Gene Symbol: pnt
Description: pointed
Alias: 0123/09, 0608/07, 0998/12, 3520, CG17077, D-Ets-2, D-ets-2, DMPOINT1A, Dmel\CG17077, E(E2F)3D, EC3-2, EK3-2, ETS2, EY3-1, Ets, Ets2, Ets58AB, Ets94F, PNT-P1, PNTP1, PNTP2, POINT, Pnt, Pnt-P1, Pnt2, PntP1, PntP2, Pointed-P1, ets94F, l(3)07825, l(3)j1B7, l(3)s118306, png, pnt-P1, pnt-P2, pntP2, pntegfr, pointed-RC, ptd, pointed, CG17077-PB, CG17077-PC, CG17077-PD, CG17077-PE, Ets at 58AB, Ets protein pointed P2, Point2, Pointed2, no terminal cell clones-R, pnt-PB, pnt-PC, pnt-PD, pnt-PE, pointed P2, pointed-P1, pointed-P2, pointedP2
Species: fruit fly
Products:     pnt

Top Publications

  1. Brunner D, Ducker K, Oellers N, Hafen E, Scholz H, Klämbt C. The ETS domain protein pointed-P2 is a target of MAP kinase in the sevenless signal transduction pathway. Nature. 1994;370:386-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the ETS domain protein encoded by the P2 transcript of the pointed (pnt) gene is a nuclear target of this signalling cascade which acts downstream of Rl/MAP kinase...
  2. Rohrbaugh M, Ramos E, Nguyen D, Price M, Wen Y, Lai Z. Notch activation of yan expression is antagonized by RTK/pointed signaling in the Drosophila eye. Curr Biol. 2002;12:576-81 pubmed
    ..In contrast, yan expression is repressed by Pointed (Pnt), which is a key component of the RTK pathway...
  3. Furlong E. Integrating transcriptional and signalling networks during muscle development. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2004;14:343-50 pubmed
    ..The integration of additional signalling inputs with localised repression within these competence domains results in diverse transcriptional responses within neighbouring cells, which in turn generates muscle diversity. ..
  4. Cabernard C, Affolter M. Distinct roles for two receptor tyrosine kinases in epithelial branching morphogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2005;9:831-42 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, we find that Fgf signaling requires Ras, the Mapk pathway, and Pointed to direct migration, suggesting that both cytoskeletal and nuclear events are downstream of receptor activation...
  5. Baker D, Mille Baker B, Wainwright S, Ish Horowicz D, Dibb N. Mae mediates MAP kinase phosphorylation of Ets transcription factors in Drosophila. Nature. 2001;411:330-4 pubmed
    ..Drosophila transcription factor Yan depends on Mae, and is mediated by the binding of Yan to Mae through their Pointed domains. This phosphorylation is both necessary and sufficient to abrogate transcriptional repression by Yan...
  6. Carmena A, Buff E, Halfon M, Gisselbrecht S, Jimenez F, Baylies M, et al. Reciprocal regulatory interactions between the Notch and Ras signaling pathways in the Drosophila embryonic mesoderm. Dev Biol. 2002;244:226-42 pubmed
    ..These reciprocal interactions combine to generate the signal thresholds that are essential for proper specification of progenitors and nonprogenitors from groups of initially equivalent cells. ..
  7. Baonza A, Murawsky C, Travers A, Freeman M. Pointed and Tramtrack69 establish an EGFR-dependent transcriptional switch to regulate mitosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:976-80 pubmed
    ..Here we show that two antagonistic transcriptional regulators, Pointed, an activator, and Tramtrack69, a repressor, directly regulate the transcription of string...
  8. Qiao F, Harada B, Song H, Whitelegge J, Courey A, Bowie J. Mae inhibits Pointed-P2 transcriptional activity by blocking its MAPK docking site. EMBO J. 2006;25:70-9 pubmed
    ..Key nuclear targets of Rolled are two antagonistic transcription factors: Yan, a repressor, and Pointed-P2 (Pnt-P2), an activator...
  9. Deng W, Bownes M. Two signalling pathways specify localised expression of the Broad-Complex in Drosophila eggshell patterning and morphogenesis. Development. 1997;124:4639-47 pubmed

More Information


  1. Klämbt C. The Drosophila gene pointed encodes two ETS-like proteins which are involved in the development of the midline glial cells. Development. 1993;117:163-76 pubmed
    ..The gene pointed (pnt) is required for this glial-neuronal cell interaction, as loss of function mutations lead to a change in the ..
  2. Lembong J, Yakoby N, Shvartsman S. Pattern formation by dynamically interacting network motifs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3213-8 pubmed publisher
  3. Jakobsen J, Braun M, Astorga J, Gustafson E, Sandmann T, Karzynski M, et al. Temporal ChIP-on-chip reveals Biniou as a universal regulator of the visceral muscle transcriptional network. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2448-60 pubmed
    ..The regulatory connection of a number of Biniou target genes is conserved in mice, suggesting an ancient wiring of this developmental program. ..
  4. Vivekanand P, Tootle T, Rebay I. MAE, a dual regulator of the EGFR signaling pathway, is a target of the Ets transcription factors PNT and YAN. Mech Dev. 2004;121:1469-79 pubmed
    ..Coordinated regulation of the Drosophila Ets transcription factors YAN and POINTED is required for eliciting appropriate responses to Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) signaling...
  5. Halfon M, Carmena A, Gisselbrecht S, Sackerson C, Jimenez F, Baylies M, et al. Ras pathway specificity is determined by the integration of multiple signal-activated and tissue-restricted transcription factors. Cell. 2000;103:63-74 pubmed
    ..Ras pathway components, Wg and Dpp coordinate the direct effects of three signal-activated (dTCF, Mad, and Pointed-functioning in the Wg, Dpp, and Ras/MAPK pathways, respectively) and two tissue-restricted (Twist and Tinman) ..
  6. Tang A, Neufeld T, Kwan E, Rubin G. PHYL acts to down-regulate TTK88, a transcriptional repressor of neuronal cell fates, by a SINA-dependent mechanism. Cell. 1997;90:459-67 pubmed
  7. Zhu S, Barshow S, Wildonger J, Jan L, Jan Y. Ets transcription factor Pointed promotes the generation of intermediate neural progenitors in Drosophila larval brains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20615-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that one isoform of the Ets transcription factor Pointed (Pnt), PntP1, is specifically expressed in type II NBs, immature INPs, and newly mature INPs in type II NB ..
  8. Pribyl L, Watson D, Schulz R, Papas T. D-elg, a member of the Drosophila ets gene family: sequence, expression and evolutionary comparison. Oncogene. 1991;6:1175-83 pubmed
    We have cloned a cDNA from the Drosophila elg gene, a new member of the ets family of genes. The D-elg gene is located at 97D on chromosome 3R and is expressed as a 2...
  9. Ghabrial A, Krasnow M. Social interactions among epithelial cells during tracheal branching morphogenesis. Nature. 2006;441:746-9 pubmed
    ..There may also be cooperation between budding cells, because in a mosaic epithelium, cells that cannot respond to the chemoattractant, or respond only poorly, allow other cells in the epithelium to move ahead of them. ..
  10. Ohshiro T, Emori Y, Saigo K. Ligand-dependent activation of breathless FGF receptor gene in Drosophila developing trachea. Mech Dev. 2002;114:3-11 pubmed
    ..Biochemical and genetic analysis indicated that the minimum btl enhancer includes binding sites of Anterior-open. ..
  11. Tseng A, Tapon N, Kanda H, Cigizoglu S, Edelmann L, Pellock B, et al. Capicua regulates cell proliferation downstream of the receptor tyrosine kinase/ras signaling pathway. Curr Biol. 2007;17:728-33 pubmed
    ..Thus, the DNA-binding protein Cic is a key downstream component in the pathway by which Ras regulates growth in imaginal discs. ..
  12. O Neill E, Rebay I, Tjian R, Rubin G. The activities of two Ets-related transcription factors required for Drosophila eye development are modulated by the Ras/MAPK pathway. Cell. 1994;78:137-47 pubmed
    ..that the activities of two Ets-related transcription factors required for normal eye development in Drosophila, pointed and yan, are regulated by the Ras1/MAPK pathway...
  13. Qiao F, Song H, Kim C, Sawaya M, Hunter J, Gingery M, et al. Derepression by depolymerization; structural insights into the regulation of Yan by Mae. Cell. 2004;118:163-73 pubmed
    Yan, an ETS family transcriptional repressor, is regulated by receptor tyrosine kinase signaling via the Ras/MAPK pathway. Phosphorylation and downregulation of Yan is facilitated by a protein called Mae...
  14. Yang L, Baker N. Cell cycle withdrawal, progression, and cell survival regulation by EGFR and its effectors in the differentiating Drosophila eye. Dev Cell. 2003;4:359-69 pubmed
    ..Each response requires the same Ras, Raf, MAPK, and Pnt signal transduction pathway...
  15. Klaes A, Menne T, Stollewerk A, Scholz H, Klämbt C. The Ets transcription factors encoded by the Drosophila gene pointed direct glial cell differentiation in the embryonic CNS. Cell. 1994;78:149-60 pubmed
    The Drosophila gene pointed (pnt) encodes two putative transcription factors (P1 and P2) of the Ets family, which in the embryonic CNS are found exclusively in glial cells...
  16. Polesello C, Tapon N. Salvador-warts-hippo signaling promotes Drosophila posterior follicle cell maturation downstream of notch. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1864-70 pubmed
    ..The PCP members of the SWH network are not involved in this process, indicating that signaling upstream of Hpo varies according to developmental context. ..
  17. Rogers E, Brennan C, Mortimer N, Cook S, Morris A, Moses K. Pointed regulates an eye-specific transcriptional enhancer in the Drosophila hedgehog gene, which is required for the movement of the morphogenetic furrow. Development. 2005;132:4833-43 pubmed
    ..We show that this enhancer requires the Egfr/Ras pathway transcription factor Pointed. Recently, others have shown that this same enhancer also requires the eye determining transcription factor Sine ..
  18. Devergne O, Ghiglione C, Noselli S. The endocytic control of JAK/STAT signalling in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3457-64 pubmed
    ..Selective activation of the pool of receptors marked for degradation thus provides a way to tightly control JAK/STAT activity. ..
  19. zur Lage P, Powell L, Prentice D, McLaughlin P, Jarman A. EGF receptor signaling triggers recruitment of Drosophila sense organ precursors by stimulating proneural gene autoregulation. Dev Cell. 2004;7:687-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that EGFR signaling drives recruitment by directly facilitating atonal autoregulation. Pointed, the transcription factor that mediates EGFR signaling, and Atonal protein itself bind cooperatively to adjacent ..
  20. Morimoto A, Jordan K, Tietze K, Britton J, O Neill E, Ruohola Baker H. Pointed, an ETS domain transcription factor, negatively regulates the EGF receptor pathway in Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 1996;122:3745-54 pubmed
    ..We show here that Pointed, an ETS transcription factor, is required in dorsal follicle cells for this patterning...
  21. Larkin M, Holder K, Yost C, Giniger E, Ruohola Baker H. Expression of constitutively active Notch arrests follicle cells at a precursor stage during Drosophila oogenesis and disrupts the anterior-posterior axis of the oocyte. Development. 1996;122:3639-50 pubmed
    ..We also find that expression of constitutively active Notch in follicle cells at later stages leads to a defect in the anterior-posterior axis of the oocyte. ..
  22. Zettervall C, Anderl I, Williams M, Palmer R, Kurucz E, Ando I, et al. A directed screen for genes involved in Drosophila blood cell activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14192-7 pubmed
    ..tyrosine kinases, such as Egfr, Pvr, and Alk, as well as by the downstream signaling components Ras85D and pointed, supporting the notion that the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway regulates hemocyte numbers...
  23. Schweitzer R, Shilo B. A thousand and one roles for the Drosophila EGF receptor. Trends Genet. 1997;13:191-6 pubmed
    ..The cellular mechanisms that translate EGFR activation to discrete cell fates are now the focus of intense studies. ..
  24. Hemphälä J, Uv A, Cantera R, Bray S, Samakovlis C. Grainy head controls apical membrane growth and tube elongation in response to Branchless/FGF signalling. Development. 2003;130:249-58 pubmed
  25. Chen T, Bunting M, Karim F, Thummel C. Isolation and characterization of five Drosophila genes that encode an ets-related DNA binding domain. Dev Biol. 1992;151:176-91 pubmed
    The recent determination of the site-specific DNA binding properties of several proteins related to the ets oncoprotein has allowed the definition of a novel DNA binding domain, designated the ETS domain...
  26. Kramer S, Okabe M, Hacohen N, Krasnow M, Hiromi Y. Sprouty: a common antagonist of FGF and EGF signaling pathways in Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:2515-25 pubmed
    ..These receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated pathways may share not only intracellular signaling components but also extracellular factors that modulate the strength of the signal. ..
  27. Yasugi T, Sugie A, Umetsu D, Tabata T. Coordinated sequential action of EGFR and Notch signaling pathways regulates proneural wave progression in the Drosophila optic lobe. Development. 2010;137:3193-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, coordinated sequential action of the EGFR and Notch signaling pathways causes the proneural wave to progress and induce neuroblast formation in a precisely ordered manner. ..
  28. Fuchs A, Cheung L, Charbonnier E, Shvartsman S, Pyrowolakis G. Transcriptional interpretation of the EGF receptor signaling gradient. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1572-7 pubmed publisher
    ..this pattern is generated by dynamic activities of two regulatory elements, which display different responses to Pointed, Capicua, and Mirror, transcription factors involved in the EGFR-mediated gene expression...
  29. Tootle T, Lee P, Rebay I. CRM1-mediated nuclear export and regulated activity of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase antagonist YAN require specific interactions with MAE. Development. 2003;130:845-57 pubmed
    ..repressor YAN prevents inappropriate responses to Receptor Tyrosine Kinase signaling by outcompeting POINTED for access to target gene promoters...
  30. Scholz H, Deatrick J, Klaes A, Klämbt C. Genetic dissection of pointed, a Drosophila gene encoding two ETS-related proteins. Genetics. 1993;135:455-68 pubmed
    ..Further genetic analysis demonstrates that expression of a given pointed P2 allele depends on trans-acting transcriptional regulatory sequences...
  31. Lage P, Jan Y, Jarman A. Requirement for EGF receptor signalling in neural recruitment during formation of Drosophila chordotonal sense organ clusters. Curr Biol. 1997;7:166-75 pubmed
    ..a response in the surrounding ectodermal cells, as shown by the activation of expression of the DER target genes pointed and argos...
  32. Flores G, Duan H, Yan H, Nagaraj R, Fu W, Zou Y, et al. Combinatorial signaling in the specification of unique cell fates. Cell. 2000;103:75-85 pubmed
    ..We expect that similar mechanisms may specify pattern formation in vertebrate developmental systems that involve intercellular communication. ..
  33. Gabay L, Scholz H, Golembo M, Klaes A, Shilo B, Klämbt C. EGF receptor signaling induces pointed P1 transcription and inactivates Yan protein in the Drosophila embryonic ventral ectoderm. Development. 1996;122:3355-62 pubmed
    ..cells trigger expression of the transcription factors encoded by ventral nervous system defective (vnd) and pointed P1 (pntPl)...
  34. Zartman J, Kanodia J, Cheung L, Shvartsman S. Feedback control of the EGFR signaling gradient: superposition of domain-splitting events in Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 2009;136:2903-11 pubmed publisher
    ..eggshell appendages, is established by a single gradient of EGFR activation that induces both Broad and Pointed, which mediates repression of Broad...
  35. Dumstrei K, Nassif C, Abboud G, Aryai A, Hartenstein V. EGFR signaling is required for the differentiation and maintenance of neural progenitors along the dorsal midline of the Drosophila embryonic head. Development. 1998;125:3417-26 pubmed
    ..We show that, beside their requirement for EGFR signaling, head and ventral midline structures share several morphogenetic and molecular properties. ..
  36. Kurada P, White K. Ras promotes cell survival in Drosophila by downregulating hid expression. Cell. 1998;95:319-29 pubmed
    ..Null alleles of hid recapitulate the antiapoptotic activities of Ras/MAPK, providing genetic evidence that downregulation of hid is an important mechanism by which Ras promotes survival. ..
  37. Jordan K, Clegg N, Blasi J, Morimoto A, Sen J, Stein D, et al. The homeobox gene mirror links EGF signalling to embryonic dorso-ventral axis formation through notch activation. Nat Genet. 2000;24:429-33 pubmed
  38. Myat M, Lightfoot H, Wang P, Andrew D. A molecular link between FGF and Dpp signaling in branch-specific migration of the Drosophila trachea. Dev Biol. 2005;281:38-52 pubmed
    ..novel hypomorphic alleles of the FGF receptor gene, breathless, and the ETS-domain transcription factor gene, pointed. We show that reduced function of either breathless or pointed specifically affects migration of the dorsal and ..
  39. Xu C, Kauffmann R, Zhang J, Kladny S, Carthew R. Overlapping activators and repressors delimit transcriptional response to receptor tyrosine kinase signals in the Drosophila eye. Cell. 2000;103:87-97 pubmed
    ..We show that Sevenless activates prospero independent of the enhancer and involves targeted degradation of Tramtrack, a transcription repressor...
  40. Zhang W, Thompson B, Hietakangas V, Cohen S. MAPK/ERK signaling regulates insulin sensitivity to control glucose metabolism in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002429 pubmed publisher
    ..The MAPK/ERK pathway acts via the ETS-1 transcription factor Pointed. This mechanism permits physiological adjustment of insulin sensitivity and subsequent maintenance of circulating ..
  41. Hsu T, Schulz R. Sequence and functional properties of Ets genes in the model organism Drosophila. Oncogene. 2000;19:6409-16 pubmed
    ..The developmental roles of E74 (ELF1), pointed (Ets 1), yan (TEL), and D-elg (GABPalpha) will be reviewed in this article...
  42. Samakovlis C, Hacohen N, Manning G, Sutherland D, Guillemin K, Krasnow M. Development of the Drosophila tracheal system occurs by a series of morphologically distinct but genetically coupled branching events. Development. 1996;122:1395-407 pubmed
    ..branching, is also required to activate expression of markers involved in secondary branching and that the pointed ETS-domain transcription factor is required for secondary branching and also to activate expression of terminal ..
  43. Albagli O, Klaes A, Ferreira E, Leprince D, Klämbt C. Function of ets genes is conserved between vertebrates and Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1996;59:29-40 pubmed
    The Drosophila pointed gene encodes two ETS transcriptional activators, pointedP1 and pointedP2, sharing a common C-terminal ETS domain...
  44. Bier E, Jan L, Jan Y. rhomboid, a gene required for dorsoventral axis establishment and peripheral nervous system development in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Dev. 1990;4:190-203 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that rho acts very early in differentiation pathways to specify the identities of domains and isolated precursor cells. Sequence analysis suggests that this transcript codes for a trans-membrane protein. ..
  45. Cela C, Llimargas M. Egfr is essential for maintaining epithelial integrity during tracheal remodelling in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:3115-25 pubmed
    ..function is transduced by the ERK-type MAPK pathway, but does not require the downstream transcription factor Pointed. Compromising Egfr signalling, by downregulating different elements of the pathway or by overexpressing the Mkp3 ..
  46. Reeves G, Kalifa R, Klein D, Lemmon M, Shvartsman S. Computational analysis of EGFR inhibition by Argos. Dev Biol. 2005;284:523-35 pubmed
    ..Thus, the spatial range of Argos does not have to be tightly regulated or may act at different ranges in distinct developmental contexts. ..
  47. Meignin C, Alvarez Garcia I, Davis I, Palacios I. The salvador-warts-hippo pathway is required for epithelial proliferation and axis specification in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1871-8 pubmed
    ..This work highlights a novel connection between cell proliferation, cell growth, and axis specification in egg chambers. ..
  48. Yamada T, Okabe M, Hiromi Y. EDL/MAE regulates EGF-mediated induction by antagonizing Ets transcription factor Pointed. Development. 2003;130:4085-96 pubmed
    ..causes activation of Ras signaling in the induced cells, resulting in the activation of Ets transcription factor Pointed P2. We describe developmental roles of a novel negative regulator of Ras signaling, EDL/MAE, a protein with an Ets-..
  49. Li X, Cassidy J, Reinke C, Fischboeck S, Carthew R. A microRNA imparts robustness against environmental fluctuation during development. Cell. 2009;137:273-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that some conserved microRNAs like miR-7 may enter into novel genetic relationships to buffer developmental programs against variation and impart robustness to diverse regulatory networks. ..
  50. Boisclair Lachance J, Fregoso Lomas M, Eleiche A, Bouchard Kerr P, Nilson L. Graded Egfr activity patterns the Drosophila eggshell independently of autocrine feedback. Development. 2009;136:2893-902 pubmed publisher
  51. Baylies M, Michelson A. Invertebrate myogenesis: looking back to the future of muscle development. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2001;11:431-9 pubmed
    ..Drosophila myogenesis has become a highly informative model for understanding the interplay between the signaling and transcriptional networks that underlie cell-fate specification during embryonic development. ..
  52. Technau M, Knispel M, Roth S. Molecular mechanisms of EGF signaling-dependent regulation of pipe, a gene crucial for dorsoventral axis formation in Drosophila. Dev Genes Evol. 2012;222:1-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, EGF signaling does not act by down-regulating an activator of pipe as previously suggested but rather by activating a repressor. Surprisingly, this repressor acts independent of the common co-repressors Groucho or CtBP. ..
  53. Nishimura M, Inoue Y, Hayashi S. A wave of EGFR signaling determines cell alignment and intercalation in the Drosophila tracheal placode. Development. 2007;134:4273-82 pubmed
  54. Hacohen N, Kramer S, Sutherland D, Hiromi Y, Krasnow M. sprouty encodes a novel antagonist of FGF signaling that patterns apical branching of the Drosophila airways. Cell. 1998;92:253-63 pubmed
    ..sprouty encodes a novel cysteine-rich protein that defines a new family of putative signaling molecules that may similarly function as FGF antagonists in vertebrate development. ..
  55. Mortimer N, Moberg K. Regulation of Drosophila embryonic tracheogenesis by dVHL and hypoxia. Dev Biol. 2009;329:294-305 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of an early stage of tracheal development that is vulnerable to hypoxia is an important addition to models of the invertebrate hypoxic response. ..
  56. Brown K, Baonza A, Freeman M. Epithelial cell adhesion in the developing Drosophila retina is regulated by Atonal and the EGF receptor pathway. Dev Biol. 2006;300:710-21 pubmed
    ..Atonal regulates DE-cadherin transcriptionally, whereas the EGFR pathway, acting through the transcription factor Pointed, exerts its effects on adherens junctions indirectly, at a post-transcriptional level...
  57. Graham T, Tabei S, Dinner A, Rebay I. Modeling bistable cell-fate choices in the Drosophila eye: qualitative and quantitative perspectives. Development. 2010;137:2265-78 pubmed publisher
  58. Swanson C, Schwimmer D, Barolo S. Rapid evolutionary rewiring of a structurally constrained eye enhancer. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1186-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that even a severely constrained cis-regulatory sequence can be significantly rewired over a short evolutionary timescale. ..