Gene Symbol: ple
Description: pale
Alias: CG10118, DH65B, DTH, Dmel\CG10118, Pale, Ple, VII, dTH1, dTH65B, pale/ple, pale, CG10118-PA, CG10118-PB, CG10118-PC, Tyrosine-3-hydroxylase, XBB70 group VII, drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase, ple-PA, ple-PB, ple-PC, tyrosine hydrodroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase, tyrosine-hydroxylase, tyrosone hydroxylase
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Yang Y, Nishimura I, Imai Y, Takahashi R, Lu B. Parkin suppresses dopaminergic neuron-selective neurotoxicity induced by Pael-R in Drosophila. Neuron. 2003;37:911-24 pubmed
    ..Our study implicates Parkin as a central player in the molecular pathway of Parkinson's disease (PD) and suggests that manipulating Parkin expression may provide a novel avenue of PD therapy. ..
  2. Hamasaka Y, Nassel D. Mapping of serotonin, dopamine, and histamine in relation to different clock neurons in the brain of Drosophila. J Comp Neurol. 2006;494:314-30 pubmed
    ..protein (GFP) expression, combined with immunocytochemistry with antisera against serotonin, histamine, and tyrosine hydroxylase (for dopamine)...
  3. Whitworth A, Theodore D, Greene J, Benes H, Wes P, Pallanck L. Increased glutathione S-transferase activity rescues dopaminergic neuron loss in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:8024-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, these findings identify a potential therapeutic approach in treating PD. ..
  4. Ng C, Guan M, Koh C, Ouyang X, Yu F, Tan E, et al. AMP kinase activation mitigates dopaminergic dysfunction and mitochondrial abnormalities in Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci. 2012;32:14311-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest the relevance of mitochondrial-associated pathway in LRRK2 and parkin-related pathogenesis, and that AMPK activation may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for these familial forms of PD. ..
  5. White K, Humphrey D, Hirth F. The dopaminergic system in the aging brain of Drosophila. Front Neurosci. 2010;4:205 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data establish baseline parameters in Drosophila for the study of Parkinson's disease as well as other disorders affecting DA neurons and movement control. ..
  6. Cooper R, Neckameyer W. Dopaminergic modulation of motor neuron activity and neuromuscular function in Drosophila melanogaster. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1999;122:199-210 pubmed
    ..The effects are presynaptic in causing a reduction in the number of vesicles that are stimulated to be released due to neural activity. ..
  7. Neckameyer W. Dopamine and mushroom bodies in Drosophila: experience-dependent and -independent aspects of sexual behavior. Learn Mem. 1998;5:157-65 pubmed
    ..One kilobase of 5' upstream information from the Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase (DTH) gene, when fused to the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase reporter and transduced into the ..
  8. Cha G, Kim S, Park J, Lee E, Kim M, Lee S, et al. Parkin negatively regulates JNK pathway in the dopaminergic neurons of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:10345-50 pubmed
    ..Drosophila parkin loss-of-function mutants, which exhibit shrinkage of dopaminergic neurons with decreased tyrosine hydroxylase level and impaired locomotion...
  9. Esposito G, Vos M, Vilain S, Swerts J, De Sousa Valadas J, Van Meensel S, et al. Aconitase causes iron toxicity in Drosophila pink1 mutants. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003478 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus our data indicate that superoxide-dependent [4Fe-4S] inactivation defines a potential pathogenic cascade that acts independent of mitophagy and links iron toxicity to mitochondrial failure in a PD-relevant model. ..

More Information


  1. Meulener M, Whitworth A, Armstrong Gold C, Rizzu P, Heutink P, Wes P, et al. Drosophila DJ-1 mutants are selectively sensitive to environmental toxins associated with Parkinson's disease. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1572-7 pubmed
    ..Study of these flies will provide insight into the critical interplay of genetics and environment in PD. ..
  2. Krashes M, Dasgupta S, Vreede A, White B, Armstrong J, Waddell S. A neural circuit mechanism integrating motivational state with memory expression in Drosophila. Cell. 2009;139:416-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, dNPF and dopamine provide a motivational switch in the mushroom body that controls the output of appetitive memory...
  3. Budnik V, White K. Genetic dissection of dopamine and serotonin synthesis in the nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 1987;4:309-14 pubmed
    ..We suggest that pale is either the tyrosine hydroxylase structural gene, or a gene controlling tyrosine hydroxylase activity in Drosophila...
  4. Anh N, Nishitani M, Harada S, Yamaguchi M, Kamei K. Essential role of Duox in stabilization of Drosophila wing. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33244-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Respective knockdown of tyrosine hydroxylase or dopa-decarboxylase showed paler wing blades in the posterior compartment similar to the phenotype of ..
  5. Neckameyer W, White K. A single locus encodes both phenylalanine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase activities in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:4199-206 pubmed
    ..We propose that there are only two aromatic amino acid hydroxylase genes in Drosophila: one encoding tyrosine hydroxylase, DTH, and DTPH, a gene encoding both tryptophan and phenylalanine hydroxylase activities.
  6. Coulom H, Birman S. Chronic exposure to rotenone models sporadic Parkinson's disease in Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10993-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, chronic exposure to pesticides recapitulates key aspects of PD in Drosophila and provides a new in vivo model for studying the mechanisms of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. ..
  7. Auluck P, Chan H, Trojanowski J, Lee V, Bonini N. Chaperone suppression of alpha-synuclein toxicity in a Drosophila model for Parkinson's disease. Science. 2002;295:865-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Lewy bodies in human postmortem tissue immunostained for molecular chaperones, also suggesting that chaperones may play a role in Parkinson's disease progression. ..
  8. Liu Z, Hamamichi S, Lee B, Yang D, Ray A, Caldwell G, et al. Inhibitors of LRRK2 kinase attenuate neurodegeneration and Parkinson-like phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila Parkinson's disease models. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:3933-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that increased kinase activity of LRRK2 is neurotoxic and that inhibition of LRRK2 activity can have a disease-modifying effect. This suggests that inhibition of LRRK2 holds promise as a treatment for PD. ..
  9. Shao L, Shuai Y, Wang J, Feng S, Lu B, Li Z, et al. Schizophrenia susceptibility gene dysbindin regulates glutamatergic and dopaminergic functions via distinctive mechanisms in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18831-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Ddysb regulates glutamatergic transmission through its neuronal function and regulates dopamine metabolism by regulating Ebony expression in glial cells. ..
  10. Gauthier S, Hewes R. Transcriptional regulation of neuropeptide and peptide hormone expression by the Drosophila dimmed and cryptocephal genes. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:1803-15 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that convergence between ATF-related signaling and an important intracellular steroid response pathway may contribute to the neuroendocrine regulation of insect molting. ..
  11. Zhang K, Guo J, Peng Y, Xi W, Guo A. Dopamine-mushroom body circuit regulates saliency-based decision-making in Drosophila. Science. 2007;316:1901-4 pubmed
    ..Immunohistological analysis showed that mushroom bodies are densely innervated by dopaminergic axons. Thus, the circuit from the dopamine system to mushroom bodies is crucial for choice behavior in Drosophila. ..
  12. Auluck P, Meulener M, Bonini N. Mechanisms of Suppression of {alpha}-Synuclein Neurotoxicity by Geldanamycin in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:2873-8 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that compounds that modulate the stress response are a promising approach to treat Parkinson's disease. ..
  13. Claridge Chang A, Roorda R, Vrontou E, Sjulson L, Li H, Hirsh J, et al. Writing memories with light-addressable reinforcement circuitry. Cell. 2009;139:405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The delineation of core reinforcement circuitry is an essential first step in dissecting the neural mechanisms that compute and represent valuations, store associations, and guide actions. ..
  14. Chaudhuri A, Bowling K, Funderburk C, Lawal H, Inamdar A, Wang Z, et al. Interaction of genetic and environmental factors in a Drosophila parkinsonism model. J Neurosci. 2007;27:2457-67 pubmed
  15. Lin C, Tsai P, Wu R, Chien C. LRRK2 G2019S mutation induces dendrite degeneration through mislocalization and phosphorylation of tau by recruiting autoactivated GSK3ß. J Neurosci. 2010;30:13138-49 pubmed publisher
    ..G2019S increases the recruitment of autoactivated Sgg, thus inducing hyperphosphorylation and mislocalization of tau with resultant dendrite degeneration. ..
  16. Imai Y, Gehrke S, Wang H, Takahashi R, Hasegawa K, Oota E, et al. Phosphorylation of 4E-BP by LRRK2 affects the maintenance of dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila. EMBO J. 2008;27:2432-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that chronic inactivation of 4E-BP by LRRK2 with pathogenic mutations deregulates protein translation, eventually resulting in age-dependent loss of DA neurons. ..
  17. Burke C, Huetteroth W, Owald D, Perisse E, Krashes M, Das G, et al. Layered reward signalling through octopamine and dopamine in Drosophila. Nature. 2012;492:433-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, they reconcile previous findings with octopamine and dopamine and suggest that reinforcement systems in flies are more similar to mammals than previously thought. ..
  18. Wakabayashi Ito N, Doherty O, Moriyama H, Breakefield X, Gusella J, O Donnell J, et al. Dtorsin, the Drosophila ortholog of the early-onset dystonia TOR1A (DYT1), plays a novel role in dopamine metabolism. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26183 pubmed publisher
    ..This dtorsin mutant line will be valuable for understanding this relationship and potentially other novel torsin functions that could play a role in human dystonia. ..
  19. Neckameyer W, Woodrome S, Holt B, Mayer A. Dopamine and senescence in Drosophila melanogaster. Neurobiol Aging. 2000;21:145-52 pubmed
    ..Immunocytochemical analysis of adult brains using an antibody raised against Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase to visualize catecholaminergic cell bodies revealed increased degeneration of the cell bodies with ..
  20. Marican C, Duportets L, Birman S, Jallon J. Female-specific regulation of cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis by dopamine in Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;34:823-30 pubmed restrictive temperature, and rescued by dopamine ingestion or by pale mutants partially rescued by a tyrosine hydroxylase construction), pharmacological treatments (tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitors) and topical application on ..
  21. Blanco J, Pandey R, Wasser M, Udolph G. Orthodenticle is necessary for survival of a cluster of clonally related dopaminergic neurons in the Drosophila larval and adult brain. Neural Dev. 2011;6:34 pubmed publisher
    ..Using MARCM and twin-spot MARCM techniques together with anti-tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, we have analyzed the larval central brain DA neurons from a developmental point of view ..
  22. Wang D, Qian L, Xiong H, Liu J, Neckameyer W, Oldham S, et al. Antioxidants protect PINK1-dependent dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13520-5 pubmed
  23. Anderson M, Perkins G, Chittick P, Shrigley R, Johnson W. drifter, a Drosophila POU-domain transcription factor, is required for correct differentiation and migration of tracheal cells and midline glia. Genes Dev. 1995;9:123-37 pubmed
  24. Wang Z, Ferdousy F, Lawal H, Huang Z, Daigle J, Izevbaye I, et al. Catecholamines up integrates dopamine synthesis and synaptic trafficking. J Neurochem. 2011;119:1294-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Catsup, with GTP cyclohydrolase rate-limiting enzyme for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) biosynthesis and tyrosine hydroxylase, rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine biosynthesis, which requires BH(4) as a cofactor...
  25. Vie A, Cigna M, Toci R, Birman S. Differential regulation of Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase isoforms by dopamine binding and cAMP-dependent phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:16788-95 pubmed
    b>Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyzes the first step in dopamine biosynthesis in Drosophila as in vertebrates...
  26. Liu T, Dartevelle L, Yuan C, Wei H, Wang Y, Ferveur J, et al. Increased dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5539-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the high intensity of male-male interaction shown by these manipulated males was related to their altered sensory perception of other males. ..
  27. Pendleton R, Rasheed A, Sardina T, Tully T, Hillman R. Effects of tyrosine hydroxylase mutants on locomotor activity in Drosophila: a study in functional genomics. Behav Genet. 2002;32:89-94 pubmed
    The brain of the adult fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, contains tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme required for catecholamine biosynthesis, as well as dopa decarboxylase...
  28. Makos M, Kim Y, Han K, Heien M, Ewing A. In vivo electrochemical measurements of exogenously applied dopamine in Drosophila melanogaster. Anal Chem. 2009;81:1848-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that factors that affect neuronal activity via ion channels such as TTX also influence the function of the dopamine transporter in Drosophila. ..
  29. Chiang A, Lin C, Chuang C, Chang H, Hsieh C, Yeh C, et al. Three-dimensional reconstruction of brain-wide wiring networks in Drosophila at single-cell resolution. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the Drosophila brain is assembled from families of multiple LPUs and their interconnections. This provides an essential first step in the analysis of information processing within and between neurons in a complete brain. ..
  30. Neckameyer W, O DONNELL J, Huang Z, Stark W. Dopamine and sensory tissue development in Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurobiol. 2001;47:280-94 pubmed
    ..apparatus, transgenic lines were generated containing 1 or 4 kb of 5' upstream sequences from the Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase gene (DTH) fused to the E. coli beta-galactosidase reporter...
  31. Keene A, Masek P. Optogenetic induction of aversive taste memory. Neuroscience. 2012;222:173-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this optogenetic system provides a powerful new tool for interrogation of the central brain circuits that mediate memory formation. ..
  32. Menzies F, Yenisetti S, MIN K. Roles of Drosophila DJ-1 in survival of dopaminergic neurons and oxidative stress. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1578-82 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Drosophila homologs of DJ-1 play critical roles in the survival of dopaminergic neurons and response to oxidative stress. ..
  33. Bowling K, Huang Z, Xu D, Ferdousy F, Funderburk C, Karnik N, et al. Direct binding of GTP cyclohydrolase and tyrosine hydroxylase: regulatory interactions between key enzymes in dopamine biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:31449-59 pubmed publisher
    ..A key target of regulation is the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, which is activated by phosphorylation and modulated by the ..
  34. Ng C, Mok S, Koh C, Ouyang X, Fivaz M, Tan E, et al. Parkin protects against LRRK2 G2019S mutant-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2009;29:11257-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest a potential link between LRRK2, parkin, and mitochondria in the pathogenesis of LRRK2-related parkinsonism. ..
  35. Lee Y, Paik D, Bang S, Kang J, Chun B, Lee S, et al. Loss of spastic paraplegia gene atlastin induces age-dependent death of dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila. Neurobiol Aging. 2008;29:84-94 pubmed
    ..Our data raised the possibility that one of the causes of HSP disease symptoms in human patients with alt mutations is malfunction or degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. ..
  36. Yu J, Kanai M, Demir E, Jefferis G, Dickson B. Cellular organization of the neural circuit that drives Drosophila courtship behavior. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1602-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Sex-specific behavior may instead arise through dimorphic circuits in the brain and nerve cord that differentially couple sensory input to motor output. ..
  37. Saini N, Oelhafen S, Hua H, Georgiev O, Schaffner W, Bueler H. Extended lifespan of Drosophila parkin mutants through sequestration of redox-active metals and enhancement of anti-oxidative pathways. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;40:82-92 pubmed publisher
    ..They also corroborate that oxidative stress, perhaps as a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction, is a major determinant of morbidity in parkin mutant flies. ..
  38. Riemensperger T, Issa A, Pech U, Coulom H, Nguyễn M, Cassar M, et al. A single dopamine pathway underlies progressive locomotor deficits in a Drosophila model of Parkinson disease. Cell Rep. 2013;5:952-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that modulation of the mushroom body ?' lobes by this dopaminergic pathway is specifically required for an efficient control of startle-induced locomotion in flies. ..
  39. Liu C, Plaçais P, Yamagata N, Pfeiffer B, Aso Y, Friedrich A, et al. A subset of dopamine neurons signals reward for odour memory in Drosophila. Nature. 2012;488:512-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Dopamine in insects is known to mediate aversive reinforcement signals. Our results highlight the cellular specificity underlying the various roles of dopamine and the importance of spatially segregated local circuits within the MBs. ..
  40. Hirsh J, Riemensperger T, Coulom H, Iché M, Coupar J, Birman S. Roles of dopamine in circadian rhythmicity and extreme light sensitivity of circadian entrainment. Curr Biol. 2010;20:209-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We use GAL4;UAS-mediated rescue of tyrosine hydroxylase (DTH) mutant (ple) flies to study the roles of dopamine in these processes...
  41. Kahsai L, Winther A. Chemical neuroanatomy of the Drosophila central complex: distribution of multiple neuropeptides in relation to neurotransmitters. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:290-315 pubmed publisher
  42. Neckameyer W, Quinn W. Isolation and characterization of the gene for Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase. Neuron. 1989;2:1167-75 pubmed
    A Drosophila cDNA homologous to a rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) probe has been isolated and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence predicts a 57,861 dalton protein with almost 50% identity with rat TH...
  43. Friggi Grelin F, Iché M, Birman S. Tissue-specific developmental requirements of Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase isoforms. Genesis. 2003;35:260-9 pubmed
    b>Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase (DTH) is a key enzyme in dopamine (DA) biosynthesis, which is expressed in neural and hypodermal DA-synthesizing cells...
  44. Lee P, Lin H, Chang Y, Fu T, Dubnau J, Hirsh J, et al. Serotonin-mushroom body circuit modulating the formation of anesthesia-resistant memory in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13794-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to the Amnesiac peptide required for anesthesia-sensitive memory formation, the two DPM neurons also release 5HT acting on MB neurons for ARM formation...
  45. Neckameyer W, White K. Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase is encoded by the pale locus. J Neurogenet. 1993;8:189-99 pubmed
    We have reintroduced an 8 kb genomic fragment from the Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase (DTH) locus into the genome of mutant pale (ple) flies. ple was first recovered as a recessive embryonic lethal by Jurgens et al...
  46. Friggi Grelin F, Coulom H, Meller M, Gomez D, Hirsh J, Birman S. Targeted gene expression in Drosophila dopaminergic cells using regulatory sequences from tyrosine hydroxylase. J Neurobiol. 2003;54:618-27 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila as in vertebrates, the rate-limiting step in DA biosynthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)...
  47. Mao Z, Davis R. Eight different types of dopaminergic neurons innervate the Drosophila mushroom body neuropil: anatomical and physiological heterogeneity. Front Neural Circuits. 2009;3:5 pubmed publisher
    We examined tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-GAL4) expression and anti-TH immunoreactivity in the Drosophila protocerebrum and characterized single cell clones of the TH-GAL4 neurons...
  48. Tanaka N, Tanimoto H, Ito K. Neuronal assemblies of the Drosophila mushroom body. J Comp Neurol. 2008;508:711-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Structural differences between lobes are also discussed. ..
  49. Krishnakumar S, Burton D, Rasco J, Chen X, O DONNELL J. Functional interactions between GTP cyclohydrolase I and tyrosine hydroxylase in Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 2000;14:1-23 pubmed
    b>Tyrosine hydroxylase requires the regulatory cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin, for catecholamine biosynthesis...
  50. Stathakis D, Burton D, McIvor W, Krishnakumar S, Wright T, O Donnell J. The catecholamines up (Catsup) protein of Drosophila melanogaster functions as a negative regulator of tyrosine hydroxylase activity. Genetics. 1999;153:361-82 pubmed
    ..and biochemical analyses of Catecholamines up (Catsup), a gene that encodes a negative regulator of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity...
  51. Johard H, Enell L, Gustafsson E, Trifilieff P, Veenstra J, Nassel D. Intrinsic neurons of Drosophila mushroom bodies express short neuropeptide F: relations to extrinsic neurons expressing different neurotransmitters. J Comp Neurol. 2008;507:1479-96 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is likely that the Kenyon cells utilize an additional neurotransmitter, yet to be identified, and that the neuropeptides described here may represent cotransmitters. ..
  52. Yang Y, Gehrke S, Imai Y, Huang Z, Ouyang Y, Wang J, et al. Mitochondrial pathology and muscle and dopaminergic neuron degeneration caused by inactivation of Drosophila Pink1 is rescued by Parkin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10793-8 pubmed
    ..Together, these results implicate Pink1 and Parkin in a common pathway that regulates mitochondrial physiology and cell survival in Drosophila. ..
  53. Riemensperger T, Isabel G, Coulom H, Neuser K, Seugnet L, Kume K, et al. Behavioral consequences of dopamine deficiency in the Drosophila central nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:834-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To learn more about the function of neural DA in Drosophila, we generated mutant flies that lack tyrosine hydroxylase, and thus DA biosynthesis, selectively in the nervous system...
  54. Park J, Kim S, Cha G, Lee S, Kim S, Chung J. Drosophila DJ-1 mutants show oxidative stress-sensitive locomotive dysfunction. Gene. 2005;361:133-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we found that Drosophila DJ-1 is prominently localized in mitochondria, suggesting that DJ-1 functions as a protector against oxidative stress in mitochondria. ..
  55. Calcagno B, Eyles D, van Alphen B, van Swinderen B. Transient activation of dopaminergic neurons during development modulates visual responsiveness, locomotion and brain activity in a dopamine ontogeny model of schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry. 2013;3:e206 pubmed publisher
  56. Neckameyer W. Multiple roles for dopamine in Drosophila development. Dev Biol. 1996;176:209-19 pubmed
    Manipulation of dopamine levels by inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase activity was accomplished in Drosophila melanogaster larval instars by feeding enzyme inhibitors for a 24-hr period...
  57. Bang S, Hyun S, Hong S, Kang J, Jeong K, Park J, et al. Dopamine signalling in mushroom bodies regulates temperature-preference behaviour in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001346 pubmed publisher
    ..The current findings will provide important bases to understand the logic of thermosensation and temperature preference decision in Drosophila. ..
  58. Hindle S, Afsari F, Stark M, Middleton C, Evans G, Sweeney S, et al. Dopaminergic expression of the Parkinsonian gene LRRK2-G2019S leads to non-autonomous visual neurodegeneration, accelerated by increased neural demands for energy. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:2129-40 pubmed publisher
  59. Park J, Lee S, Lee S, Kim Y, Song S, Kim S, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction in Drosophila PINK1 mutants is complemented by parkin. Nature. 2006;441:1157-61 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our genetic evidence clearly establishes that Parkin and PINK1 act in a common pathway in maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function in both muscles and dopaminergic neurons. ..
  60. Seugnet L, Galvin J, Suzuki Y, Gottschalk L, Shaw P. Persistent short-term memory defects following sleep deprivation in a drosophila model of Parkinson disease. Sleep. 2009;32:984-92 pubmed
    ..These data emphasize the importance of sleep in a degenerating/reorganizing brain and shows that pathological processes induced by sleep deprivation can be dissected at the molecular and cellular level using Drosophila genetics. ..
  61. Wang D, Tang B, Zhao G, Pan Q, Xia K, Bodmer R, et al. Dispensable role of Drosophila ortholog of LRRK2 kinase activity in survival of dopaminergic neurons. Mol Neurodegener. 2008;3:3 pubmed publisher
    ..However, dLRRK kinase activity likely plays a role in protecting against oxidative stress. ..
  62. True J, Edwards K, Yamamoto D, Carroll S. Drosophila wing melanin patterns form by vein-dependent elaboration of enzymatic prepatterns. Curr Biol. 1999;9:1382-91 pubmed
    ..We show that, in D. melanogaster, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC) are required for melanin synthesis...
  63. Aso Y, Herb A, Ogueta M, Siwanowicz I, Templier T, Friedrich A, et al. Three dopamine pathways induce aversive odor memories with different stability. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002768 pubmed publisher
    ..These results cast light on a cellular mechanism by which a noxious event induces different dopamine signals to a single brain structure to synthesize an aversive memory. ..
  64. Chen L, Feany M. Alpha-synuclein phosphorylation controls neurotoxicity and inclusion formation in a Drosophila model of Parkinson disease. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:657-63 pubmed
    ..Because increased number of inclusion bodies correlates with reduced toxicity, inclusion bodies may protect neurons from alpha-synuclein toxicity. ..
  65. Feany M, Bender W. A Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease. Nature. 2000;404:394-8 pubmed
    ..Our Drosophila model thus recapitulates the essential features of the human disorder, and makes possible a powerful genetic approach to Parkinson's disease. ..
  66. Selcho M, Pauls D, Han K, Stocker R, Thum A. The role of dopamine in Drosophila larval classical olfactory conditioning. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5897 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies of the dopaminergic system need to take into account such cellular dissociations in function in order to be meaningful. ..
  67. Alekseyenko O, Lee C, Kravitz E. Targeted manipulation of serotonergic neurotransmission affects the escalation of aggression in adult male Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10806 pubmed publisher
    ..By separately manipulating 5HT- and DA- neuron systems, we collected evidence demonstrating a direct role for 5HT in the escalation of aggression in Drosophila. ..
  68. Séjourné J, Plaçais P, Aso Y, Siwanowicz I, Trannoy S, Thoma V, et al. Mushroom body efferent neurons responsible for aversive olfactory memory retrieval in Drosophila. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:903-10 pubmed publisher
    ..As the lateral horn has been implicated in innate responses to repellent odorants, we propose that MB-V2 neurons recruit the olfactory pathway involved in innate odor avoidance during memory retrieval. ..
  69. Vömel M, Wegener C. Neuroarchitecture of aminergic systems in the larval ventral ganglion of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1848 pubmed publisher
    ..With tyrosine hydroxylase- (TH) or tyrosine decarboxylase 2 (TDC2)-specific gal4-drivers, we also analyzed the distribution of ..
  70. Wittkopp P, Carroll S, Kopp A. Evolution in black and white: genetic control of pigment patterns in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 2003;19:495-504 pubmed publisher
  71. Davis M, O Keefe S, Primrose D, Hodgetts R. A neuropeptide hormone cascade controls the precise onset of post-eclosion cuticular tanning in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2007;134:4395-404 pubmed
    ..Together, two enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, encoded by ple) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC, encoded by Ddc), produce the dopamine that is required ..