Gene Symbol: Pi3K68D
Description: Phosphotidylinositol 3 kinase 68D
Alias: 11621, BcDNA:LD15217, CG11621, Cpk, Dmel\CG11621, PI(3)K, PI3K, PI3K 68D, PI3K 68_D, PI3K-68D, PI3K-68D/E, PI3K68D, PI3K_68D, PI[[3]]K, Pi3K, cpk, dPI3K, dPI3k, dPIK, pi3k68d, phosphotidylinositol 3 kinase 68D, CG11621-PA, CG11621-PB, CG11621-PC, CG11621-PD, CG11621-PE, PI 3-kinase, PI3-kinase, Pi3K68D-PA, Pi3K68D-PB, Pi3K68D-PC, Pi3K68D-PD, Pi3K68D-PE, dPI 3-kinase
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. MacDougall L, Domin J, Waterfield M. A family of phosphoinositide 3-kinases in Drosophila identifies a new mediator of signal transduction. Curr Biol. 1995;5:1404-15 pubmed
    ..closely related to the prototypical PI 3-kinase, p110 alpha; PI3K_59F is homologous to Vps34p, whereas the third, PI3K_68D, is a novel PI 3-kinase which is widely expressed throughout the Drosophila life cycle...
  2. Ribeiro I, Yuan L, Tanentzapf G, Dowling J, Kiger A. Phosphoinositide regulation of integrin trafficking required for muscle attachment and maintenance. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001295 pubmed publisher
  3. Velichkova M, Juan J, Kadandale P, Jean S, Ribeiro I, Raman V, et al. Drosophila Mtm and class II PI3K coregulate a PI(3)P pool with cortical and endolysosomal functions. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:407-25 pubmed publisher
    ..3-phosphate (PI(3)P) pools generated by both class II and III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (Pi3K68D and Vps34, respectively) is needed to down-regulate membrane influx, promote efflux, and maintain endolysosomal ..
  4. MacDougall L, Gagou M, Leevers S, Hafen E, Waterfield M. Targeted expression of the class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase in Drosophila melanogaster reveals lipid kinase-dependent effects on patterning and interactions with receptor signaling pathways. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:796-808 pubmed
    ..Wild-type and catalytically inactive PI3K_68D transgenes have opposite effects on the number of sensory bristles and on wing venation phenotypes induced by ..
  5. Leopold P. Neuronal differentiation: TOR and insulin receptor pathways set the tempo. Cell. 2004;119:4-5 pubmed
    ..A recent study reveals a novel role for these pathways in controlling the timing of neuronal differentiation during Drosophila development, thus allowing a tight coordination between growth and differentiation programs. ..
  6. Wymann M, Pirola L. Structure and function of phosphoinositide 3-kinases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1436:127-50 pubmed
    ..Recent disruption of PI3K genes in slime mold, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and mice further underlines the importance of ..
  7. Chen Q, Das S, Visic P, Buford K, Zong Y, Buti W, et al. The drosophila T-box transcription factor midline functions within Insulin/Akt and c-Jun-N terminal kinase stress-reactive signaling pathways to regulate interommatial bristle formation and cell survival. Mech Dev. 2015;136:8-29 pubmed publisher
  8. Day S, Lawrence P. Measuring dimensions: the regulation of size and shape. Development. 2000;127:2977-87 pubmed
    ..We discuss a hypothesis that the local steepness of a morphogen gradient is a measure of length in one axis, a measure that is used to determine whether there will be net growth or not. ..
  9. Shiojima I, Walsh K. Regulation of cardiac growth and coronary angiogenesis by the Akt/PKB signaling pathway. Genes Dev. 2006;20:3347-65 pubmed
    ..How this signaling pathway contributes to the development of physiological/pathological hypertrophy and heart failure will also be discussed. ..

More Information


  1. Jorgensen P, Tyers M. How cells coordinate growth and division. Curr Biol. 2004;14:R1014-27 pubmed
    ..Recently, genetic screens in Drosophila and functional genomics approaches in yeast have macheted into the thicket of cell size control. ..
  2. Dickson B. Development. Wiring the brain with insulin. Science. 2003;300:440-1 pubmed
  3. Leevers S. Perspectives: cell biology. All creatures great and small. Science. 1999;285:2082-3 pubmed
  4. Powis K, MacDougall L. The localisation of PtdIns3P in Drosophila fat responds to nutrients but not insulin: a role for Class III but not Class II phosphoinositide 3-kinases. Cell Signal. 2011;23:1153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that both Class II and Class III PI3Ks are capable of generating PtdIns3P in vivo but the source of PtdIns3P in the fat body and the response to nutritional status can be exclusively accounted for by Class III PI3K activity.
  5. Kim S, Cho J, Kim K, Lee S, Lee K, Choi K. Drosophila PI3 kinase and Akt involved in insulin-stimulated proliferation and ERK pathway activation in Schneider cells. Cell Signal. 2004;16:1309-17 pubmed
    ..After insulin treatment, dPI3K and dAKT activities were both increased along with activation of the dERK pathway components dMEK and dERK...
  6. Hardie R. Phototransduction: shedding light on translocation. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R775-7 pubmed
    ..New work has identified a phosphoinositide lipid binding domain in Drosophila arrestin and implicates PIP(3) in control of arrestin translocation. ..
  7. Marygold S, Leevers S. Growth signaling: TSC takes its place. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R785-7 pubmed
    ..Several new studies suggest that TSC1-TSC2 does this by inhibiting TOR and S6 kinase, and that PI 3-kinase-Akt signaling relieves this inhibition. ..
  8. Vanhaesebroeck B, Leevers S, Panayotou G, Waterfield M. Phosphoinositide 3-kinases: a conserved family of signal transducers. Trends Biochem Sci. 1997;22:267-72 pubmed
    ..Potential signalling pathways downstream of PI3Ks have been elucidated and PI3K function is now being characterised in several model organisms.
  9. Gumienny T, Padgett R. A small issue addressed. Bioessays. 2003;25:305-8 pubmed
    ..elegans, the TGFbeta-like pathway acts in the hypodermis to regulate cell size and consequently body size.1 This finding is an exciting step in discovering the molecular mechanisms that control cell and body size. ..
  10. Gingras A, Raught B, Sonenberg N. Regulation of translation initiation by FRAP/mTOR. Genes Dev. 2001;15:807-26 pubmed
  11. Moser T, Jones R, Thompson C, Coyne C, Cherry S. A kinome RNAi screen identified AMPK as promoting poxvirus entry through the control of actin dynamics. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000954 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, AMPK plays a highly conserved role in poxvirus infection and actin dynamics independent of its role as an energy regulator. ..
  12. Pueyo J, Magny E, Sampson C, Amin U, Evans I, Bishop S, et al. Hemotin, a Regulator of Phagocytosis Encoded by a Small ORF and Conserved across Metazoans. PLoS Biol. 2016;14:e1002395 pubmed publisher
  13. Molz L, Chen Y, Hirano M, Williams L. Cpk is a novel class of Drosophila PtdIns 3-kinase containing a C2 domain. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:13892-9 pubmed
    ..We have isolated Drosophila and murine genes (termed cpk and cpk-m respectively) by polymerase chain reaction amplification of cDNA libraries with degenerate primers ..
  14. Leevers S, Weinkove D, MacDougall L, Hafen E, Waterfield M. The Drosophila phosphoinositide 3-kinase Dp110 promotes cell growth. EMBO J. 1996;15:6584-94 pubmed
    ..These data imply a role for Dp110 in growth control during Drosophila development and have implications for the function of class I PI3Ks in other organisms. ..
  15. Qin Q, Pei J, Ancona V, Shaw B, Ficht T, de Figueiredo P. RNAi screen of endoplasmic reticulum-associated host factors reveals a role for IRE1alpha in supporting Brucella replication. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000110 pubmed publisher
    ..After validating this system by demonstrating a shared requirement for phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activities in supporting Brucella infection in both host cell systems, we performed an RNAi screen of 240 genes, ..
  16. Wilson R, Leptin M. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-dependent morphogenesis of the Drosophila mesoderm. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2000;355:891-5 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the function of dof, which encodes a cytoplasmic protein required for FGF signal transduction may provide an insight into these issues. ..
  17. Tapon N, Moberg K, Hariharan I. The coupling of cell growth to the cell cycle. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2001;13:731-7 pubmed
    ..This work has revealed interesting and unexpected relationships between mechanisms that regulate growth and the cell cycle machinery. ..
  18. Lehner C. The beauty of small flies. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:E129-30 pubmed
  19. Rossi F, Gonzalez C. Synergism between altered cortical polarity and the PI3K/TOR pathway in the suppression of tumour growth. EMBO Rep. 2012;13:157-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The same effects are observed in well-fed pins larvae that are mutant for pi3k (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) or exposed to the TOR inhibitor rapamycin...
  20. Jean S, Cox S, Schmidt E, Robinson F, Kiger A. Sbf/MTMR13 coordinates PI(3)P and Rab21 regulation in endocytic control of cellular remodeling. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2723-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This identifies Sbf as a critical coordinator of PI(3)P and Rab21 regulation, which specifies an endosomal pathway and cortical control...
  21. Stambolic V, Mak T, Woodgett J. Modulation of cellular apoptotic potential: contributions to oncogenesis. Oncogene. 1999;18:6094-103 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the regulation and mechanisms by which PKB activation protects cells and the oncologic consequences of dysregulation of the pathway. ..
  22. Jacinto E, Hall M. Tor signalling in bugs, brain and brawn. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2003;4:117-26 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, TOR, by associating with regulatory proteins and inhibiting phosphatases, controls the activity of multiphosphorylated effectors. ..
  23. Delanoue R, Slaidina M, Leopold P. The steroid hormone ecdysone controls systemic growth by repressing dMyc function in Drosophila fat cells. Dev Cell. 2010;18:1012-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present work reveals an unexpected function of dMyc in the systemic control of growth in response to steroid hormone signaling. ..
  24. Britton J, Lockwood W, Li L, Cohen S, Edgar B. Drosophila's insulin/PI3-kinase pathway coordinates cellular metabolism with nutritional conditions. Dev Cell. 2002;2:239-49 pubmed
    Studies in Drosophila have characterized insulin receptor/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (Inr/PI3K) signaling as a potent regulator of cell growth, but its function during development has remained uncertain...
  25. Grewal S, Saucedo L. Chewing the fat; regulating autophagy in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2004;7:148-50 pubmed
    ..Two reports in this issue of Developmental Cell describe how both PI3 kinase and TOR signaling in Drosophila are critical for controlling autophagy in response to developmental and ..
  26. Willecke M, Toggweiler J, Basler K. Loss of PI3K blocks cell-cycle progression in a Drosophila tumor model. Oncogene. 2011;30:4067-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that reduction of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity resulted in very small tumors while only slightly affecting growth of wild-type tissue...
  27. Tang H, Smith Caldas M, Driscoll M, Salhadar S, Shingleton A. FOXO regulates organ-specific phenotypic plasticity in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002373 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the extent of phenotypic plasticity may be modified by changes in the expression of genes involved in signaling environmental information to developmental processes. ..