Gene Symbol: Pka-C1
Description: Protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic subunit 1
Alias: 6353, CG4379, CdkA, Cos, Cos-1, Cos1, DC0, DCO, Dc0, Dco, Dcpk, Dmel\CG4379, PKA, PKA CI, PKA Cl, PKA-C1, PKAC1, PKAc, PKAcA, Pka, Pka-C, PkaC1, cos1, dPKA, dc0, dcO, dco, l(2)01272, l(2)cos[[1]], l(2)s4402, pKA, pkA, pka, pka C1, pka-C1, pka-c1, protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic subunit 1, CG4379-PB, CG4379-PC, CG4379-PD, Costal-1, PKA catalytic subunit, Pka-C1-PB, Pka-C1-PC, Pka-C1-PD, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase 1, catalytic subunit of PKA, catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, costal, protein kinase A
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Pka-C1

Top Publications

  1. Foster J, Higgins G, Jackson F. Cloning, sequence, and expression of the Drosophila cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gene. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:1676-81 pubmed
    ..The catalytic subunit gene and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase gene have been located in regions 30C and 21D, respectively, of chromosome 2. ..
  2. Jiang J, Struhl G. Complementary and mutually exclusive activities of decapentaplegic and wingless organize axial patterning during Drosophila leg development. Cell. 1996;86:401-9 pubmed
  3. Kuwabara P, Labouesse M. The sterol-sensing domain: multiple families, a unique role?. Trends Genet. 2002;18:193-201 pubmed
    ..This article discusses how the SSD appears to function as a regulatory domain involved in linking vesicle trafficking and protein localization with such varied processes as cholesterol homeostasis, cell signalling and cytokinesis. ..
  4. Kiger J, Eklund J, Younger S, O Kane C. Transgenic inhibitors identify two roles for protein kinase A in Drosophila development. Genetics. 1999;152:281-90 pubmed
    ..We have constructed GAL4/UAS-regulated transgenes in active and mutant forms that encode PKAc, the catalytic subunit of PKA, and PKI(1-31), a competitive inhibitor of PKAc...
  5. Apionishev S, Katanayeva N, Marks S, Kalderon D, Tomlinson A. Drosophila Smoothened phosphorylation sites essential for Hedgehog signal transduction. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:86-92 pubmed
    ..Together, Protein Kinase A, Casein Kinase 1 and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 silence the pathway in the absence of ligand by ..
  6. Li W, Ohlmeyer J, Lane M, Kalderon D. Function of protein kinase A in hedgehog signal transduction and Drosophila imaginal disc development. Cell. 1995;80:553-62 pubmed
    Reduced protein kinase A (PKA) activity in anterior imaginal disc cells leads to cell-autonomous induction of decapentaplegic (dpp), wingless (wg), and patched (ptc) transcription that is independent of hedgehog (hh) gene activity...
  7. Capdevila J, Guerrero I. Targeted expression of the signaling molecule decapentaplegic induces pattern duplications and growth alterations in Drosophila wings. EMBO J. 1994;13:4459-68 pubmed
  8. Wang Q, Holmgren R. Nuclear import of cubitus interruptus is regulated by hedgehog via a mechanism distinct from Ci stabilization and Ci activation. Development. 2000;127:3131-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that cos2 and pka, two molecules that have been characterized primarily as negative regulators of Ci activity, also have positive ..
  9. Mizrak D, Ruben M, Myers G, Rhrissorrakrai K, Gunsalus K, Blau J. Electrical activity can impose time of day on the circadian transcriptome of pacemaker neurons. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1871-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The electrical state of a clock neuron can impose time of day to its transcriptional program. We propose that this acts as an internal zeitgeber to add robustness and precision to circadian behavioral rhythms. ..

More Information


  1. Nakano Y, Nystedt S, Shivdasani A, Strutt H, Thomas C, Ingham P. Functional domains and sub-cellular distribution of the Hedgehog transducing protein Smoothened in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2004;121:507-18 pubmed
    ..We further demonstrate that Smo accumulation is likely to be a cause, rather than a consequence, of Hh signal transduction. ..
  2. Cho K, Lee J, Kim S, Kim D, Koh H, Lee J, et al. Drosophila phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 regulates apoptosis and growth via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent signaling pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6144-9 pubmed
  3. Wang Q, Holmgren R. The subcellular localization and activity of Drosophila cubitus interruptus are regulated at multiple levels. Development. 1999;126:5097-106 pubmed
    ..Further our data show that loss of PKA or Costal-2 activity does not fully mimic Hh signaling, demonstrating that Ci proteolysis and Ci activation are two distinct ..
  4. Jia J, Tong C, Wang B, Luo L, Jiang J. Hedgehog signalling activity of Smoothened requires phosphorylation by protein kinase A and casein kinase I. Nature. 2004;432:1045-50 pubmed
    ..Here we show that protein kinase A (PKA) and casein kinase I (CKI) regulate Smo cell-surface accumulation and activity in response to Hh...
  5. Wang G, Wang B, Jiang J. Protein kinase A antagonizes Hedgehog signaling by regulating both the activator and repressor forms of Cubitus interruptus. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2828-37 pubmed
    ..The proteolytic processing of Ci is promoted by the activities of protein kinase A (PKA) and Slimb, whereas it is inhibited by Hh...
  6. Ohlmeyer J, Kalderon D. Dual pathways for induction of wingless expression by protein kinase A and Hedgehog in Drosophila embryos. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2250-8 pubmed
    ..b>Protein kinase A (PKA) has been implicated in the mechanism of Hh signal transduction because it acts to repress Hh target ..
  7. Luo W, Chen W, Yue Z, Chen D, Sowcik M, Sehgal A, et al. Old flies have a robust central oscillator but weaker behavioral rhythms that can be improved by genetic and environmental manipulations. Aging Cell. 2012;11:428-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Coupling temperature cycles with a light-dark schedule or reducing expression of protein kinase A (PKA) improved behavioral rhythms and consolidated sleep...
  8. Denef N, Neubüser D, Perez L, Cohen S. Hedgehog induces opposite changes in turnover and subcellular localization of patched and smoothened. Cell. 2000;102:521-31 pubmed
    ..Comparable effects can be produced by removing Patched from cells by RNA-mediated interference. These findings raise the possibility that Patched acts indirectly to regulate Smoothened activity. ..
  9. Zhang Y, Emery P. GW182 controls Drosophila circadian behavior and PDF-receptor signaling. Neuron. 2013;78:152-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that GW182's gene silencing activity functions as a rheostat for PDFR signaling and thus profoundly impacts the circadian neural network and its response to environmental inputs. ..
  10. Jiang J, Struhl G. Protein kinase A and hedgehog signaling in Drosophila limb development. Cell. 1995;80:563-72 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is essential during limb development to prevent inappropriate dpp and wg expression...
  11. Levine J, Casey C, Kalderon D, Jackson F. Altered circadian pacemaker functions and cyclic AMP rhythms in the Drosophila learning mutant dunce. Neuron. 1994;13:967-74 pubmed
    ..We have examined pacemaker resetting and free-running activity rhythms in Drosophila dunce (dnc) and DC0 mutants, which identify a cAMP specific phosphodiesterase and the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein ..
  12. Yamazaki D, Horiuchi J, Nakagami Y, Nagano S, Tamura T, Saitoe M. The Drosophila DCO mutation suppresses age-related memory impairment without affecting lifespan. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:478-84 pubmed
    ..In a screen for such mutants in Drosophila melanogaster, we found that heterozygous mutations of DCO (DCO/+), which encodes the major catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), delay AMI more than ..
  13. Kilman V, Zhang L, Meissner R, Burg E, Allada R. Perturbing dynamin reveals potent effects on the Drosophila circadian clock. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5235 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PKA overexpression rescued period effects suggesting shi(ts1) may downregulate PKA pathways...
  14. Chen C, von Kessler D, Park W, Wang B, Ma Y, Beachy P. Nuclear trafficking of Cubitus interruptus in the transcriptional regulation of Hedgehog target gene expression. Cell. 1999;98:305-16 pubmed
    ..Even in the absence of signaling, nuclear accumulation of Ci155 suffices for significant induction of Hh targets, and active nuclear export of Ci155 is an essential mechanism for maintenance of the unstimulated state. ..
  15. Majercak J, Kalderon D, Edery I. Drosophila melanogaster deficient in protein kinase A manifests behavior-specific arrhythmia but normal clock function. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:5915-22 pubmed
    ..bearing mutations in the DCO gene, which encodes the major catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), displays arrhythmic locomotor activity strongly suggesting a role for PKA in the circadian timing system...
  16. Zheng X, Mann R, Sever N, Beachy P. Genetic and biochemical definition of the Hedgehog receptor. Genes Dev. 2010;24:57-71 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of their joint roles in ligand binding, signal transduction, and receptor trafficking, we conclude that Ihog and Ptc together constitute the Drosophila Hh receptor. ..
  17. Skoulakis E, Kalderon D, Davis R. Preferential expression in mushroom bodies of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and its role in learning and memory. Neuron. 1993;11:197-208 pubmed the mushroom bodies, contains a transposon in the first exon of the catalytic subunit gene (DCO) of protein kinase A (PKA)...
  18. Lum L, Beachy P. The Hedgehog response network: sensors, switches, and routers. Science. 2004;304:1755-9 pubmed
  19. Crittenden J, Skoulakis E, Han K, Kalderon D, Davis R. Tripartite mushroom body architecture revealed by antigenic markers. Learn Mem. 1998;5:38-51 pubmed
    ..These markers consist of antibodies to eight proteins expressed preferentially in the mushroom bodies: DAMB, DCO, DRK, FASII, LEO, OAMB, PKA RII, and RUT...
  20. Christiansen A, Ding T, Fan Y, Graves H, Herz H, Lindblad J, et al. Non-cell autonomous control of apoptosis by ligand-independent Hedgehog signaling in Drosophila. Cell Death Differ. 2013;20:302-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This non-cell autonomous control of apoptosis highlights an underappreciated function of deregulated Hh signaling, which may help to generate a supportive micro-environment for tumor development. ..
  21. Smelkinson M, Zhou Q, Kalderon D. Regulation of Ci-SCFSlimb binding, Ci proteolysis, and hedgehog pathway activity by Ci phosphorylation. Dev Cell. 2007;13:481-95 pubmed
    ..We also show that when Ci proteolysis is compromised, its specific activity is limited principally by Su(fu), and not by Cos2 cytoplasmic tethering or PKA phosphorylation.
  22. Aszodi A, Muller U, Friedrich P, Spatz H. Signal convergence on protein kinase A as a molecular correlate of learning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:5832-6 pubmed
    The response of a reaction network composed of protein kinase A, calpain, and protein phosphatase to transient cAMP and Ca2+ signals was studied...
  23. Ruel L, Gallet A, Raisin S, Truchi A, Staccini Lavenant L, Cervantes A, et al. Phosphorylation of the atypical kinesin Costal2 by the kinase Fused induces the partial disassembly of the Smoothened-Fused-Costal2-Cubitus interruptus complex in Hedgehog signalling. Development. 2007;134:3677-89 pubmed
    ..This study provides new insight into the mechanistic regulation of the protein complex that mediates Hh signalling and a unique antibody tool for directly monitoring Hh receptor activity in all activated cells. ..
  24. Chen Y, Struhl G. In vivo evidence that Patched and Smoothened constitute distinct binding and transducing components of a Hedgehog receptor complex. Development. 1998;125:4943-8 pubmed
  25. Banerjee S, Chinthapalli B. A proteomic screen with Drosophila Opa1-like identifies Hsc70-5/Mortalin as a regulator of mitochondrial morphology and cellular homeostasis. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014;54:36-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we have identified a novel interaction between Hsc70-5/Mortalin and Opa1-like that influences cellular homeostasis through mitochondrial fusion. ..
  26. Burrell B, Sahley C. Learning in simple systems. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2001;11:757-64 pubmed
    ..Some pathways contribute to a single stage of memory formation, whereas others impact on multiple stages of memory development. Distinct cellular pathways may also act in series or in parallel during various stages of memory formation. ..
  27. Bettencourt Da Cruz A, Wentzell J, Kretzschmar D. Swiss Cheese, a protein involved in progressive neurodegeneration, acts as a noncanonical regulatory subunit for PKA-C3. J Neurosci. 2008;28:10885-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that SWS interacts specifically with the C3 catalytic subunit of cAMP activated protein kinase (PKA-C3), which together with orthologs in mouse (Pkare) and human (PrKX) forms a novel class of catalytic subunits of ..
  28. Dominguez M. Dual role for Hedgehog in the regulation of the proneural gene atonal during ommatidia development. Development. 1999;126:2345-53 pubmed
    ..The two temporal responses to Hedgehog are due to direct stimulation of the responding cells by Hedgehog itself. ..
  29. Gelbart M, Larschan E, Peng S, Park P, Kuroda M. Drosophila MSL complex globally acetylates H4K16 on the male X chromosome for dosage compensation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:825-32 pubmed publisher
  30. Bellen H. The fruit fly: a model organism to study the genetics of alcohol abuse and addiction?. Cell. 1998;93:909-12 pubmed
  31. Oh S, Kingsley T, Shin H, Zheng Z, Chen H, Chen X, et al. A P-element insertion screen identified mutations in 455 novel essential genes in Drosophila. Genetics. 2003;163:195-201 pubmed
    ..Our mutation collection represents approximately 56% of the second chromosome vital genes and approximately 24% of the total vital Drosophila genes. ..
  32. Sinakevitch I, Grau Y, Strausfeld N, Birman S. Dynamics of glutamatergic signaling in the mushroom body of young adult Drosophila. Neural Dev. 2010;5:10 pubmed publisher
    ..In a Drosophila model of fragile X syndrome, the main cause of inherited mental retardation, treatment with metabotropic Glu receptor (mGluR) antagonists can rescue memory deficits and MB structural defects...
  33. Smelkinson M, Kalderon D. Processing of the Drosophila hedgehog signaling effector Ci-155 to the repressor Ci-75 is mediated by direct binding to the SCF component Slimb. Curr Biol. 2006;16:110-6 pubmed
    ..This processing requires phosphorylation of full-length Ci (Ci-155) by protein kinase A (PKA), casein kinase 1 (CK1), and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), as well as the activity of Slimb ...
  34. Kalderon D. Hedgehog signaling: an Arrestin connection?. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R175-8 pubmed
    ..New binding, localization and genetic studies suggest that Arrestins may also participate in the transduction of Hedgehog signals by the seven transmembrane domain protein, Smoothened. ..
  35. Yoshihara M, Adolfsen B, Galle K, Littleton J. Retrograde signaling by Syt 4 induces presynaptic release and synapse-specific growth. Science. 2005;310:858-63 pubmed
    ..Postsynaptic Ca2+ influx also stimulates local synaptic differentiation and growth through Syt 4-mediated retrograde signals in a synapse-specific manner. ..
  36. Estrada B, Sánchez Herrero E. The Hox gene Abdominal-B antagonizes appendage development in the genital disc of Drosophila. Development. 2001;128:331-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that the genital primordia should be subdivided into two regions, one of them competent to be transformed into an appendage in the absence of Abdominal-B. ..
  37. Dubnau J, Tully T. Gene discovery in Drosophila: new insights for learning and memory. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1998;21:407-44 pubmed
    ..Second, because core cellular mechanisms of simple forms of learning are evolutionarily conserved, biological pathways discovered in invertebrates are likely to be conserved in vertebrate systems as well. ..
  38. Tully T, Bolwig G, Christensen J, Connolly J, Delvecchio M, DeZazzo J, et al. A return to genetic dissection of memory in Drosophila. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1996;61:207-18 pubmed
  39. Wolfgang W, Roberts I, Quan F, O Kane C, Forte M. Activation of protein kinase A-independent pathways by Gs alpha in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:14542-7 pubmed
    ..Intracellular cAMP is then thought to mediate its effects largely, if not entirely, by activation of protein kinase A and the subsequent phosphorylation of substrates which in turn control diverse cellular phenomena...
  40. Kim K, Lin Y, Park Y. Enhancement of stress resistances and downregulation of Imd pathway by lower developmental temperature in Drosophila melanogaster. Exp Gerontol. 2010;45:984-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We also showed that development at a lower temperature represented by 18°C significantly downregulates anti-microbial peptide genes, AttA and DptB, of Imd pathway. ..
  41. Amoyel M, Sanny J, Burel M, Bach E. Hedgehog is required for CySC self-renewal but does not contribute to the GSC niche in the Drosophila testis. Development. 2013;140:56-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the extended niche function of CySCs is solely attributable to JAK/STAT pathway function...
  42. Lane M, Kalderon D. RNA localization along the anteroposterior axis of the Drosophila oocyte requires PKA-mediated signal transduction to direct normal microtubule organization. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2986-95 pubmed
    ..We describe mutation affecting Protein Kinase A (PKA) that act in the germ line to disrupt both microtubule distribution and RNA localization along this axis...
  43. Pavot P, Carbognin E, Martin J. PKA and cAMP/CNG Channels Independently Regulate the Cholinergic Ca(2+)-Response of Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons(1,2,3). Eneuro. 2015;2: pubmed publisher
    ..Third, genetic manipulation of protein kinase A (PKA), a direct effector of cAMP, suggests that cAMP also has PKA-independent effects through the cyclic ..
  44. Wang J, Zhou Y, Wen H, Levitan I. Simultaneous binding of two protein kinases to a calcium-dependent potassium channel. J Neurosci. 1999;19:RC4 pubmed
    ..bind simultaneously to the Src tyrosine kinase and to the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKAc). Both kinases can phosphorylate the channel in Drosophila heads and in heterologous host cells...
  45. Lefers M, Holmgren R. Ci proteolysis: regulation by a constellation of phosphorylation sites. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R422-3 pubmed
    ..The newly identified phosphorylation sites form clusters with previously described PKA sites in which phosphorylation by PKA acts to prime subsequent phosphorylation by Sgg/GSK3 and CK1.
  46. Horiuchi J, Yamazaki D, Naganos S, Aigaki T, Saitoe M. Protein kinase A inhibits a consolidated form of memory in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20976-81 pubmed publisher
    Increasing activity of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway has often been proposed as an approach to improve memory in various organisms...
  47. Davis R. Physiology and biochemistry of Drosophila learning mutants. Physiol Rev. 1996;76:299-317 pubmed adenylate cyclase activating peptides), dunce (cAMP phosophodiesterase), rutabaga (adenylyl cyclase), DCO (protein kinase A), and dCREB2 (cAMP-response element binding protein), have proven important for normal learning...
  48. Melendez A, Li W, Kalderon D. Activity, expression and function of a second Drosophila protein kinase A catalytic subunit gene. Genetics. 1995;141:1507-20 pubmed
    ..We show here that the 67-kD Drosophila DC2 protein behaves as a PKA catalytic subunit in vitro. DC2 is transcribed in mesodermal anlagen of early embryos...
  49. Christiansen A, Ding T, Bergmann A. Ligand-independent activation of the Hedgehog pathway displays non-cell autonomous proliferation during eye development in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2012;129:98-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these non-cell autonomous growth and differentiation phenotypes in the Drosophila eye model reveal another strategy by which oncogenes may generate a supportive micro-environment for tumor growth. ..
  50. Ranieri N, Thérond P, Ruel L. Switch of PKA substrates from Cubitus interruptus to Smoothened in the Hedgehog signalosome complex. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5034 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Protein Kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of the serpentine protein Smoothened (Smo) leads to Ci activation, whereas ..
  51. Bai J, Montell D. Eyes absent, a key repressor of polar cell fate during Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 2002;129:5377-88 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that ectopic Hedgehog signaling, which is known to cause ectopic polar cell formation, does so by repressing eya expression in epithelial follicle cells. ..
  52. Lissandron V, Rossetto M, Erbguth K, Fiala A, Daga A, Zaccolo M. Transgenic fruit-flies expressing a FRET-based sensor for in vivo imaging of cAMP dynamics. Cell Signal. 2007;19:2296-303 pubmed
    ..Here we report the generation of transgenic fruit-flies expressing a FRET-based, GFP-PKA sensor and their use in real-time optical recordings of cAMP signalling both ex vivo and in vivo in adult and ..
  53. Dawber R, Hebbes S, Herpers B, Docquier F, van den Heuvel M. Differential range and activity of various forms of the Hedgehog protein. BMC Dev Biol. 2005;5:21 pubmed
  54. Yamazaki D, Horiuchi J, Miyashita T, Saitoe M. Acute inhibition of PKA activity at old ages ameliorates age-related memory impairment in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2010;30:15573-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Heterozygous mutations in DC0 (DC0/+), which encodes the major catalytic subunit of PKA (PKAc), significantly suppress AMI, while overexpression of a DC0 transgene (DC0(+)) impairs memory and ..
  55. Cheng S, Maier D, Hipfner D. Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 regulates cAMP-dependent Hedgehog signaling. Development. 2012;139:85-94 pubmed publisher
    ..of target genes was restored in gprk2 mutants by stimulating cAMP production or activating the cAMP-dependent Protein kinase A (Pka)...
  56. Ingham P. Transducing Hedgehog: the story so far. EMBO J. 1998;17:3505-11 pubmed
    ..Elucidating the mechanisms by which Hedgehog signals are transduced will thus have widespread implications for our understanding of both normal development and disease. ..
  57. Thérond P, Knight J, Kornberg T, Bishop J. Phosphorylation of the fused protein kinase in response to signaling from hedgehog. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:4224-8 pubmed
    ..protein occurs in response to the biologically active form of hedgehog and cannot be blocked by activation of protein kinase A, which is thought to be an antagonist of signaling from hedgehog...
  58. Korzus E. The relation of transcription to memory formation. Acta Biochim Pol. 2003;50:775-82 pubmed
    ..Transcription seems to play essential role in memory formation but the mechanisms for activation of transcription and downstream processes during memory consolidation remain unclear. ..
  59. Chen X, Li Y, Huang J, Cao D, Yang G, Liu W, et al. Study of tauopathies by comparing Drosophila and human tau in Drosophila. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;329:169-78 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the two tau genes differ significantly. This comparison between species-specific isoforms may help to clarify whether the homologous tau genes are conserved. ..
  60. Hou J, Kuromi H, Fukasawa Y, Ueno K, Sakai T, Kidokoro Y. Repetitive exposures to nicotine induce a hyper-responsiveness via the cAMP/PKA/CREB signal pathway in Drosophila. J Neurobiol. 2004;60:249-61 pubmed
    ..wild-type flies treated with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, whereas it was weaker in DC0, which has defective protein kinase A (PKA), and in wild-type flies treated with a PKA blocker...
  61. Zhang W, Zhao Y, Tong C, Wang G, Wang B, Jia J, et al. Hedgehog-regulated Costal2-kinase complexes control phosphorylation and proteolytic processing of Cubitus interruptus. Dev Cell. 2005;8:267-78 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, Hh counteracts phosphorylation by PKA, GSK3, and CKI to prevent Cubitus interruptus (Ci) processing through unknown mechanisms...
  62. Kiger J, O SHEA C. Genetic evidence for a protein kinase A/cubitus interruptus complex that facilitates processing of cubitus interruptus in Drosophila. Genetics. 2001;158:1157-66 pubmed
    ..Ci-155 is phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA), inducing proteolysis to Ci-75, a transcriptional repressor...
  63. Grimm S, Pflugfelder G. Control of the gene optomotor-blind in Drosophila wing development by decapentaplegic and wingless. Science. 1996;271:1601-4 pubmed
    ..Ectopic omb expression can lead to the growth of additional wings. Thus, omb is essential for wing development and is controlled by two signaling pathways. ..
  64. Lecuit T, Cohen S. Proximal-distal axis formation in the Drosophila leg. Nature. 1997;388:139-45 pubmed
    ..Subsequent modulation of the relative sizes of these domains by growth of the leg is required to form the mature pattern. ..
  65. Gomez Skarmeta J, Modolell J. araucan and caupolican provide a link between compartment subdivisions and patterning of sensory organs and veins in the Drosophila wing. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2935-45 pubmed
    ..These in turn help create the even smaller domains of rhomboid/veinlet and achaete-scute expression. ..
  66. Simpson P, Grau Y. The segment polarity gene costal-2 in Drosophila. II. The origin of imaginal pattern duplications. Dev Biol. 1987;122:201-9 pubmed
    Imaginal pattern duplications caused by hypomorphic expression of the segment polarity gene costal-2 are described. These affect the anteroposterior coordinate of the imaginal disc...
  67. Davis R. Mushroom bodies and Drosophila learning. Neuron. 1993;11:1-14 pubmed
  68. Strutt D, Mlodzik M. Ommatidial polarity in the Drosophila eye is determined by the direction of furrow progression and local interactions. Development. 1995;121:4247-56 pubmed
  69. Li S, Ma G, Wang B, Jiang J. Hedgehog induces formation of PKA-Smoothened complexes to promote Smoothened phosphorylation and pathway activation. Sci Signal. 2014;7:ra62 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that in cells exposed to Hh, the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKAc) bound to the juxtamembrane region of the carboxyl terminus of Smo...
  70. Steinhauer J, Kalderon D. The RNA-binding protein Squid is required for the establishment of anteroposterior polarity in the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2005;132:5515-25 pubmed
    ..We identified sqd in a screen for modifiers of the Protein Kinase A (PKA) oogenesis polarity phenotype...
  71. Gorfinkiel N, Sanchez L, Guerrero I. Drosophila terminalia as an appendage-like structure. Mech Dev. 1999;86:113-23 pubmed
  72. Shaw P, Franken P. Perchance to dream: solving the mystery of sleep through genetic analysis. J Neurobiol. 2003;54:179-202 pubmed
    ..In this article we will review recent studies that have used genetic techniques to evaluate sleep in the fruit fly and the mouse. ..
  73. Xia R, Jia H, Fan J, Liu Y, Jia J. USP8 promotes smoothened signaling by preventing its ubiquitination and changing its subcellular localization. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001238 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, we show that Hh promotes the interaction of USP8 with Smo aa625-753, which covers the three PKA and CK1 phosphorylation clusters...
  74. Kanellopoulos A, Semelidou O, Kotini A, Anezaki M, Skoulakis E. Learning and memory deficits consequent to reduction of the fragile X mental retardation protein result from metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated inhibition of cAMP signaling in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2012;32:13111-24 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our data indicate positive transcriptional regulation of the fly fmr1 gene by cAMP, via protein kinase A, likely through the transcription factor CREB...
  75. Didelot G, Molinari F, Tchénio P, Comas D, Milhiet E, Munnich A, et al. Tequila, a neurotrypsin ortholog, regulates long-term memory formation in Drosophila. Science. 2006;313:851-3 pubmed
    ..Moreover, specific inhibition of teq expression in adult mushroom bodies resulted in a reversible LTM defect. Hence, the Teq pathway is essential for information processing in Drosophila...
  76. Kalderon D, Rubin G. Isolation and characterization of Drosophila cAMP-dependent protein kinase genes. Genes Dev. 1988;2:1539-56 pubmed
    ..A single highly conserved catalytic subunit gene (DC0) was found that codes for a single polypeptide...
  77. De Rasmo D, Palmisano G, Scacco S, Technikova Dobrova Z, Panelli D, Cocco T, et al. Phosphorylation pattern of the NDUFS4 subunit of complex I of the mammalian respiratory chain. Mitochondrion. 2010;10:464-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Two-dimensional IEF/SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, (32)P labelling and immunodetection show that "in vitro" PKA phosphorylates the serine in the C-terminus of the NDUFS4 subunit in isolated bovine complex I...
  78. Renault A, Ricardo S, Kunwar P, Santos A, Starz Gaiano M, Stein J, et al. Hedgehog does not guide migrating Drosophila germ cells. Dev Biol. 2009;328:355-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to previously reported findings and consistent with findings in zebrafish our data do not support the notion that Hh has a direct role in the guidance of migrating germ cells in flies. ..
  79. Lane M, Kalderon D. Localization and functions of protein kinase A during Drosophila oogenesis. Mech Dev. 1995;49:191-200 pubmed
    ..Highest levels of PKA catalytic subunit protein are associated with germ cell membranes, suggesting that targets of PKA are associated with the ..
  80. Gerber B, Yarali A, Diegelmann S, Wotjak C, Pauli P, Fendt M. Pain-relief learning in flies, rats, and man: basic research and applied perspectives. Learn Mem. 2014;21:232-52 pubmed publisher
  81. Grau Y, Simpson P. The segment polarity gene costal-2 in Drosophila. I. The organization of both primary and secondary embryonic fields may be affected. Dev Biol. 1987;122:186-200 pubmed
    A series of loss of function alleles at the costal-2 locus is described. Embryos mutant for lethal alleles that are derived from a mutant female germ line display polarity defects on the larval segments...
  82. Kiger J, Natzle J, Green M. Hemocytes are essential for wing maturation in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:10190-5 pubmed
    ..Second, ectopic expression of protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKAc) using certain GAL4 enhancer detector strains mimics the batone wing phenotype and ..
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    ..such as a membrane permeant analog of cAMP, or ectopic expression of constitutively active forms of G proteins or PKA, induced precocious death. Conversely, cell death was inhibited in wing clones lacking G protein or PKA function...
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    ..These data show that serotonin promotes baseline sleep in Drosophila. They also link the regulation of sleep behavior by serotonin to a specific receptor in a distinct region of the fly brain. ..