Gene Symbol: polo
Description: polo
Alias: 0256/04, 1324/08, CG12306, Dmel\CG12306, PLK1, POLO, POLO/PLK1, Polo, Polo kinase, anon-WO0172774.3, l(3)01673, l(3)77Aa, l(3)S025604, l(3)S132408, polo, CG12306-PA, CG12306-PB, polo kinase, polo protein kinase, polo-PA, polo-PB
Species: fruit fly
Products:     polo

Top Publications

  1. Herrmann S, Amorim I, Sunkel C. The POLO kinase is required at multiple stages during spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1998;107:440-51 pubmed
    The polo gene of Drosophila melanogaster is the founding member of the polo-like kinase family which is conserved among eukaryotes. POLO has been implicated in the organisation and function of the mitotic apparatus...
  2. Castellanos E, Dominguez P, Gonzalez C. Centrosome dysfunction in Drosophila neural stem cells causes tumors that are not due to genome instability. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1209-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that such tumors might be caused by impaired asymmetric division of neural stem cells [4]. These results show that centrosome loss, far from being innocuous, is a potentially dangerous condition in flies...
  3. Mirouse V, Formstecher E, Couderc J. Interaction between Polo and BicD proteins links oocyte determination and meiosis control in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:4005-13 pubmed
    ..In this article, we report that the cell cycle regulatory kinase Polo binds to BicD protein during oogenesis...
  4. Glover D, Hagan I, Tavares A. Polo-like kinases: a team that plays throughout mitosis. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3777-87 pubmed
  5. Jang J, Rahman T, McKim K. The kinesinlike protein Subito contributes to central spindle assembly and organization of the meiotic spindle in Drosophila oocytes. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:4684-94 pubmed
    ..We propose that Subito is required for establishing and/or maintaining the central spindle in Drosophila oocytes, and this substitutes for the role of centrosomes in organizing the bipolar spindle. ..
  6. Clarke A, Tang T, Ooi D, Orr Weaver T. POLO kinase regulates the Drosophila centromere cohesion protein MEI-S332. Dev Cell. 2005;8:53-64 pubmed
    ..We elucidated a mechanism for controlling release of MEI-S332 from centromeres via phosphorylation by POLO kinase. We demonstrate that POLO antagonizes MEI-S332 cohesive function and that full POLO activity is needed to ..
  7. Logarinho E, Sunkel C. The Drosophila POLO kinase localises to multiple compartments of the mitotic apparatus and is required for the phosphorylation of MPM2 reactive epitopes. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 19):2897-909 pubmed
    ..However, recent results suggest that the newly emerging family of polo-like kinases (Plks) may also act as MPM2 kinases...
  8. Adams R, Tavares A, Salzberg A, Bellen H, Glover D. pavarotti encodes a kinesin-like protein required to organize the central spindle and contractile ring for cytokinesis. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1483-94 pubmed
    ..We show that Polo kinase associates with PAV-KLP with which it shows an overlapping pattern of subcellular localization during the ..
  9. Sunkel C, Glover D. polo, a mitotic mutant of Drosophila displaying abnormal spindle poles. J Cell Sci. 1988;89 ( Pt 1):25-38 pubmed
    Neuroblast cells in larvae homozygous for mutant alleles of the locus polo show a high frequency of metaphases in which the chromosomes have a circular arrangement, and anaphase figures in which chromosomes appear to be randomly oriented ..

More Information


  1. White Cooper H, Carmena M, Gonzalez C, Glover D. Mutations in new cell cycle genes that fail to complement a multiply mutant third chromosome of Drosophila. Genetics. 1996;144:1097-111 pubmed
    ..mutations that fail to complement five cell cycle mutations of Drosphila carried on a single third chromosome (gnu, polo, mgr, asp, stg)...
  2. McCleland M, Farrell J, O Farrell P. Influence of cyclin type and dose on mitotic entry and progression in the early Drosophila embryo. J Cell Biol. 2009;184:639-46 pubmed publisher
  3. McCleland M, O Farrell P. RNAi of mitotic cyclins in Drosophila uncouples the nuclear and centrosome cycle. Curr Biol. 2008;18:245-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that high mitotic cyclin normally ensures that the centrosome cycle remains entrained to the nuclear cycle. ..
  4. Xiang Y, Takeo S, Florens L, Hughes S, Huo L, Gilliland W, et al. The inhibition of polo kinase by matrimony maintains G2 arrest in the meiotic cell cycle. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e323 pubmed
    ..Coimmunoprecipitation experiments reveal that Mtrm physically interacts with Polo kinase (Polo) in vivo, and multidimensional protein identification technology mass spectrometry analysis reveals that ..
  5. Moutinho Santos T, Sampaio P, Amorim I, Costa M, Sunkel C. In vivo localisation of the mitotic POLO kinase shows a highly dynamic association with the mitotic apparatus during early embryogenesis in Drosophila. Biol Cell. 1999;91:585-96 pubmed
    The gene polo encodes a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase that has been implicated in several functions during cell division...
  6. Donaldson M, Tavares A, Ohkura H, Deak P, Glover D. Metaphase arrest with centromere separation in polo mutants of Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:663-76 pubmed
    ..We discuss roles for Polo kinase in recruiting centrosomal proteins and in regulating progression through the metaphase-anaphase checkpoint.
  7. Heun P, Erhardt S, Blower M, Weiss S, Skora A, Karpen G. Mislocalization of the Drosophila centromere-specific histone CID promotes formation of functional ectopic kinetochores. Dev Cell. 2006;10:303-15 pubmed
    ..Thus, CENP-A mislocalization is one possible mechanism for genome instability during cancer progression, as well as centromere plasticity during evolution. ..
  8. Bettencourt Dias M, Rodrigues Martins A, Carpenter L, Riparbelli M, Lehmann L, Gatt M, et al. SAK/PLK4 is required for centriole duplication and flagella development. Curr Biol. 2005;15:2199-207 pubmed
    SAK/PLK4 is a distinct member of the polo-like kinase family. SAK-/- mice die during embryogenesis, whereas SAK+/- mice develop liver and lung tumors and SAK+/- MEFs show mitotic abnormalities...
  9. Ahmad S, Tansey T, Busser B, Nolte M, Jeffries N, Gisselbrecht S, et al. Two forkhead transcription factors regulate the division of cardiac progenitor cells by a Polo-dependent pathway. Dev Cell. 2012;23:97-111 pubmed publisher
    ..jumu and CHES-1-like control the division of cardiac progenitors by regulating the activity of Polo, a kinase involved in multiple steps of mitosis...
  10. D Avino P, Savoian M, Glover D. Cleavage furrow formation and ingression during animal cytokinesis: a microtubule legacy. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:1549-58 pubmed
    ..The same mechanism might be conserved in other organisms. ..
  11. Gilliland W, Hughes S, Vietti D, Hawley R. Congression of achiasmate chromosomes to the metaphase plate in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. Dev Biol. 2009;325:122-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This repackaged state is the true metaphase arrest configuration in Drosophila female meiosis. ..
  12. Rangone H, Wegel E, Gatt M, Yeung E, Flowers A, Debski J, et al. Suppression of scant identifies Endos as a substrate of greatwall kinase and a negative regulator of protein phosphatase 2A in mitosis. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002225 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these interactions suggest that Greatwall and Endos act to promote the inactivation of PP2A-Twins/B55 in Drosophila. We discuss the involvement of Polo kinase in such a regulatory loop.
  13. Fu J, Glover D. Structured illumination of the interface between centriole and peri-centriolar material. Open Biol. 2012;2:120104 pubmed publisher
    ..centrioles in two tube-like layers: an inner layer occupied by centriolar microtubules, Sas-4, Spd-2 and Polo kinase; and an outer layer comprising Pericentrin-like protein (Dplp), Asterless (Asl) and Plk4 kinase...
  14. Blagden S, Glover D. Polar expeditions--provisioning the centrosome for mitosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:505-11 pubmed
    ..Centrosomes enlarge dramatically after mitotic entry, when both Aurora A and Polo-like kinases cooperate to recruit additional gamma-tubulin ring complexes and microtubule-associated proteins to ..
  15. D Avino P, Archambault V, Przewloka M, Zhang W, Lilley K, Laue E, et al. Recruitment of Polo kinase to the spindle midzone during cytokinesis requires the Feo/Klp3A complex. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e572 pubmed
    b>Polo-like kinases control multiple events during cell division, including mitotic entry, centrosome organization, spindle formation, chromosome segregation and cytokinesis...
  16. Conde C, Osswald M, Barbosa J, Moutinho Santos T, Pinheiro D, Guimaraes S, et al. Drosophila Polo regulates the spindle assembly checkpoint through Mps1-dependent BubR1 phosphorylation. EMBO J. 2013;32:1761-77 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Polo is a mitotic kinase proposed to be involved in SAC function, but its role has remained elusive...
  17. Archambault V, Zhao X, White Cooper H, Carpenter A, Glover D. Mutations in Drosophila Greatwall/Scant reveal its roles in mitosis and meiosis and interdependence with Polo kinase. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e200 pubmed
    ..Drosophila females having only one wild-type allele of the polo kinase gene and the dominant Scant mutation produce embryos in which one of the centrosomes detaches from the nuclear ..
  18. Llamazares S, Moreira A, Tavares A, Girdham C, Spruce B, Gonzalez C, et al. polo encodes a protein kinase homolog required for mitosis in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1991;5:2153-65 pubmed
    ..In the cell cycles of both syncytial and cellularized embryos, the polo kinase undergoes cell cycle-dependent changes in its distribution: It is predominantly cytoplasmic during interphase; ..
  19. Deak P, Donaldson M, Glover D. Mutations in mákos, a Drosophila gene encoding the Cdc27 subunit of the anaphase promoting complex, enhance centrosomal defects in polo and are suppressed by mutations in twins/aar, which encodes a regulatory subunit of PP2A. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:4147-58 pubmed
    ..Absence of the MPM2 epitope from the spindle poles in such double mutants suggests Polo kinase is not fully activated at this location...
  20. Tavares A, Glover D, Sunkel C. The conserved mitotic kinase polo is regulated by phosphorylation and has preferred microtubule-associated substrates in Drosophila embryo extracts. EMBO J. 1996;15:4873-83 pubmed
    ..We have determined putative polo substrates in a cell-free system derived from mutant embryos. Exogenous polo protein kinase phosphorylates proteins of sizes 220 kDa, 85 kDa and 54 kDa, to a greater extent when added to extracts of ..
  21. Basu J, Bousbaa H, Logarinho E, Li Z, Williams B, Lopes C, et al. Mutations in the essential spindle checkpoint gene bub1 cause chromosome missegregation and fail to block apoptosis in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:13-28 pubmed
    ..Bub1's localization to the kinetochore does not depend on the products of the genes zw10, rod, polo, or fizzy, indicating that the kinetochore is constructed from several independent subassemblies.
  22. Gilliland W, Hughes S, Cotitta J, Takeo S, Xiang Y, Hawley R. The multiple roles of mps1 in Drosophila female meiosis. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e113 pubmed
    ..These filaments, which are not observed in mitotic cells, also contain the outer kinetochore protein kinase Polo, but not the inner kinetochore proteins Incenp or Aurora-B...
  23. Carmena M, Riparbelli M, Minestrini G, Tavares A, Adams R, Callaini G, et al. Drosophila polo kinase is required for cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:659-71 pubmed
    ..evidence point to a predominance of cytokinesis defects in spermatogenesis in hypomorphic alleles of the Drosophila polo gene...
  24. Von Stetina J, Tranguch S, Dey S, Lee L, Cha B, Drummond Barbosa D. alpha-Endosulfine is a conserved protein required for oocyte meiotic maturation in Drosophila. Development. 2008;135:3697-706 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Twine and Polo kinase levels are reduced in endos mutants, and identified Early girl (Elgi), a predicted E3 ubiquitin ligase, as a ..
  25. Royou A, McCusker D, Kellogg D, Sullivan W. Grapes(Chk1) prevents nuclear CDK1 activation by delaying cyclin B nuclear accumulation. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:63-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Grp(Chk1) prevents nuclear CDK1 activation by delaying CycB nuclear accumulation through Wee1-dependent and independent mechanisms. ..
  26. Rusan N, Peifer M. A role for a novel centrosome cycle in asymmetric cell division. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:13-20 pubmed
    ..This is accompanied by asymmetric localization of Polo kinase, a key centrosome regulator. Disruption of centrosomes disrupts the high fidelity of asymmetric division...
  27. Pearson J, Godinho S, Tavares A, Glover D. Heterologous expression of mammalian Plk1 in Drosophila reveals divergence from Polo during late mitosis. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:770-81 pubmed
    Drosophila Polo kinase is the founder member of a conserved kinase family required for multiple stages of mitosis...
  28. Eggert U, Kiger A, Richter C, Perlman Z, Perrimon N, Mitchison T, et al. Parallel chemical genetic and genome-wide RNAi screens identify cytokinesis inhibitors and targets. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:e379 pubmed
    ..Our study shows that parallel RNA interference and small molecule screening is a generally useful approach to identifying active small molecules and their target pathways...
  29. Bonner A, Hughes S, Chisholm J, Smith S, Slaughter B, Unruh J, et al. Binding of Drosophila Polo kinase to its regulator Matrimony is noncanonical and involves two separate functional domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E1222-31 pubmed publisher
    Drosophila melanogaster Polo kinase physically interacts with, and is repressed by, the Matrimony (Mtrm) protein during oogenesis...
  30. Archambault V, D Avino P, Deery M, Lilley K, Glover D. Sequestration of Polo kinase to microtubules by phosphopriming-independent binding to Map205 is relieved by phosphorylation at a CDK site in mitosis. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2707-20 pubmed publisher
    The conserved Polo kinase controls multiple events in mitosis and cytokinesis...
  31. Smith M. Centromeres and variant histones: what, where, when and why?. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2002;14:279-85 pubmed
    ..Finally, a new report provides a glimpse into the potential regulation of CENP-A through specific post-translational phosphorylation, suggesting a broad level of control through histone tail modifications. ..
  32. Cesario J, Jang J, Redding B, Shah N, Rahman T, McKim K. Kinesin 6 family member Subito participates in mitotic spindle assembly and interacts with mitotic regulators. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4770-80 pubmed
    ..Subito localizes to the spindle midzone at anaphase and is required for the localization of Polo, Incenp and Aurora B...
  33. Pinto P, Henriques T, Freitas M, Martins T, Domingues R, Wyrzykowska P, et al. RNA polymerase II kinetics in polo polyadenylation signal selection. EMBO J. 2011;30:2431-44 pubmed publisher
    ..b>polo is a cell-cycle gene that uses two poly(A) signals in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) to produce alternative ..
  34. Carvalho Santos Z, Machado P, Branco P, Tavares Cadete F, Rodrigues Martins A, Pereira Leal J, et al. Stepwise evolution of the centriole-assembly pathway. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:1414-26 pubmed publisher
  35. Riparbelli M, Callaini G, Glover D. Failure of pronuclear migration and repeated divisions of polar body nuclei associated with MTOC defects in polo eggs of Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 18):3341-50 pubmed
    ..In polo oocytes, this common central pole for the two tandem spindles of meiosis II was poorly organised and in contrast to ..
  36. Carmena M, Pinson X, Platani M, Salloum Z, Xu Z, Clark A, et al. The chromosomal passenger complex activates Polo kinase at centromeres. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001250 pubmed publisher
    ..complex (CPC), which consists of Aurora B kinase, INCENP, Survivin, and Borealin/Dasra B, also interacts with Polo kinase in Drosophila cells. It was known that Aurora A/Bora activates Polo at centrosomes during late G2...
  37. Blower M, Karpen G. The role of Drosophila CID in kinetochore formation, cell-cycle progression and heterochromatin interactions. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:730-9 pubmed
    ..CID localization is unaffected by mutations in mei-S332, Su(var)2-5 (HP1), prod or polo. Furthermore, the localization of POLO, CENP-meta, ROD, BUB1 and MEI-S332, but not PROD or HP1, depends on the ..
  38. Nigg E. Polo-like kinases: positive regulators of cell division from start to finish. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1998;10:776-83 pubmed
    Present in organisms ranging from yeast to man, homologues of the Drosophila Polo kinase control multiple stages of cell division...
  39. Riparbelli M, Gottardo M, Glover D, Callaini G. Inhibition of Polo kinase by BI2536 affects centriole separation during Drosophila male meiosis. Cell Cycle. 2014;13:2064-72 pubmed publisher
    Pharmacological inhibition of Drosophila Polo kinase with BI2536 has allowed us to re-examine the requirements for Polo during Drosophila male gametogenesis...
  40. do Carmo Avides M, Glover D. Abnormal spindle protein, Asp, and the integrity of mitotic centrosomal microtubule organizing centers. Science. 1999;283:1733-5 pubmed
    ..This was corrected by addition of purified Asp protein. Thus, Asp appears to hold together the microtubule-nucleating gamma-tubulin ring complexes that organize the mitotic centrosome. ..
  41. do Carmo Avides M, Tavares A, Glover D. Polo kinase and Asp are needed to promote the mitotic organizing activity of centrosomes. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:421-4 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that Asp is the previously identified Mr 220K substrate of Polo kinase. Polo phosphorylates Asp in vitro, converting it into an MPM2 epitope...
  42. Moutinho Santos T, Conde C, Sunkel C. POLO ensures chromosome bi-orientation by preventing and correcting erroneous chromosome-spindle attachments. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:576-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we address the role of Drosophila POLO in chromosome-spindle interactions and show that, unlike inhibition of its activity, depletion of the protein ..
  43. Januschke J, Reina J, Llamazares S, Bertran T, Rossi F, Roig J, et al. Centrobin controls mother-daughter centriole asymmetry in Drosophila neuroblasts. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:241-8 pubmed publisher
    ..CNB co-precipitates with a set of centrosomal proteins that include γ-TUB, ANA2, CNN, SAS-4, ASL, DGRIP71, POLO and SAS-6...
  44. Glover D. Abbreviated and regulated cell cycles in Drosophila. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1990;2:258-61 pubmed
  45. Ebrahimi S, Fraval H, Murray M, Saint R, Gregory S. Polo kinase interacts with RacGAP50C and is required to localize the cytokinesis initiation complex. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:28667-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, the activity of the mammalian Polo kinase ortholog Plk1 has been implicated in the formation of this complex...
  46. Sampaio P, Rebollo E, Varmark H, Sunkel C, Gonzalez C. Organized microtubule arrays in gamma-tubulin-depleted Drosophila spermatocytes. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1788-93 pubmed
    ..Third, Klp3A and Polo, two markers of the wild-type central spindle are also found around the pointed end of the mutant cones...
  47. Henikoff S, Ahmad K, Platero J, van Steensel B. Heterochromatic deposition of centromeric histone H3-like proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:716-21 pubmed
    ..Rather, the heterochromatic state itself may help localize centromeric components. ..
  48. Wang H, Ouyang Y, Somers W, Chia W, Lu B. Polo inhibits progenitor self-renewal and regulates Numb asymmetry by phosphorylating Pon. Nature. 2007;449:96-100 pubmed
    ..The localization and function of Numb is cell-cycle-dependent. Here we show that Polo (ref...
  49. Wang P, Pinson X, Archambault V. PP2A-twins is antagonized by greatwall and collaborates with polo for cell cycle progression and centrosome attachment to nuclei in drosophila embryos. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002227 pubmed publisher
    ..The Polo kinase is a conserved, crucial regulator of M-phase...
  50. Gilliland W, Vietti D, Schweppe N, Guo F, Johnson T, Hawley R. Hypoxia transiently sequesters mps1 and polo to collagenase-sensitive filaments in Drosophila prometaphase oocytes. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7544 pubmed publisher
    The protein kinases Mps1 and Polo, which are required for proper cell cycle regulation in meiosis and mitosis, localize to numerous ooplasmic filaments during prometaphase in Drosophila oocytes...
  51. Williams B, Leung G, Maiato H, Wong A, Li Z, Williams E, et al. Mitch a rapidly evolving component of the Ndc80 kinetochore complex required for correct chromosome segregation in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3522-33 pubmed
    ..Despite the crucial role of Mitch in cell division, the mitch gene has evolved very rapidly among species in the genus Drosophila. ..
  52. Lukinova N, Roussakova V, Fortini M. Genetic characterization of cytological region 77A-D harboring the presenilin gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1999;153:1789-97 pubmed
    ..groups correspond to previously isolated lethal P-element insertions, lethal inversion breakpoints, and lethal polo gene mutants...
  53. Eisman R, Phelps M, KAUFMAN T. An Amino-Terminal Polo Kinase Interaction Motif Acts in the Regulation of Centrosome Formation and Reveals a Novel Function for centrosomin (cnn) in Drosophila. Genetics. 2015;201:685-706 pubmed publisher
    ..We show a Cnn and Polo kinase interaction is apparently required during embryogenesis and involves the exon 1A-initiating coding exon, ..
  54. Tao X, Crest J, Kotadia S, Azucena O, Chen D, Sullivan W, et al. Live imaging using adaptive optics with fluorescent protein guide-stars. Opt Express. 2012;20:15969-82 pubmed publisher
    ..GFP-polo labeled centrosomes can be observed clearly after correction but cannot be observed before correction...
  55. Coelho P, Queiroz Machado J, Sunkel C. Condensin-dependent localisation of topoisomerase II to an axial chromosomal structure is required for sister chromatid resolution during mitosis. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:4763-76 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that condensin is required so that an axial chromatid structure can be organised where topoisomerase II can effectively promote sister chromatid resolution. ..
  56. Prigent C, Glover D, Giet R. Drosophila Nek2 protein kinase knockdown leads to centrosome maturation defects while overexpression causes centrosome fragmentation and cytokinesis failure. Exp Cell Res. 2005;303:1-13 pubmed
    ..We discuss potential roles for DmNek2 in maintaining centrosome integrity in mitosis, during cytokinesis, and consequently for the fidelity of chromosome segregation. ..
  57. Smith H, Roberts M, Nguyen H, Peterson M, Hartl T, Wang X, et al. Maintenance of interphase chromosome compaction and homolog pairing in Drosophila is regulated by the condensin cap-h2 and its partner Mrg15. Genetics. 2013;195:127-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model where the Mrg15 and Cap-H2 protein-protein interaction may serve to recruit Cap-H2 to chromatin and facilitates compaction of interphase chromatin. ..