Gene Symbol: pho
Description: pleiohomeotic
Alias: CG17743, Dmel\CG17743, PHO, PHO/YY1, Pho, YY1, dYY1, l(4)102EFc, l(4)29, l(4)BU-2, l(4)OC-1, l(4)pho, pleiohomeotic, CG17743-PA, CG17743-PB, PHO, peiohomeotic, pho-PA, pho-PB, pleihomeotic, pleohomeotic, polyhomeotic
Species: fruit fly
Products:     pho

Top Publications

  1. Wang W, Thornton K, Berry A, Long M. Nucleotide variation along the Drosophila melanogaster fourth chromosome. Science. 2002;295:134-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, contrary to the expectation of no recombination, we identified six recombination events within the chromosome. Thus, positive Darwinian selection and recombination have affected the evolution of this chromosome...
  2. Bhatia S, Pawar H, Dasari V, Mishra R, Chandrashekaran S, Brahmachari V. Chromatin remodeling protein INO80 has a role in regulation of homeotic gene expression in Drosophila. Genes Cells. 2010;15:725-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila it has been shown that dINO80 forms a complex with Pleiohomeotic but does not interact with Hox PRE (polycomb responsive element)...
  3. Kennison J. The Polycomb and trithorax group proteins of Drosophila: trans-regulators of homeotic gene function. Annu Rev Genet. 1995;29:289-303 pubmed
    ..The ZESTE protein may help to activate transcription by bringing distant cis-regulatory elements closer to promoter-bound proteins. ..
  4. Breen T, Duncan I. Maternal expression of genes that regulate the bithorax complex of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1986;118:442-56 pubmed
    ..The available evidence indicates that genes within this group have functions that are not restricted to the regulation of genes that control segmental identity. ..
  5. Shimell M, Peterson A, Burr J, Simon J, O Connor M. Functional analysis of repressor binding sites in the iab-2 regulatory region of the abdominal-A homeotic gene. Dev Biol. 2000;218:38-52 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that this iab-2 enhancer contains multiple binding sites for the Polycomb group protein Pleiohomeotic (PHO)...
  6. Cunningham M, Brown J, Kassis J. Characterization of the polycomb group response elements of the Drosophila melanogaster invected Locus. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:820-8 pubmed publisher
    ..predict PREs and provide new insight into the DNA sequence requirements for the binding of the PcG protein Pho. Finally, our data show that PREs and regulatory DNA from different genes can function together to establish PcG-..
  7. O Connell S, Wang L, Robert S, Jones C, Saint R, Jones R. Polycomblike PHD fingers mediate conserved interaction with enhancer of zeste protein. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:43065-73 pubmed
    ..We discuss the implications of PCL association with ESC.E(Z) complexes and the possibility that PCL may either be a subunit of a subset of ESC.E(Z) complexes or a subunit of a separate complex that interacts with ESC.E(Z) complexes. ..
  8. Alfieri C, Gambetta M, Matos R, Glatt S, Sehr P, Fraterman S, et al. Structural basis for targeting the chromatin repressor Sfmbt to Polycomb response elements. Genes Dev. 2013;27:2367-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the crystal structure of the core of the Drosophila PcG protein complex Pleiohomeotic (Pho)-repressive complex (PhoRC), which contains the Polycomb response element (PRE)-binding protein Pho and ..
  9. Busturia A, Lloyd A, Bejarano F, Zavortink M, Xin H, Sakonju S. The MCP silencer of the Drosophila Abd-B gene requires both Pleiohomeotic and GAGA factor for the maintenance of repression. Development. 2001;128:2163-73 pubmed
    ..Within the MCP138 fragment, there are four binding sites for the Pleiohomeotic protein (PHO) and two binding sites for the GAGA factor (GAF), encoded by the Trithorax-like gene...

More Information


  1. Schuettengruber B, Ganapathi M, Leblanc B, Portoso M, Jaschek R, Tolhuis B, et al. Functional anatomy of polycomb and trithorax chromatin landscapes in Drosophila embryos. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e13 pubmed publisher
    ..One major discriminant between activation and silencing is the strong binding of Pleiohomeotic (PHO) to silenced regions, whereas its homolog Pleiohomeotic-like (PHOL) binds preferentially to active ..
  2. Papp B, Muller J. Histone trimethylation and the maintenance of transcriptional ON and OFF states by trxG and PcG proteins. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2041-54 pubmed
  3. Oktaba K, Gutierrez L, Gagneur J, Girardot C, Sengupta A, Furlong E, et al. Dynamic regulation by polycomb group protein complexes controls pattern formation and the cell cycle in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;15:877-89 pubmed publisher
    ..genome-wide binding profiles of PhoRC, the Drosophila PcG protein complex containing the DNA-binding factor Pho/dYY1 and dSfmbt...
  4. González I, Aparicio R, Busturia A. Functional characterization of the dRYBP gene in Drosophila. Genetics. 2008;179:1373-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the dRYBP protein interacts physically with the Sex comb extra and the Pleiohomeotic proteins, and the homeotic-like phenotypes produced by the high levels of the dRYBP protein are mediated ..
  5. Moazed D, O Farrell P. Maintenance of the engrailed expression pattern by Polycomb group genes in Drosophila. Development. 1992;116:805-10 pubmed
  6. Poux S, McCabe D, Pirrotta V. Recruitment of components of Polycomb Group chromatin complexes in Drosophila. Development. 2001;128:75-85 pubmed
    ..These proteins also interact with other PC-containing complexes in embryonic nuclear extracts. In contrast LexA-PHO is neither able to silence nor to interact with PC-containing complexes...
  7. Nekrasov M, Klymenko T, Fraterman S, Papp B, Oktaba K, Kocher T, et al. Pcl-PRC2 is needed to generate high levels of H3-K27 trimethylation at Polycomb target genes. EMBO J. 2007;26:4078-88 pubmed
    ..Pcl-PRC2 is thus the HMTase that generates the high levels of H3-K27 trimethylation in Polycomb target genes that are needed to maintain a Polycomb-repressed chromatin state. ..
  8. Brown J, Mucci D, Whiteley M, Dirksen M, Kassis J. The Drosophila Polycomb group gene pleiohomeotic encodes a DNA binding protein with homology to the transcription factor YY1. Mol Cell. 1998;1:1057-64 pubmed
    ..This protein (PHO) is a homolog of the ubiquitous mammalian transcription factor Yin Yang-1 and is encoded by pleiohomeotic, a known member of the PcG. We propose that PHO acts to anchor PcG protein complexes to DNA.
  9. Campbell R, Sinclair D, Couling M, Brock H. Genetic interactions and dosage effects of Polycomb group genes of Drosophila. Mol Gen Genet. 1995;246:291-300 pubmed
    ..Flies with increasing doses of esc+ exhibit anterior transformations, but these are not enhanced by mutations in trithorax group genes. The results are discussed with respect to current models of Pc group function. ..
  10. Fujioka M, Yusibova G, Zhou J, Jaynes J. The DNA-binding Polycomb-group protein Pleiohomeotic maintains both active and repressed transcriptional states through a single site. Development. 2008;135:4131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..dissection revealed that silencing activity depends on a binding site for the Polycomb-group protein Pleiohomeotic (Pho) and on pho gene function...
  11. Scheuermann J, de Ayala Alonso A, Oktaba K, Ly Hartig N, McGinty R, Fraterman S, et al. Histone H2A deubiquitinase activity of the Polycomb repressive complex PR-DUB. Nature. 2010;465:243-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Polycomb gene silencing may thus entail a dynamic balance between H2A ubiquitination by PRC1 and dRAF, and H2A deubiquitination by PR-DUB. ..
  12. Atchison L, Ghias A, Wilkinson F, Bonini N, Atchison M. Transcription factor YY1 functions as a PcG protein in vivo. EMBO J. 2003;22:1347-58 pubmed
    ..binding protein and transcriptional repressor, YY1, shows sequence homology with the Drosophila PcG protein, pleiohomeotic (PHO). YY1 might therefore be a vertebrate PcG protein...
  13. Muller M, Hagstrom K, Gyurkovics H, Pirrotta V, Schedl P. The mcp element from the Drosophila melanogaster bithorax complex mediates long-distance regulatory interactions. Genetics. 1999;153:1333-56 pubmed
    ..Finally, this pairing element can also mediate long-distance interactions between enhancers and promoters, activating mini-white expression. ..
  14. Simon J, Chiang A, Bender W. Ten different Polycomb group genes are required for spatial control of the abdA and AbdB homeotic products. Development. 1992;114:493-505 pubmed
    ..Scm), Polycomb-like (Pcl), Sex comb extra (Sce), Additional sex combs (Asx), Posterior sex combs (Psc) and pleiohomeotic (pho) were examined...
  15. Wilkinson F, Pratt H, Atchison M. PcG recruitment by the YY1 REPO domain can be mediated by Yaf2. J Cell Biochem. 2010;109:478-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcription factor YY1 is a functional ortholog of a Drosophila PcG protein, Pleiohomeotic (PHO), one of the few PcG proteins with specific DNA binding capability, and YY1 can recruit PcG proteins to ..
  16. Lanzuolo C, Orlando V. Memories from the polycomb group proteins. Annu Rev Genet. 2012;46:561-89 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we focus on the multiple modes of action of the PcG complexes and describe their biological roles. ..
  17. Fritsch C, Brown J, Kassis J, Muller J. The DNA-binding polycomb group protein pleiohomeotic mediates silencing of a Drosophila homeotic gene. Development. 1999;126:3905-13 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the Drosophila PcG protein Pleiohomeotic binds to specific sites in a silencer of the homeotic gene Ultrabithorax...
  18. Mohd Sarip A, van der Knaap J, Wyman C, Kanaar R, Schedl P, Verrijzer C. Architecture of a polycomb nucleoprotein complex. Mol Cell. 2006;24:91-100 pubmed
    ..Within PREs, Pleiohomeotic (PHO) binding sites and juxtaposed Pc binding elements (PBEs) function as an integrated DNA platform for the ..
  19. Strübbe G, Popp C, Schmidt A, Pauli A, Ringrose L, Beisel C, et al. Polycomb purification by in vivo biotinylation tagging reveals cohesin and Trithorax group proteins as interaction partners. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5572-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our analysis revealed an association of PcG protein complexes with the cohesin complex and showed that Polycomb-dependent silencing of a transgenic reporter depends on cohesin function. ..
  20. Wang L, Jahren N, Miller E, Ketel C, Mallin D, Simon J. Comparative analysis of chromatin binding by Sex Comb on Midleg (SCM) and other polycomb group repressors at a Drosophila Hox gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2584-93 pubmed publisher
    ..response element (PRE) upstream of the Ubx gene which also binds PRC1, PRC2, and the DNA-binding PcG protein Pleiohomeotic (PHO)...
  21. Gambetta M, Oktaba K, Muller J. Essential role of the glycosyltransferase sxc/Ogt in polycomb repression. Science. 2009;325:93-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Among different Polycomb group proteins, Polyhomeotic is glycosylated by Sxc/Ogt in vivo...
  22. Mohd Sarip A, Venturini F, Chalkley G, Verrijzer C. Pleiohomeotic can link polycomb to DNA and mediate transcriptional repression. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:7473-83 pubmed
    ..However, the mechanism by which they are targeted to PREs remains largely unclear. Pleiohomeotic (PHO) is a sequence-specific DNA-binding PcG protein and therefore may function to tether other PcG proteins ..
  23. Breiling A, O Neill L, D Eliseo D, Turner B, Orlando V. Epigenome changes in active and inactive polycomb-group-controlled regions. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:976-82 pubmed
    ..These PcG-specific repressive marks are maintained by the action of the E(z) HMT, an enzyme that has an important role not only in establishing but also in maintaining PcG repression. ..
  24. Wilkinson F, Park K, Atchison M. Polycomb recruitment to DNA in vivo by the YY1 REPO domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19296-301 pubmed
    ..However, the mechanism of PcG recruitment to specific DNA sequences is poorly understood. Transcription factor YY1 is one of the few PcG proteins with sequence-specific DNA binding activity...
  25. Blastyak A, Mishra R, Karch F, Gyurkovics H. Efficient and specific targeting of Polycomb group proteins requires cooperative interaction between Grainyhead and Pleiohomeotic. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1434-44 pubmed
    ..Grainyhead binds to this element in vitro. Moreover, grainyhead interacts genetically with pleiohomeotic in a transgene-based, pairing-dependent silencing assay...
  26. Beisel C, Buness A, Roustan Espinosa I, Koch B, Schmitt S, Haas S, et al. Comparing active and repressed expression states of genes controlled by the Polycomb/Trithorax group proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16615-20 pubmed
    ..indicate the colocalization of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) with Trx and the DNA binding protein Pleiohomeotic (Pho) at discrete sequence elements as well as significant chromatin assembly differences in active and ..
  27. Sing A, Pannell D, Karaiskakis A, Sturgeon K, Djabali M, Ellis J, et al. A vertebrate Polycomb response element governs segmentation of the posterior hindbrain. Cell. 2009;138:885-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we provide evidence that similar to invertebrates, PREs act as entry sites for PcG/trxG chromatin remodeling in vertebrates. ..
  28. Mihaly J, Mishra R, Karch F. A conserved sequence motif in Polycomb-response elements. Mol Cell. 1998;1:1065-6 pubmed
  29. Klymenko T, Papp B, Fischle W, Kocher T, Schelder M, Fritsch C, et al. A Polycomb group protein complex with sequence-specific DNA-binding and selective methyl-lysine-binding activities. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1110-22 pubmed
    ..Among the many PcG proteins known in Drosophila, Pho is the only sequence-specific DNA-binding protein...
  30. Mishra R, Mihaly J, Barges S, Spierer A, Karch F, Hagstrom K, et al. The iab-7 polycomb response element maps to a nucleosome-free region of chromatin and requires both GAGA and pleiohomeotic for silencing activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:1311-8 pubmed
    ..sites for the GAGA factor, a protein implicated in the formation of nucleosome-free regions of chromatin, and Pleiohomeotic (Pho), a Polycomb group protein that is related to the mammalian transcription factor YY1...
  31. Wang L, Brown J, Cao R, Zhang Y, Kassis J, Jones R. Hierarchical recruitment of polycomb group silencing complexes. Mol Cell. 2004;14:637-46 pubmed
    ..PcG proteins at a Polycomb response element (PRE) in proliferating cells in which the sequence-specific DNA binding Pho and Phol proteins directly recruit E(z)-containing complexes, which in turn methylate histone H3 at lysine 27 (..
  32. Americo J, Whiteley M, Brown J, Fujioka M, Jaynes J, Kassis J. A complex array of DNA-binding proteins required for pairing-sensitive silencing by a polycomb group response element from the Drosophila engrailed gene. Genetics. 2002;160:1561-71 pubmed
    ..One of the required sites is for the Polycomb group protein Pleiohomeotic and another is GAGAG, a sequence bound by the proteins GAGA factor and Pipsqueak...
  33. Mahmoudi T, Zuijderduijn L, Mohd Sarip A, Verrijzer C. GAGA facilitates binding of Pleiohomeotic to a chromatinized Polycomb response element. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:4147-56 pubmed
    ..Genetic studies have indicated a synergistic requirement for the trxG protein GAGA and the PcG protein Pleiohomeotic (PHO) in silencing at several PREs. However, the molecular basis of this cooperation remains unknown...
  34. Mohd Sarip A, Cléard F, Mishra R, Karch F, Verrijzer C. Synergistic recognition of an epigenetic DNA element by Pleiohomeotic and a Polycomb core complex. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1755-60 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that Pleiohomeotic (PHO) and a multiprotein Polycomb core complex (PCC) bind highly cooperatively to PREs...
  35. Shu J, Li Y. A statistical fat-tail test of predicting regulatory regions in the Drosophila genome. Comput Biol Med. 2012;42:935-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These two fatness coefficients may serve as valuable filtering indexes to predict CRMs experimentally. ..
  36. Fanti L, Perrini B, Piacentini L, Berloco M, Marchetti E, Palumbo G, et al. The trithorax group and Pc group proteins are differentially involved in heterochromatin formation in Drosophila. Chromosoma. 2008;117:25-39 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that trx-G proteins, along with some Pc-G proteins, play an active role in heterochromatin formation in Drosophila. ..
  37. Cavalli G, Paro R. Epigenetic inheritance of active chromatin after removal of the main transactivator. Science. 1999;286:955-8 pubmed
    ..This feature may allow epigenetic maintenance of active states of developmental genes after decay of their early embryonic regulators. ..
  38. Follmer N, Wani A, Francis N. A polycomb group protein is retained at specific sites on chromatin in mitosis. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003135 pubmed publisher
  39. Grimm C, Matos R, Ly Hartig N, Steuerwald U, Lindner D, Rybin V, et al. Molecular recognition of histone lysine methylation by the Polycomb group repressor dSfmbt. EMBO J. 2009;28:1965-77 pubmed publisher
  40. Poux S, Melfi R, Pirrotta V. Establishment of Polycomb silencing requires a transient interaction between PC and ESC. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2509-14 pubmed
    ..In early embryonic extracts, we find PC transiently associated with ESC in a complex that includes EZ, PHO, PH, GAGA, and RPD3 but not PSC...
  41. Girton J, Jeon S. Novel embryonic and adult homeotic phenotypes are produced by pleiohomeotic mutations in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1994;161:393-407 pubmed
    We have investigated the effects of mutations of the pleiohomeotic (pho) locus (formerly called l(4)29) on embryonic and adult development of Drosophila melanogaster...
  42. Brown J, Fritsch C, Mueller J, Kassis J. The Drosophila pho-like gene encodes a YY1-related DNA binding protein that is redundant with pleiohomeotic in homeotic gene silencing. Development. 2003;130:285-94 pubmed
    ..This repression depends on cis-acting silencer sequences, called Polycomb group response elements (PREs). Pleiohomeotic (Pho), the only known sequence-specific DNA-binding PcG protein, binds to PREs but pho mutants show only mild ..
  43. Brown J, Kassis J. Spps, a Drosophila Sp1/KLF family member, binds to PREs and is required for PRE activity late in development. Development. 2010;137:2597-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the Spps mutation enhances the phenotype of pho mutants. We suggest that Spps may work with, or in parallel to, Pho to recruit PcG protein complexes to PREs.
  44. Bejarano F, Busturia A. Function of the Trithorax-like gene during Drosophila development. Dev Biol. 2004;268:327-41 pubmed
    ..We also suggest that GAGA factor may not have a dual activator/repressor function. Rather, Trithorax-like mutations may produce dual loss of activation and loss of repression effects. ..
  45. Grossniklaus U, Paro R. Transcriptional silencing by polycomb-group proteins. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2014;6:a019331 pubmed publisher
    ..PcG silencing is medically relevant as it is often observed in human disorders, including cancer, and tissue regeneration, which involve the reprogramming of PcG-controlled target genes. ..
  46. Cheng N, Sinclair D, Campbell R, Brock H. Interactions of polyhomeotic with Polycomb group genes of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1994;138:1151-62 pubmed
    ..Recently, it was shown that polyhomeotic (ph) immunoprecipitates in a multimeric complex that includes Pc...
  47. Kahn T, Stenberg P, Pirrotta V, Schwartz Y. Combinatorial interactions are required for the efficient recruitment of pho repressive complex (PhoRC) to polycomb response elements. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004495 pubmed publisher
    ..Of all PcG complexes PhoRC is the only one that contains a sequence-specific DNA binding subunit (PHO or PHOL), which led to a model that places PhoRC at the base of the recruitment hierarchy...
  48. Adler P, Martin E, Charlton J, Jones K. Phenotypic consequences and genetic interactions of a null mutation in the Drosophila Posterior Sex Combs gene. Dev Genet. 1991;12:349-61 pubmed
    ..The differences in the phenotypes of the doubly mutant embryos allow us to eliminate one class of molecular models to explain the dramatic synergism seen with mutations in this group of genes. ..
  49. Harvey R, Schuster E, Jennings B. Pleiohomeotic interacts with the core transcription elongation factor Spt5 to regulate gene expression in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70184 pubmed publisher
    ..that Drosophila Spt5 interacts both physically and genetically with the Polycomb Group (PcG) protein Pleiohomeotic (Pho), and the majority of Pho binding sites overlap with Spt5 binding sites across the genome in S2 cells...
  50. van Lohuizen M. The trithorax-group and polycomb-group chromatin modifiers: implications for disease. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:355-61 pubmed
    ..This is illustrated by recent mechanistic insights that link Polycomb repression with histone deacetylases and the identification of new target genes that provide a connection to cell cycle control and tumorigenesis. ..
  51. Hirose F, Ohshima N, Shiraki M, Inoue Y, Taguchi O, Nishi Y, et al. Ectopic expression of DREF induces DNA synthesis, apoptosis, and unusual morphogenesis in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc: possible interaction with Polycomb and trithorax group proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:7231-42 pubmed
    ..These deletions should be useful to identify novel targets of DREF and its positive or negative regulators. ..
  52. Akan I, Love D, Harwood K, Bond M, Hanover J. Drosophila O-GlcNAcase Deletion Globally Perturbs Chromatin O-GlcNAcylation. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:9906-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the loss of OGA in Drosophila globally impacts the epigenetic machinery allowing O-GlcNAc accumulation on RNA polymerase II and numerous chromatin factors including TRX, ASH1, and SET1. ..
  53. Simon J. Locking in stable states of gene expression: transcriptional control during Drosophila development. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1995;7:376-85 pubmed
  54. Duchow H, Brechbiel J, Chatterjee S, Gavis E. The nanos translational control element represses translation in somatic cells by a Bearded box-like motif. Dev Biol. 2005;282:207-17 pubmed
    ..In addition, we identify pleiohomeotic mRNA as an endogenous candidate for regulation by Bearded box-like motifs in the dorsal pouch...
  55. Taillebourg E, Dura J. A novel mechanism for P element homing in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6856-61 pubmed
    ..However, P elements containing regulatory sequences from Drosophila engrailed and polyhomeotic genes and from the Bithorax and Antennapedia complexes show some insertional specificity by frequently ..
  56. Kim S, Shim H, Jeon B, Choi W, Hur M, Girton J, et al. The pleiohomeotic functions as a negative regulator of Drosophila even-skipped gene during embryogenesis. Mol Cells. 2011;32:549-54 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the PcG proteins, Pleiohomeotic (Pho), which has a zinc finger DNA binding protein, plays a critical role in recruiting other PcG proteins to ..
  57. Enuameh M, Asriyan Y, Richards A, Christensen R, Hall V, Kazemian M, et al. Global analysis of Drosophila Cys?-His? zinc finger proteins reveals a multitude of novel recognition motifs and binding determinants. Genome Res. 2013;23:928-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These hybrids of natural and artificial fingers can be used to create functional zinc finger nucleases for editing vertebrate genomes. ..
  58. Locke J, Podemski L, Aippersbach N, Kemp H, Hodgetts R. A physical map of the polytenized region (101EF-102F) of chromosome 4 in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2000;155:1175-83 pubmed
    ..A minimal tiling set of the clones we have mapped will facilitate both the assembly of the DNA sequence of the chromosome and a functional analysis of its genes. ..
  59. Fu W, Duan H, Frei E, Noll M. shaven and sparkling are mutations in separate enhancers of the Drosophila Pax2 homolog. Development. 1998;125:2943-50 pubmed
    ..The sv function of D-Pax2 acts in at least two distinct steps of mechanosensory bristle development: the specification of the alternative fate of shaft as opposed to socket cell, and later the differentiation of the shaft cell. ..
  60. Santamaria P. Genesis versus epigenesis: the odd jobs of the Polycomb group of genes. Int J Dev Biol. 1998;42:463-9 pubmed
    ..I argue that spatial modulation of the multimeric complexes formed by PcG products has played a role or escorted the genesis of species. ..
  61. Adewoye A, Kyriacou C, Tauber E. Identification and functional analysis of early gene expression induced by circadian light-resetting in Drosophila. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:570 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis suggests multiple domains and pathways that might be associated with light entrainment, including a mechanism that was represented by a light-activated set of chromatin remodelling genes. ..