Gene Symbol: phol
Description: pleiohomeotic like
Alias: CG3445, Dmel\CG3445, PHOL, Phol, pleiohomeotic like, CG3445-PA, CG3445-PB, Pleiohomeotic-like, pho-like, phol-PA, phol-PB
Species: fruit fly
Products:     phol

Top Publications

  1. Wang L, Brown J, Cao R, Zhang Y, Kassis J, Jones R. Hierarchical recruitment of polycomb group silencing complexes. Mol Cell. 2004;14:637-46 pubmed a Polycomb response element (PRE) in proliferating cells in which the sequence-specific DNA binding Pho and Phol proteins directly recruit E(z)-containing complexes, which in turn methylate histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3mK27)...
  2. Klymenko T, Papp B, Fischle W, Kocher T, Schelder M, Fritsch C, et al. A Polycomb group protein complex with sequence-specific DNA-binding and selective methyl-lysine-binding activities. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1110-22 pubmed
    ..We propose that PRE-tethered PhoRC selectively interacts with methylated histones in the chromatin flanking PREs to maintain a Polycomb-repressed chromatin state. ..
  3. Brown J, Fritsch C, Mueller J, Kassis J. The Drosophila pho-like gene encodes a YY1-related DNA binding protein that is redundant with pleiohomeotic in homeotic gene silencing. Development. 2003;130:285-94 pubmed
    ..In contrast to Pho and Pho-like, removal of Trithorax-like/GAGA factor or Zeste, two other DNA-binding proteins implicated in PRE function, does not cause misexpression of homeotic genes or reporter genes in imaginal disks. ..
  4. Schuettengruber B, Ganapathi M, Leblanc B, Portoso M, Jaschek R, Tolhuis B, et al. Functional anatomy of polycomb and trithorax chromatin landscapes in Drosophila embryos. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e13 pubmed publisher
    ..silencing is the strong binding of Pleiohomeotic (PHO) to silenced regions, whereas its homolog Pleiohomeotic-like (PHOL) binds preferentially to active promoters...
  5. Calvo Martín J, Librado P, Aguadé M, Papaceit M, Segarra C. Adaptive selection and coevolution at the proteins of the Polycomb repressive complexes in Drosophila. Heredity (Edinb). 2016;116:213-23 pubmed publisher uniformly conserved, whereas only the established protein domains are conserved in other proteins, such as PHO, PHOL, PSC, PH-P and ASX...
  6. Kim S, Jung K, Chung H, Kim S, Jeon S. The pleiohomeotic gene is required for maintaining expression of genes functioning in ventral appendage formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2008;319:121-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These mutant phenotypes were enhanced in the mutant background of Posterior sex combs (Psc) and pleiohomeotic-like (phol), which are another PcG genes...
  7. Mason Suares H, Tie F, Yan C, Harte P. Polycomb silencing of the Drosophila 4E-BP gene regulates imaginal disc cell growth. Dev Biol. 2013;380:111-24 pubmed publisher
    ..motifs for transcription factors found in well-characterized Polycomb response elements (PREs), including PHO/PHOL, GAGA factor, and others, suggesting that Thor may be a direct target of Polycomb silencing...
  8. Fujioka M, Yusibova G, Zhou J, Jaynes J. The DNA-binding Polycomb-group protein Pleiohomeotic maintains both active and repressed transcriptional states through a single site. Development. 2008;135:4131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a DNA-binding complex requiring Pho is differentially regulated to facilitate epigenetic transcriptional memory of both the active and the repressed state. ..
  9. Huen D, Russell S. On the use of resampling tests for evaluating statistical significance of binding-site co-occurrence. BMC Bioinformatics. 2010;11:359 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe it can be usefully applied to data from high-throughput genome-wide techniques such as ChIP-chip or DamID. The Cooccur package, which implements our approach, accompanies this paper. ..

More Information


  1. Chen J, Nolte V, Schlötterer C. Temperature stress mediates decanalization and dominance of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1004883 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that decanalization of gene expression in stressful environments is not only central to adaptation, but may also contribute to genetic disorders in human populations. ..
  2. Lanzuolo C, Orlando V. Memories from the polycomb group proteins. Annu Rev Genet. 2012;46:561-89 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we focus on the multiple modes of action of the PcG complexes and describe their biological roles. ..
  3. Kahn T, Stenberg P, Pirrotta V, Schwartz Y. Combinatorial interactions are required for the efficient recruitment of pho repressive complex (PhoRC) to polycomb response elements. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004495 pubmed publisher
    ..Of all PcG complexes PhoRC is the only one that contains a sequence-specific DNA binding subunit (PHO or PHOL), which led to a model that places PhoRC at the base of the recruitment hierarchy...
  4. Harris R, Setiawan L, Saul J, Hariharan I. Localized epigenetic silencing of a damage-activated WNT enhancer limits regeneration in mature Drosophila imaginal discs. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Localized epigenetic silencing of damage-responsive enhancers can therefore restrict regenerative capacity in maturing organisms without compromising gene functions regulated by developmental signals. ..
  5. Grossniklaus U, Paro R. Transcriptional silencing by polycomb-group proteins. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2014;6:a019331 pubmed publisher
    ..PcG silencing is medically relevant as it is often observed in human disorders, including cancer, and tissue regeneration, which involve the reprogramming of PcG-controlled target genes. ..
  6. Enuameh M, Asriyan Y, Richards A, Christensen R, Hall V, Kazemian M, et al. Global analysis of Drosophila Cys?-His? zinc finger proteins reveals a multitude of novel recognition motifs and binding determinants. Genome Res. 2013;23:928-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These hybrids of natural and artificial fingers can be used to create functional zinc finger nucleases for editing vertebrate genomes. ..
  7. Takács S, Biessmann H, Reddy H, Mason J, Torok T. Protein interactions on telomeric retrotransposons in Drosophila. Int J Biol Sci. 2012;8:1055-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The TRF2/DREF complex may promote the open structure of HTT chromatin. The protein interactions controlling HTT chromatin structure and telomere length may be modulated by sumoylation. ..
  8. Morozova T, Ayroles J, Jordan K, Duncan L, Carbone M, Lyman R, et al. Alcohol sensitivity in Drosophila: translational potential of systems genetics. Genetics. 2009;183:733-45, 1SI-12SI pubmed publisher
  9. Savla U, Benes J, Zhang J, Jones R. Recruitment of Drosophila Polycomb-group proteins by Polycomblike, a component of a novel protein complex in larvae. Development. 2008;135:813-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The DNA-binding proteins Pho and/or Phol are required for target site binding by PRC2, which in turn is required for chromosome binding by PRC1...
  10. Bajusz I, Sipos L, Pirity M. Nucleotide substitutions revealing specific functions of Polycomb group genes. Mol Genet Metab. 2015;114:547-56 pubmed publisher