendrite cytoskeleton and synergize to define final arbor shape. Neuron. 2007;56:963-78 pubmed
    ..Hence, this study gives significant general insight into how multiple transcription factors combine to control class-specific dendritic arbor morphology through controlling different aspects of the cytoskeleton. ..
  7. Kim S, Coste B, Chadha A, Cook B, Patapoutian A. The role of Drosophila Piezo in mechanical nociception. Nature. 2012;483:209-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Knocking down Dmpiezo in sensory neurons that mediate nociception and express the DEG/ENaC ion channel pickpocket (ppk) was sufficient to impair responses to noxious mechanical stimuli...
  8. Williams D, Kondo S, Krzyzanowska A, Hiromi Y, Truman J. Local caspase activity directs engulfment of dendrites during pruning. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:1234-6 pubmed
    ..A new genetically encoded caspase probe revealed that caspase activity is confined to the degenerating dendrites of pruning neurons. ..
  9. Rezaval C, Pavlou H, Dornan A, Chan Y, Kravitz E, Goodwin S. Neural circuitry underlying Drosophila female postmating behavioral responses. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..sensory neurons that coexpress the sex-determination gene fruitless (fru) and the proprioceptive neuronal marker pickpocket (ppk) in the female reproductive system...
  10. Williams D, Truman J. Cellular mechanisms of dendrite pruning in Drosophila: insights from in vivo time-lapse of remodeling dendritic arborizing sensory neurons. Development. 2005;132:3631-42 pubmed
    ..Finally, we find that phagocytic blood cells not only engulf neuronal debris but also attack and sever intact branches that show signs of destabilization. ..
  11. Zhong L, Hwang R, Tracey W. Pickpocket is a DEG/ENaC protein required for mechanical nociception in Drosophila larvae. Curr Biol. 2010;20:429-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the pickpocket (ppk) gene, which encodes a Degenerin/Epithelial Sodium Channel (DEG/ENaC) subunit, is required for mechanical ..
  12. Duggan A, Garcia Anoveros J, Corey D. Insect mechanoreception: what a long, strange TRP it's been. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R384-7 pubmed
    ..An ion channel of the TRP superfamily has recently been identified which is required for production of mechanoreceptor currents by insect bristles, and seems likely to represent a new kind of mechanically gated channel. ..
  13. Hattori Y, Sugimura K, Uemura T. Selective expression of Knot/Collier, a transcriptional regulator of the EBF/Olf-1 family, endows the Drosophila sensory system with neuronal class-specific elaborated dendritic patterns. Genes Cells. 2007;12:1011-22 pubmed
    ..Collectively, all of our results suggest that Kn exerts its cell-autonomous function to control the formation, and possibly the function, of class IV-like elaborated dendritic arbors. ..
  14. Kimura H, Usui T, Tsubouchi A, Uemura T. Potential dual molecular interaction of the Drosophila 7-pass transmembrane cadherin Flamingo in dendritic morphogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:1118-29 pubmed
    ..At a later stage, homophilic Fmi-binding at dendro-dendritic interfaces would elicit avoidance between dendritic terminals. ..
  15. Lee H, Jan L, Jan Y. Drosophila IKK-related kinase Ik2 and Katanin p60-like 1 regulate dendrite pruning of sensory neuron during metamorphosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6363-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study thus implicates Ik2 and Kat-60L1 in dendrite severing that involves local microtubule disassembly. ..
  16. Liu L, Leonard A, Motto D, Feller M, Price M, Johnson W, et al. Contribution of Drosophila DEG/ENaC genes to salt taste. Neuron. 2003;39:133-46 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the response of larvae to sucrose, pH 3, and several odors remained intact. These results indicate that the DEG/ENaC channels PPK11 and PPK19 play a key role in detecting Na(+) and K(+) salts. ..
  17. Karim M, Moore A. Convergent local identity and topographic projection of sensory neurons. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17017-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that convergent sensory neuron specification, local differentiation, and topographic wiring are mediated by Mirror, and they suggest an integrated paradigm for position-sensitive neural development. ..
  18. Rezával C, Nojima T, Neville M, Lin A, Goodwin S. Sexually dimorphic octopaminergic neurons modulate female postmating behaviors in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2014;24:725-30 pubmed publisher
    ..1, 3-6] via SP sensory neurons in the uterus defined by coexpression of the proprioceptive neuronal marker pickpocket (ppk) and the sex-determination genes doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru) [7-9]...
  19. Horner V, Wolfner M. Mechanical stimulation by osmotic and hydrostatic pressure activates Drosophila oocytes in vitro in a calcium-dependent manner. Dev Biol. 2008;316:100-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This will allow exploitation of Drosophila genetics to dissect molecular pathways involving Ca(2+) and the activation of development. ..
  20. Mutsuddi M, Nambu J. Neural disease: Drosophila degenerates for a good cause. Curr Biol. 1998;8:R809-11 pubmed
    ..Recent studies suggest that molecular genetic approaches in Drosophila may shed important new light on conserved mechanisms underlying such disorders. ..
  21. Zlatic M, Li F, Strigini M, Grueber W, Bate M. Positional cues in the Drosophila nerve cord: semaphorins pattern the dorso-ventral axis. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000135 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our findings support the idea that axons are delivered to particular regions of the neuropile by their responses to systems of positional cues in each dimension. ..
  22. Jakubowski B, Longoria R, Shubeita G. A high throughput and sensitive method correlates neuronal disorder genotypes to Drosophila larvae crawling phenotypes. Fly (Austin). 2012;6:303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, we find that both increased and decreased expression of dGSK-3 lead to similar larval crawling impairment. These findings have implications for the use of GSK-3 inhibitors recently proposed for Alzheimer treatment. ..
  23. Tobin D, Bargmann C. Invertebrate nociception: behaviors, neurons and molecules. J Neurobiol. 2004;61:161-74 pubmed
    ..We begin with the neurobiology of invertebrate nociception, and then focus on molecules with conserved functions in vertebrate nociception and sensory biology. ..
  24. McGurk L, Bonini N. Protein interacting with C kinase (PICK1) is a suppressor of spinocerebellar ataxia 3-associated neurodegeneration in Drosophila. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:76-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that interaction proteins may define a rich source of modifier pathways to target in disease situations. ..
  25. Chen Z, Wang Q, Wang Z. The amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel PPK28 is essential for drosophila gustatory water reception. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6247-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the amiloride-sensitive PPK28 channel may serve as the osmolarity sensor for gustatory water reception in the fruit fly. ..
  26. Darboux I, Lingueglia E, Pauron D, Barbry P, Lazdunski M. A new member of the amiloride-sensitive sodium channel family in Drosophila melanogaster peripheral nervous system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;246:210-6 pubmed
    ..They could function as stretch or touch receptors, raising the possibility that this Drosophila gene product, called dmdNaC1, could also be involved in mechanotransduction.
  27. Song S, Ge Q, Wang J, Chen H, Tang S, Bi J, et al. TRIM-9 functions in the UNC-6/UNC-40 pathway to regulate ventral guidance. J Genet Genomics. 2011;38:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Over-expression of the Netrin/UNC-6 receptor Frazzled suppresses the guidance defects in trim-9 mutants. Our study reveals an evolutionarily conserved function of TRIM-9 in the UNC-40/Frazzled-mediated UNC-6/Netrin attraction pathway. ..
  28. Galili D, Dylla K, Lüdke A, Friedrich A, Yamagata N, Wong J, et al. Converging circuits mediate temperature and shock aversive olfactory conditioning in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2014;24:1712-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Temperature conditioning appears to require a subset of the dopamine neurons required for electric shock conditioning. We conclude that dopamine neurons integrate different noxious signals into a general aversive reinforcement pathway. ..
  29. Ribeiro C, Dickson B. Sex peptide receptor and neuronal TOR/S6K signaling modulate nutrient balancing in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1000-5 pubmed publisher
    ..of this decision-making process in females and that it relies on the action of the sex peptide receptor in internal ppk(+) sensory neurons...
  30. Shimono K, Fujimoto A, Tsuyama T, Yamamoto Kochi M, Sato M, Hattori Y, et al. Multidendritic sensory neurons in the adult Drosophila abdomen: origins, dendritic morphology, and segment- and age-dependent programmed cell death. Neural Dev. 2009;4:37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides the basis on which we can investigate the genetic programs controlling dendritic remodeling and programmed cell death of adult neurons, and the life-long maintenance of dendritic arbors. ..
  31. Song Y, Sretavan D, Salegio E, Berg J, Huang X, Cheng T, et al. Regulation of axon regeneration by the RNA repair and splicing pathway. Nat Neurosci. 2015;18:817-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study thus links axon regeneration to cellular stress and RNA metabolism, revealing new potential therapeutic targets for treating nervous system trauma. ..
  32. Boiko N, Kucher V, Eaton B, Stockand J. Inhibition of neuronal degenerin/epithelial Na+ channels by the multiple sclerosis drug 4-aminopyridine. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:9418-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, the current results are consistent with 4-AP influencing the symptoms of MS as well as the course of the disease because of inhibitory actions on Kv and ASIC channels, respectively. ..
  33. Kim M, Johnson W. ROS-mediated activation of Drosophila larval nociceptor neurons by UVC irradiation. BMC Neurosci. 2014;15:14 pubmed publisher
    ..Results obtained using UVC irradiation to induce ROS generation provide evidence that UVC-induced writhing behavior is mediated by endogenous production of ROS capable of activating mdIV mechanonociceptors in the larval body wall. ..
  34. Flores C, Engels W. Microsatellite instability in Drosophila spellchecker1 (MutS homolog) mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2964-9 pubmed
    ..Contrary to the case in mammalian cells, spel1 deficiency does not affect tolerance of flies to a methylating agent nor does it affect resistance to gamma-irradiation. ..
  35. Pavlou H, Goodwin S. Courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster: towards a 'courtship connectome'. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2013;23:76-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss recent studies aimed at identifying the cellular components of courtship neural circuits, mapping function in these circuits and defining causal relationships between neural activity and behavior. ..
  36. Huang M, Hsu C, Chien C. The proneural gene amos promotes multiple dendritic neuron formation in the Drosophila peripheral nervous system. Neuron. 2000;25:57-67 pubmed
    ..Amos interacts with the ubiquitously expressed Daughter-less protein in vivo and in vitro. Our final misexpression experiments suggest that a domain located outside the DNA-binding domain of Amos determines the MD neuronal specificity. ..
  37. Olds W, Xu T. Regulation of food intake by mechanosensory ion channels in enteric neurons. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisher
    ..Deficiency of the mechanosensory ion channel PPK1 gene or RNAi knockdown of its expression in the PENS result in a similar increase in food intake, which can be ..
  38. Guo Y, Wang Y, Wang Q, Wang Z. The role of PPK26 in Drosophila larval mechanical nociception. Cell Rep. 2014;9:1183-90 pubmed
    ..In addition, functional studies suggest that ppk26 and ppk (also called ppk1) function in the same pathway, whereas piezo functions in a parallel pathway...
  39. Ameku T, Niwa R. Mating-Induced Increase in Germline Stem Cells via the Neuroendocrine System in Female Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006123 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study illustrates how female GSC activity is coordinately regulated by the neuroendocrine system to sustain reproductive success in response to mating. ..
  40. Haussmann I, Hemani Y, Wijesekera T, Dauwalder B, Soller M. Multiple pathways mediate the sex-peptide-regulated switch in female Drosophila reproductive behaviours. Proc Biol Sci. 2013;280:20131938 pubmed publisher
    ..reproductive behaviours via a G protein-coupled receptor, SPR, in neurons expressing fruitless, doublesex and pickpocket. Whether SPR is the sole receptor and whether SP induces the postmating switch in a single pathway has not, to ..
  41. Mauthner S, Hwang R, Lewis A, Xiao Q, Tsubouchi A, Wang Y, et al. Balboa binds to pickpocket in vivo and is required for mechanical nociception in Drosophila larvae. Curr Biol. 2014;24:2920-5 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila gene pickpocket (ppk) encodes an ion channel subunit of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) family...
  42. Seidner G, Robinson J, Wu M, Worden K, Masek P, Roberts S, et al. Identification of Neurons with a Privileged Role in Sleep Homeostasis in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2015;25:2928-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data suggest a neural circuit model involving distinct populations of wake-promoting neurons, some of which are involved in homeostatic control of sleep and cognition. ..
  43. Schoenmann Z, Assa Kunik E, Tiomny S, Minis A, Haklai Topper L, Arama E, et al. Axonal degeneration is regulated by the apoptotic machinery or a NAD+-sensitive pathway in insects and mammals. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6375-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that two distinct autodestruction pathways act separately or in concert to regulate developmental neurite pruning. ..
  44. Robertson J, Tsubouchi A, Tracey W. Larval defense against attack from parasitoid wasps requires nociceptive neurons. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78704 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the class IV neurons allow for a nociceptive behavioral response to a naturally occurring predator of Drosophila. ..
  45. Mano I, Driscoll M. DEG/ENaC channels: a touchy superfamily that watches its salt. Bioessays. 1999;21:568-78 pubmed
    ..We discuss working understanding of DEG/ENaC functions, channel properties, structure/activity correlations and possible evolutionary relationship to other channel classes. ..
  46. Boiko N, Kucher V, Stockand J, Eaton B. Pickpocket1 is an ionotropic molecular sensory transducer. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:39878-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that pickpocket1 (ppk1), a Drosophila homolog of mammalian Degenerin/epithelial sodium channels, encodes an acid-sensing sodium ..
  47. Liu L, Johnson W, Welsh M. Drosophila DEG/ENaC pickpocket genes are expressed in the tracheal system, where they may be involved in liquid clearance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:2128-33 pubmed
    ..Among 16 Drosophila DEG/ENaC genes, called pickpocket (PPK) genes, we found 9 expressed in the tracheal system...
  48. Thorne N, Amrein H. Atypical expression of Drosophila gustatory receptor genes in sensory and central neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2008;506:548-68 pubmed
    ..It is also possible that the Gr28 genes have chemosensory roles in the detection of internal ligands. ..
  49. Freeman E, Dahanukar A. Molecular neurobiology of Drosophila taste. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2015;34:140-8 pubmed publisher
    ..gustatory receptor (Gr) genes, as well as water, salt, and pheromone sensing neurons that express members of the pickpocket (ppk) or ionotropic receptor (Ir) families...
  50. Yasunaga K, Kanamori T, Morikawa R, Suzuki E, Emoto K. Dendrite reshaping of adult Drosophila sensory neurons requires matrix metalloproteinase-mediated modification of the basement membranes. Dev Cell. 2010;18:621-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that regulated proteolytic alteration of the extracellular matrix microenvironment might be a fundamental mechanism to drive a large-scale change of dendritic structures during reorganization of neuronal circuits. ..
  51. Petersen L, Stowers R. A Gateway MultiSite recombination cloning toolkit. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24531 pubmed publisher
    ..An inventory of entry clones and destination vectors for Gateway MultiSite cloning has also been established (www.gatewaymultisite.org). ..
  52. Kim M, Ainsley J, Carder J, Johnson W. Hyperoxia-triggered aversion behavior in Drosophila foraging larvae is mediated by sensory detection of hydrogen peroxide. J Neurogenet. 2013;27:151-62 pubmed publisher
    ..of class IV multidendritic (mdIV) sensory neurons expressing the Degenerin/epithelial Na(+) channel subunit, Pickpocket1 (PPK1)...
  53. Gorczyca D, Younger S, Meltzer S, Kim S, Cheng L, Song W, et al. Identification of Ppk26, a DEG/ENaC Channel Functioning with Ppk1 in a Mutually Dependent Manner to Guide Locomotion Behavior in Drosophila. Cell Rep. 2014;9:1446-58 pubmed publisher
    ..necessary for proper locomotion behavior in Drosophila larvae in a mutually dependent fashion with coexpressed Ppk1, another member of the same family...
  54. Xu K, Bogert B, Li W, Su K, Lee A, Gao F. The fragile X-related gene affects the crawling behavior of Drosophila larvae by regulating the mRNA level of the DEG/ENaC protein pickpocket1. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1025-34 pubmed
    ..expression of the MD neuron subtype-specific degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) family protein Pickpocket1 (PPK1)...