Gene Symbol: pn
Description: prune
Alias: CG3461, Dmel\CG3461, EG:152A3.5, TcD37, prune, CG3461-PA, pn-PA, se-like-62, transcription unit II
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Hoffmann F, Sternberg P, Herskowitz I. Learning about cancer genes through invertebrate genetics. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1992;2:45-52 pubmed
    ..Some of the critical molecules involved are homologous to proto-oncogenes and others are likely to be analogous to the products of tumor suppressor genes. ..
  2. Dearolf C. Fruit fly "leukemia". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1377:M13-23 pubmed
  3. Aravind L, Koonin E. A novel family of predicted phosphoesterases includes Drosophila prune protein and bacterial RecJ exonuclease. Trends Biochem Sci. 1998;23:17-9 pubmed
  4. Teng D, Bender L, Engele C, Tsubota S, Venkatesh T. Isolation and characterization of the prune locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1991;128:373-80 pubmed
    ..2-kilobase genomic fragment, of which only transcription unit II is a part. The cDNA of this unit recognizes 1.65- and 1...
  5. Tolchkov E, Kramerova I, Lavrov S, Rasheva V, Bonaccorsi S, Alatortsev V, et al. Position-effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome inversion with a breakpoint in a satellite block and its suppression in a secondary rearrangement. Chromosoma. 1997;106:520-5 pubmed
    ..It is associated with position-effect variegation (PEV) of the pn, wapl, Pgd and other vital loci of the 2E region, which are relocated near the bulk of the X heterochromatin...
  6. Demerec M. Genetic Behavior of Euchromatic Segments Inserted into Heterochromatin. Genetics. 1940;25:618-27 pubmed
  7. Hackstein J. The lethal prune/Killer-of-prune interaction of Drosophila causes a syndrome resembling human neurofibromatosis (NF1). Eur J Cell Biol. 1992;58:429-44 pubmed
    The eye color mutant prune (pn) of Drosophila melanogaster shows a lethal interaction with the Killer-of-prune (K-pn) allele of the abnormal wing disc (awd) locus...
  8. Provost E, Hersperger G, Timmons L, Ho W, Hersperger E, Alcazar R, et al. Loss-of-function mutations in a glutathione S-transferase suppress the prune-Killer of prune lethal interaction. Genetics. 2006;172:207-19 pubmed
    The prune gene of Drosophila melanogaster is predicted to encode a phosphodiesterase. Null alleles of prune are viable but cause an eye-color phenotype. The abnormal wing discs gene encodes a nucleoside diphosphate kinase...
  9. Frolov M, Alatortsev V. [Region of the prune locus in Drosophila melanogaster is transcriptionally saturated]. Genetika. 1993;29:1460-7 pubmed
    Using Northern analysis three transcription areas are detected in the gene prune region from which three different mRNAs 1.8, 1.75 and 1.0 kb in length transcribe. Corresponded cDNAs are cloned. Only 1...

More Information


  1. Timmons L, Xu J, Hersperger G, Deng X, Shearn A. Point mutations in awdKpn which revert the prune/Killer of prune lethal interaction affect conserved residues that are involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase substrate binding and catalysis. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:23021-30 pubmed
    The awd gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a nucleoside diphosphate kinase. Killer of prune (Kpn) is a mutation in the awd gene which substitutes Ser for Pro at position 97 and causes dominant lethality in individuals that do not ..
  2. Zhang F, Qi Y, Zhou K, Zhang G, Linask K, Xu H. The cAMP phosphodiesterase Prune localizes to the mitochondrial matrix and promotes mtDNA replication by stabilizing TFAM. EMBO Rep. 2015;16:520-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Drosophila Prune is a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase that localizes to the mitochondrial matrix...
  3. Evans B, Howells A. Control of drosopterin synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster: mutants showing an altered pattern of GTP cyclohydrolase activity during development. Biochem Genet. 1978;16:13-26 pubmed
    ..The mutants raspberry and prune show an increased GTP cyclohydrolase activity at pupariation relative to wild type, but a decreased enzyme ..
  4. Zinyk D, McGonnigal B, Dearolf C. Drosophila awdK-pn, a homologue of the metastasis suppressor gene nm23, suppresses the Tum-1 haematopoietic oncogene. Nat Genet. 1993;4:195-201 pubmed
    ..We report that the dominant awdK-pn allele suppresses haematopoietic defects associated with the Tum-l oncogene...
  5. Perrimon N, Engstrom L, Mahowald A. Developmental genetics of the 2C-D region of the Drosophila X chromosome. Genetics. 1985;111:23-41 pubmed
    ..Additional information on the genetic organization of loci within the adjacent 2E area are also described.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  6. Teng D, Engele C, Venkatesh T. A product of the prune locus of Drosophila is similar to mammalian GTPase-activating protein. Nature. 1991;353:437-40 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the pn locus has suggested that the complementary DNA, TcD37, encodes a putative pn+ product...
  7. Frolov M, Zverlov V, Alatortsev V. The mRNA product of the Drosophila gene prune is spliced and encodes a protein containing a putative transmembrane domain. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;242:478-83 pubmed
    A full-length 1.8 kb cDNA of the Drosophila melanogaster gene prune together with the corresponding genomic sequence was cloned and sequenced...
  8. Yang H, Tanikawa A, Kondrashov A. Molecular nature of 11 spontaneous de novo mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2001;157:1285-92 pubmed
    ..melanogaster than in H. sapiens. If so, the per nucleotide mutation rate in D. melanogaster may be lower than in H. sapiens, even if their per locus mutation rates are similar. ..
  9. Orevi N, Falk R. Temperature-sensitive prune (pn) mutations of Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1975;33:193-200 pubmed
    Temperature-sensitive mutations, at the prune locus (pnts) of Drosophilia melanogaster, were induced with EMS...
  10. Belyaeva E, Zhimulev I. Cytogenetic and molecular aspects of position effect variegation in Drosophila. III. Continuous and discontinuous compaction of chromosomal material as a result of position effect variegation. Chromosoma. 1991;100:453-66 pubmed
    ..The results are interpreted as morphological manifestations of the discontinuity of the spreading effect. ..
  11. Perrimon N, Engstrom L, Mahowald A. Developmental genetics of the 2E-F region of the Drosophila X chromosome: a region rich in "developmentally important" genes. Genetics. 1984;108:559-72 pubmed
    ..Our genetic analysis has identified 11 complementation groups: one recessive visible (prune), two female steriles and eight lethals...
  12. de La Rosa A, Williams R, Steeg P. Nm23/nucleoside diphosphate kinase: toward a structural and biochemical understanding of its biological functions. Bioessays. 1995;17:53-62 pubmed
    ..We review recent cellular, genetic, biochemical and X-ray crystallographic data to formulate and evaluate hypotheses concerning the molecular mechanism of nm23 action. ..
  13. Simmons G, Kwok W, Matulonis P, Venkatesh T. Polymorphism and divergence at the prune locus in Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. Mol Biol Evol. 1994;11:666-71 pubmed
    The prune locus of Drosophila melanogaster lies at the tip of the X chromosome, in a region of reduced recombination in which nearby loci show reduced variation relative to evolutionary divergence from D. simulans...
  14. Timmons L, Shearn A. Germline transformation using a prune cDNA rescues prune/killer of prune lethality and the prune eye color phenotype in Drosophila. Genetics. 1996;144:1589-600 pubmed
    Null mutations in the prune gene of Drosophila melanogaster result in prune eye color due to reductions in red pigment accumulation. When one copy of the awd(Killer of prune) mutant gene is present in a prune background, the animals die...
  15. de Miranda J, Hemmat M, Eggleston P. The competition diallel and the exploitation and interference components of larval competition in Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity (Edinb). 1991;66 ( Pt 3):333-42 pubmed
    ..The isolation of a general, and therefore predictable, interference component may prove useful in agriculture when assessing the relative importance of mixture effects to the yield potential of different crops. ..
  16. Frolov M, Alatortsev V. [Transcription of the prune gene during a position effect of the mosaic type in Drosophila melanogaster]. Genetika. 1993;29:1573-8 pubmed
    Analysis of transcription of the gene prune being undergone position effect variegation in the inversion In(1LR)pn2a is presented...
  17. Sturtevant A. Genetic Studies on DROSOPHILA SIMULANS. II. Sex-Linked Group of Genes. Genetics. 1921;6:43-64 pubmed
  18. Lifschytz E, Falk R. The action of the gene prune (pn) in Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res. 1969;14:53-61 pubmed
  19. Beadle G, Ephrussi B. The Differentiation of Eye Pigments in Drosophila as Studied by Transplantation. Genetics. 1936;21:225-47 pubmed
  20. Beadle G. Development of Eye Colors in Drosophila: Fat Bodies and Malpighian Tubes in Relation to Diffusible Substances. Genetics. 1937;22:587-611 pubmed
  21. Cherry S, Perrimon N. Entry is a rate-limiting step for viral infection in a Drosophila melanogaster model of pathogenesis. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:81-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, this virus model provides a sensitive and efficient approach for identifying components required for pathogenesis. ..
  22. Begun D. Population genetics of silent and replacement variation in Drosophila simulans and D. melanogaster: X/autosome differences?. Mol Biol Evol. 1996;13:1405-7 pubmed
  23. Aparisi M, Najera C. Genetic location and biochemical characterization of eye-colour mutants from natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 1990;33:203-8 pubmed
    ..The eye-colour mutants show large effects on the red and brown pigments. The high variability of the eye-colour loci is discussed in relation to the mutation and selection hypotheses. ..
  24. Morgan L. Effects of a Compound Duplication of the X Chromosome of Drosophila Melanogaster. Genetics. 1938;23:423-62 pubmed
  25. Verni F, Gandhi R, Goldberg M, Gatti M. Genetic and molecular analysis of wings apart-like (wapl), a gene controlling heterochromatin organization in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2000;154:1693-710 pubmed
    ..wapl maps to region 2D of the X chromosome between Pgd and pn. We identified the wapl gene within a previously conducted chromosomal walk in this region...
  26. Dushay M, Konopka R, Orr D, Greenacre M, Kyriacou C, Rosbash M, et al. Phenotypic and genetic analysis of Clock, a new circadian rhythm mutant in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;125:557-78 pubmed
    ..This result, and the lack of coverage of Clk's effects by duplications, suggest that it is not a simple hypomorphic or amorphic mutation. ..
  27. Lloyd V, Sinclair D, Alperyn M, Grigliatti T. Enhancer of garnet/deltaAP-3 is a cryptic allele of the white gene and identifies the intracellular transport system for the white protein. Genome. 2002;45:296-312 pubmed
    ..This observation supports a role for these genes in intracellular transport and leads to a model whereby incorrect sorting of the white gene product can explain the pigmentation phenotypes of an entire group of eye-color genes...
  28. Gearhart J, MacIntyre R. Quantification of drosopterins in single eyes of Drosophila melanogaster. Anal Biochem. 1970;37:21-5 pubmed
  29. Lifschytz E, Falk R. A system for screening of rare events in genes of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1969;62:343-52 pubmed
  30. Beisswanger S, Stephan W, De Lorenzo D. Evidence for a selective sweep in the wapl region of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2006;172:265-74 pubmed
    ..Evidence that this sweep may have originated in an ancestral population in Africa is presented. ..
  31. Biggs J, Tripoulas N, Hersperger E, Dearolf C, Shearn A. Analysis of the lethal interaction between the prune and Killer of prune mutations of Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1988;2:1333-43 pubmed
    The third-chromosome mutation Killer of prune (K-pn) causes no phenotype by itself, but causes lethality in individuals homozygous for the nonlethal X-chromosome mutation prune (pn)...
  33. Reaume A, Knecht D, Chovnick A. The rosy locus in Drosophila melanogaster: xanthine dehydrogenase and eye pigments. Genetics. 1991;129:1099-109 pubmed
  34. Mason J, Champion L, Hook G. Germ-line effects of a mutator, mu2, in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1997;146:1381-97 pubmed
    ..We propose that mu2 affects chromosomal structure during oogenesis, thereby modulating DNA repair. ..
  35. Krishnan K, Rikhy R, Rao S, Shivalkar M, Mosko M, Narayanan R, et al. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase, a source of GTP, is required for dynamin-dependent synaptic vesicle recycling. Neuron. 2001;30:197-210 pubmed
    ..This connection between NDK and membrane internalization further strengthens an emerging hypothesis that endocytosis, probably of activated growth factor receptors, is an important tumor suppressor activity in vivo. ..
  36. Gvozdev V, Gostimsky S, Gerasimova T, Dubrovskaya E, Braslavskaya O. Fine genetic structure of the 2D3-2F5 region of the X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1975;141:269-75 pubmed
    ..The Pgd locus coding for 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) is mapped in the 2D3 (OR 2D4) band. Isolation of 11 lethal or semilethal point mutations with null or reduced 6PGD activity shows that the Pgd locus is a vital one. ..
  37. Gandhi R, Varak E, Goldberg M. Molecular analysis of a cytochrome P450 gene of family 4 on the Drosophila X chromosome. DNA Cell Biol. 1992;11:397-404 pubmed
    ..This transduced fragment does not rescue any of the lethal mutations that have been identified in this genetically well-characterized region of the Drosophila genome. ..
  38. Dura J, Brock H, Santamaria P. Polyhomeotic: a gene of Drosophila melanogaster required for correct expression of segmental identity. Mol Gen Genet. 1985;198:213-20 pubmed
    ..We propose that ph mutants in some way disrupt the normal expression of the ANT-C and BX-C, and, therefore, that ph+ is needed for maintenance of segmental identity. ..
  39. Slizynska H. Salivary Chromosome Analysis of the White-Facet Region of Drosophila Melanogaster. Genetics. 1938;23:291-9 pubmed