Gene Symbol: por
Description: porcupine
Alias: 15175, CG6205, Dmel\CG6205, Porc, dmPorc, l(1)17Ac, poc, porc, porcupine, CG6205-PA, CG6205-PB, CG6205-PC, por-PA, por-PB, por-PC
Species: fruit fly
Products:     por

Top Publications

  1. Herr P, Basler K. Porcupine-mediated lipidation is required for Wnt recognition by Wls. Dev Biol. 2012;361:392-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, all Wnts, with the exception of WntD, require the acyltransferase Porcupine for activity and for functionally interacting with Wls...
  2. Fradkin L, van Schie M, Wouda R, de Jong A, Kamphorst J, Radjkoemar Bansraj M, et al. The Drosophila Wnt5 protein mediates selective axon fasciculation in the embryonic central nervous system. Dev Biol. 2004;272:362-75 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that transcriptional repression of wnt5 in AC neurons by the recently described Wnt5 receptor, Derailed, contributes to this largely posterior commissural localization of Wnt5 protein...
  3. Noordermeer J, Klingensmith J, Perrimon N, Nusse R. dishevelled and armadillo act in the wingless signalling pathway in Drosophila. Nature. 1994;367:80-3 pubmed
    ..We show that wingless acts through dishevelled and armadillo to affect the expression of the homeobox gene engrailed and cuticle differentiation. ..
  4. van den Heuvel M, Harryman Samos C, Klingensmith J, Perrimon N, Nusse R. Mutations in the segment polarity genes wingless and porcupine impair secretion of the wingless protein. EMBO J. 1993;12:5293-302 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, embryos mutant for the segment polarity gene porcupine show a similar retention of the wg antigen...
  5. Zhai L, Chaturvedi D, Cumberledge S. Drosophila wnt-1 undergoes a hydrophobic modification and is targeted to lipid rafts, a process that requires porcupine. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:33220-7 pubmed
    ..Lipidation occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and is dependent on Porcupine, a putative O-acyltransferase...
  6. Packard M, Koo E, Gorczyca M, Sharpe J, Cumberledge S, Budnik V. The Drosophila Wnt, wingless, provides an essential signal for pre- and postsynaptic differentiation. Cell. 2002;111:319-30 pubmed
    ..We suggest that Wg signals the coordinated development of pre- and postsynaptic compartments. ..
  7. Tanaka K, Kitagawa Y, Kadowaki T. Drosophila segment polarity gene product porcupine stimulates the posttranslational N-glycosylation of wingless in the endoplasmic reticulum. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:12816-23 pubmed
    ..In the absence of Drosophila segment polarity gene porcupine (porc), which encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) multispanning transmembrane protein, the N-glycosylation of ..
  8. Strigini M, Cohen S. Wingless gradient formation in the Drosophila wing. Curr Biol. 2000;10:293-300 pubmed
    ..Endocytosis is not required for Wg movement, but contributes to shaping the gradient by removing extracellular Wg. We propose that the extracellular Wg gradient forms by diffusion. ..
  9. Hofmann K. A superfamily of membrane-bound O-acyltransferases with implications for wnt signaling. Trends Biochem Sci. 2000;25:111-2 pubmed

More Information


  1. Kadowaki T, Wilder E, Klingensmith J, Zachary K, Perrimon N. The segment polarity gene porcupine encodes a putative multitransmembrane protein involved in Wingless processing. Genes Dev. 1996;10:3116-28 pubmed
    ..Lack of porcupine (porc) activity is associated with mutant phenotypes similar to those of wg mutations...
  2. Siegfried E, Wilder E, Perrimon N. Components of wingless signalling in Drosophila. Nature. 1994;367:76-80 pubmed
    ..the requirement in the Wg signal transduction pathway for the three genes armadillo (arm), dishevelled (dsh) and porcupine (porc), all of which have embryonic mutant phenotypes similar to wg...
  3. Howes R, Bray S. Pattern formation: Wingless on the move. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R222-6 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have provided important new insights into this process, though the issue is still far from being resolved. ..
  4. Ingham P. Segment polarity genes and cell patterning within the Drosophila body segment. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1991;1:261-7 pubmed
  5. Chamoun Z, Mann R, Nellen D, von Kessler D, Bellotto M, Beachy P, et al. Skinny hedgehog, an acyltransferase required for palmitoylation and activity of the hedgehog signal. Science. 2001;293:2080-4 pubmed
  6. Noordermeer J, Klingensmith J, Nusse R. Differential requirements for segment polarity genes in wingless signaling. Mech Dev. 1995;51:145-55 pubmed
    ..Signaling from engrailed cells to this novel wingless expression domain is dependent on hedgehog but also on porcupine. We further demonstrate a novel requirement for hedgehog in maintenance of expression of engrailed itself.
  7. Ferrus A, Llamazares S, de la Pompa J, Tanouye M, Pongs O. Genetic analysis of the Shaker gene complex of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;125:383-98 pubmed
    ..We discuss the relationship between the genetic organization of ShC and the functional coupling of potassium currents with the other functions encoded in the complex. ..
  8. DiNardo S, Heemskerk J, Dougan S, O Farrell P. The making of a maggot: patterning the Drosophila embryonic epidermis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1994;4:529-34 pubmed
    ..These signals mediate a mutually re-enforcing interaction between the two rows of cells to sustain organizer function. In a distinct and subsequent phase, wingless and hedgehog act to specify the fates of cells. ..
  9. Hooper J. Distinct pathways for autocrine and paracrine Wingless signalling in Drosophila embryos. Nature. 1994;372:461-4 pubmed
    ..I also find that Wg autoregulation during this early hh-dependent phase differs from later Wg autoregulation by lack of gooseberry (gsb) participation. ..
  10. de la Pompa J. Functional relationships between genes of the Shaker gene complex of Drosophila. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;244:197-204 pubmed
    ..These specific interactions indicate the existence of functional relationships among the genetic elements of ShC. The implications for the understanding of the functional organization of ShC are discussed. ..
  11. Solis G, Lüchtenborg A, Katanaev V. Wnt secretion and gradient formation. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:5130-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We further discuss these processes in the context of human breast cancer. A better understanding of these phenomena may be relevant for identification of novel drug targets and therapeutic strategies. ..
  12. Kopyl S, Dorogova N, Akhmamet eva E, Omel ianchuk L, Chang L. [Drosophila melanogaster gene Merlin interacts with the clathrin adaptor protein gene lap]. Genetika. 2010;46:314-20 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we showed that the Merlin and Lap proteins colocalized at the cortex of the wing imaginal disc cells. ..
  13. de la Pompa J. Functional interactions between the gene tetanic and the Shaker gene complex of Drosophila. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;244:205-15 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the extreme dosage sensitivity of the interaction between tta and ShC suggests a stoichiometric requirement for the different gene products involved, which might be physically associated and form heteromultimers. ..
  14. Nusse R. Wnts and Hedgehogs: lipid-modified proteins and similarities in signaling mechanisms at the cell surface. Development. 2003;130:5297-305 pubmed
    ..Several other aspects of Wnt and Hedgehog transport and signaling are discussed, as well as the possible origin of these pathways. ..
  15. Peifer M, Orsulic S, Pai L, Loureiro J. A model system for cell adhesion and signal transduction in Drosophila. Dev Suppl. 1993;:163-76 pubmed
    ..Finally, we discuss evidence supporting a direct role for Armadillo and adherens junction in transduction of wingless signal. ..
  16. Ingham P. Has the quest for a Wnt receptor finally frizzled out?. Trends Genet. 1996;12:382-4 pubmed
  17. Steinhauer J, Gijón M, Riekhof W, Voelker D, Murphy R, Treisman J. Drosophila lysophospholipid acyltransferases are specifically required for germ cell development. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:5224-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that lysophospholipid acyltransferase activity is essential for germline development and could provide a mechanistic explanation for the etiology of the human MBOAT1 mutation. ..
  18. Peifer M. Regulating cell proliferation: as easy as APC. Science. 1996;272:974-5 pubmed
  19. van den Heuvel M, Klingensmith J, Perrimon N, Nusse R. Cell patterning in the Drosophila segment: engrailed and wingless antigen distributions in segment polarity mutant embryos. Dev Suppl. 1993;:105-14 pubmed
    ..In embryos mutant for armadillo, dishevelled and porcupine, the changes in engrailed expression are identical to those in wingless mutant embryos, suggesting that their ..
  20. Tanaka K, Okabayashi K, Asashima M, Perrimon N, Kadowaki T. The evolutionarily conserved porcupine gene family is involved in the processing of the Wnt family. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:4300-11 pubmed
    The Drosophila segment polarity gene product Porcupine (Porc) was first identified as being necessary for processing Wingless (Wg), a Drosophila Wnt (Wnt) family member...
  21. Vincent J, Magee T. Argosomes: membrane fragments on the run. Trends Cell Biol. 2002;12:57-60 pubmed
    ..Recent work demonstrates the transfer of membrane fragments in a live epithelium and, importantly, suggests that these fragments might be used as a vehicle to transport morphogens in a developing tissue. ..
  22. Kopyl S, Dorogova N, Baĭmak T, Chang L, Omel ianchuk L. [Role of the porcupine gene in the development of the wing imaginal disk of Drosophila melanogaster]. Genetika. 2008;44:1486-92 pubmed
    A search for the genes interacting with the Merlin tumor suppressor gene revealed a Merlin-porcupine interaction during wing morphogenesis...
  23. Linder M, Deschenes R. Model organisms lead the way to protein palmitoyltransferases. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:521-6 pubmed
    ..With the identification of PATs in model genetic organisms, the field is now poised to uncover their mammalian counterparts and to understand the enzymology of protein palmitoylation. ..
  24. Manoukian A, Yoffe K, Wilder E, Perrimon N. The porcupine gene is required for wingless autoregulation in Drosophila. Development. 1995;121:4037-44 pubmed
    ..Four gene products, encoded by armadillo (arm), dishevelled (dsh), porcupine (porc) and zeste-white 3 (zw3), have been previously implicated as components of wg paracrine signaling...
  25. Llimargas M. Wingless and its signalling pathway have common and separable functions during tracheal development. Development. 2000;127:4407-17 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that another gene product, possibly a WNT, could help to trigger the wingless cascade in the developing tracheae. ..
  26. Zeng W, Wharton K, Mack J, Wang K, Gadbaw M, Suyama K, et al. naked cuticle encodes an inducible antagonist of Wnt signalling. Nature. 2000;403:789-95 pubmed
    ..Nkd may therefore link ion fluxes to the regulation of the potency, duration or distribution of Wnt signals. Signal-inducible feedback antagonists such as nkd may limit the effects of Wnt proteins in development and disease. ..
  27. Behrens J. Cross-regulation of the Wnt signalling pathway: a role of MAP kinases. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 6):911-9 pubmed
    ..Since TAK1 is activated by TGF-(beta) and various cytokines, it might provide an entry point for regulation of the Wnt system by other pathways. In addition, alterations in TAK1-NLK might play a role in cancer. ..
  28. Ching W, Hang H, Nusse R. Lipid-independent secretion of a Drosophila Wnt protein. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:17092-8 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, Porcupine and Wntless/Evi/Sprinter have been identified as being required in Wnt-producing cells for the processing and ..
  29. Wouda R, Bansraj M, de Jong A, Noordermeer J, Fradkin L. Src family kinases are required for WNT5 signaling through the Derailed/RYK receptor in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system. Development. 2008;135:2277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings indicate that the Src family kinases play novel roles in WNT5/Derailed-mediated signaling. ..
  30. Llimargas M, Lawrence P. Seven Wnt homologues in Drosophila: a case study of the developing tracheae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:14487-92 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the main advantage of retaining a number of similar genes is that it allows more subtle forms of control and more flexibility during evolution. ..
  31. Riggleman B, Schedl P, Wieschaus E. Spatial expression of the Drosophila segment polarity gene armadillo is posttranscriptionally regulated by wingless. Cell. 1990;63:549-60 pubmed
    ..Two other segment polarity genes, porcupine and dishevelled, are required for this effect...
  32. Yu X. A wingless flight. PLoS Biol. 2003;1:E49 pubmed
  33. Klingensmith J, Nusse R. Signaling by wingless in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1994;166:396-414 pubmed
    ..Where appropriate, wingless signaling will be compared to the activity of vertebrate Wnt proteins. ..
  34. Bhat K. Segment polarity genes in neuroblast formation and identity specification during Drosophila neurogenesis. Bioessays. 1999;21:472-85 pubmed
  35. Gumbiner B. Propagation and localization of Wnt signaling. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1998;8:430-5 pubmed
    ..Wnt signals are distributed through tissues by vesicular transport of Wnt proteins, localized in embryos by directed transport of cytoplasmic Wnt-signaling components, and propagated asymmetrically during cell division. ..
  36. Cadigan K, Nusse R. wingless signaling in the Drosophila eye and embryonic epidermis. Development. 1996;122:2801-12 pubmed
    ..Clonal analysis revealed a requirement for the genes porcupine, dishevelled and armadillo in mediating the wingless effect...
  37. Perrimon N. The genetic basis of patterned baldness in Drosophila. Cell. 1994;76:781-4 pubmed
  38. Eberl D, Perkins L, Engelstein M, Hilliker A, Perrimon N. Genetic and developmental analysis of polytene section 17 of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1992;130:569-83 pubmed
    ..In this interval of 37 to 43 polytene chromosome bands we have defined 17 genes, 12 (71%) of which are of significance to oogenesis or embryogenesis. ..
  39. Wendler F, Franch Marro X, Vincent J. How does cholesterol affect the way Hedgehog works?. Development. 2006;133:3055-61 pubmed
    ..However, the absence of the cholesterol adduct affects the spread of Hh within tissues. As we discuss here, the exact nature of this effect is controversial. ..
  40. Siegfried E, Perrimon N. Drosophila wingless: a paradigm for the function and mechanism of Wnt signaling. Bioessays. 1994;16:395-404 pubmed
    ..We will review recent data which have contributed to our growing understanding of the function and mechanism of Drosophila Wingless signaling in cell fate determination, growth and specification of pattern. ..
  41. Chen W, Antic D, Matis M, Logan C, Povelones M, Anderson G, et al. Asymmetric homotypic interactions of the atypical cadherin flamingo mediate intercellular polarity signaling. Cell. 2008;133:1093-105 pubmed publisher
  42. Stewart B, Mohtashami M, Zhou L, Trimble W, Boulianne G. SNARE-dependent signaling at the Drosophila wing margin. Dev Biol. 2001;234:13-23 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SNARE-mediated membrane trafficking is an important component of wing margin development and that dosage-sensitive developmental pathways will act as a sensitive reporter of partial membrane-trafficking disruption. ..
  43. Zhang P, Zhou L, Pei C, Lin X, Yuan Z. Dysfunction of Wntless triggers the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of Wingless and induces ER stress. Sci Rep. 2016;6:19418 pubmed publisher
    ..This phenotype could be mimicked by retromer loss-of-function or porcupine (porc) depletion, and rescued by wg knockdown, arguing that unsecreted Wg triggers ER stress...