Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: PGRP-SA
Description: Peptidoglycan recognition protein SA
Alias: BcDNA:AT30827, CG11709, Dm PGRP-SA, Dmel\CG11709, SEMMELWEIS, pgrp-sa, seml, peptidoglycan recognition protein SA, CG11709-PA, CG11709-PB, PG recognition Protein-SA, PGRP-SA-PA, PGRP-SA-PB, Peptidoglycan-recognition protein-SA precursor, peptidoglycan recognition protein-SA, protein semmelweis, semmelweis, semmelweiss
Species: fruit fly
- Werner T, Liu G, Kang D, Ekengren S, Steiner H, Hultmark D. A family of peptidoglycan recognition proteins in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13772-7 pubmed..We demonstrate that at least PGRP-SA and SC1B can bind peptidoglycan, and a function in immunity is likely for this family. ..
- Atilano M, Yates J, Glittenberg M, Filipe S, Ligoxygakis P. Wall teichoic acids of Staphylococcus aureus limit recognition by the drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein-SA to promote pathogenicity. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002421 pubmed publisher..We propose that different PGRPs work in concert to counter this strategy. ..
- Hoffmann J. The immune response of Drosophila. Nature. 2003;426:33-8 pubmed..Recent progress in research on Drosophila immune defence provides evidence for similarities and differences between Drosophila immune responses and mammalian innate immunity. ..
- Kambris Z, Brun S, Jang I, Nam H, Romeo Y, Takahashi K, et al. Drosophila immunity: a large-scale in vivo RNAi screen identifies five serine proteases required for Toll activation. Curr Biol. 2006;16:808-13 pubmed..These results demonstrate the existence of a common cascade of SPs upstream of Spz, integrating signals sent by various secreted recognition molecules via more specialized SPs. ..
- Garver L, Wu J, Wu L. The peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-SC1a is essential for Toll signaling and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:660-5 pubmed
- Chang C, Pili Floury S, Hervé M, Parquet C, Chelliah Y, Lemaitre B, et al. A Drosophila pattern recognition receptor contains a peptidoglycan docking groove and unusual L,D-carboxypeptidase activity. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E277 pubmedThe Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA) is critically involved in sensing bacterial infection and activating the Toll signaling pathway, which induces the expression of specific antimicrobial peptide genes...
- Bischoff V, Vignal C, Boneca I, Michel T, Hoffmann J, Royet J. Function of the drosophila pattern-recognition receptor PGRP-SD in the detection of Gram-positive bacteria. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:1175-80 pubmed..These data indicate that PGRP-SD can function as a receptor for Gram-positive bacteria and shows partial redundancy with the PGRP-SA-GNBP1 complex. ..
- Leone P, Bischoff V, Kellenberger C, Hetru C, Royet J, Roussel A. Crystal structure of Drosophila PGRP-SD suggests binding to DAP-type but not lysine-type peptidoglycan. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:2521-30 pubmed publisher..Our hypothesis is that the role of PGRP-SD is the recognition of DAP-type PGNs responsible for the activation of the Toll pathway by Gram-negative bacteria. ..
- Wang L, Gilbert R, Atilano M, Filipe S, Gay N, Ligoxygakis P. Peptidoglycan recognition protein-SD provides versatility of receptor formation in Drosophila immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11881-6 pubmed publisher..of the glucan binding protein GNBP1 is needed to present Gram-positive peptidoglycan (PG) to peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA)...
- Pelte N, Robertson A, Zou Z, Belorgey D, Dafforn T, Jiang H, et al. Immune challenge induces N-terminal cleavage of the Drosophila serpin Necrotic. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;36:37-46 pubmed..This modification is blocked in PGRP-SA(semmelweiss) mutants after Gram-positive bacterial challenge and in persephone mutants after fungal or Gram-positive ..
- Gottar M, Gobert V, Michel T, Belvin M, Duyk G, Hoffmann J, et al. The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature. 2002;416:640-4 pubmed..The data on PGRP-SA with respect to the response to Gram-positive infections, together with the present report, indicate that the PGRP family has a principal role in sensing microbial infections in Drosophila. ..
- Takehana A, Yano T, Mita S, Kotani A, Oshima Y, Kurata S. Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-LE and PGRP-LC act synergistically in Drosophila immunity. EMBO J. 2004;23:4690-700 pubmed..A role for PGRP-LE in the epithelial induction of antimicrobial peptides is also suggested. ..
- Pili Floury S, Leulier F, Takahashi K, Saigo K, Samain E, Ueda R, et al. In vivo RNA interference analysis reveals an unexpected role for GNBP1 in the defense against Gram-positive bacterial infection in Drosophila adults. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12848-53 pubmed..Altogether, our results demonstrate that the detection of Gram-positive bacteria in Drosophila requires two putative pattern recognition receptors, PGRP-SA and GNBP1. ..
- Gobert V, Gottar M, Matskevich A, Rutschmann S, Royet J, Belvin M, et al. Dual activation of the Drosophila toll pathway by two pattern recognition receptors. Science. 2003;302:2126-30 pubmed..defense against Gram-positive bacterial infections in Drosophila is mediated through the peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA)...
- Buchon N, Poidevin M, Kwon H, Guillou A, Sottas V, Lee B, et al. A single modular serine protease integrates signals from pattern-recognition receptors upstream of the Drosophila Toll pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12442-7 pubmed publisher..It also reveals the conserved role of modular serine proteases in the activation of insect immune reactions. ..
- Lee J, Edery I. Circadian regulation in the ability of Drosophila to combat pathogenic infections. Curr Biol. 2008;18:195-9 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that medical intervention strategies incorporating chronobiological considerations could enhance the innate immune response, boosting the efficacy of combating pathogenic infections. ..
- Jiggins F, Hurst G. The evolution of parasite recognition genes in the innate immune system: purifying selection on Drosophila melanogaster peptidoglycan recognition proteins. J Mol Evol. 2003;57:598-605 pubmed publisher..Therefore, interactions between these genes are unlikely to be the focus of host-parasite coevolution, at least in Drosophila. We also found evidence of gene conversion occurring between two genes, PGRP-SC1A and PGRP-SC1B...
- Janssens S, Beyaert R. Role of Toll-like receptors in pathogen recognition. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003;16:637-46 pubmed..The fact that TLR expression is regulated in both a cell type- and stimulus-dependent fashion further contributes to the complexity. ..
- Davis M, Primrose D, Hodgetts R. A member of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase family is responsible for transcriptional induction of Dopa decarboxylase in the epidermis of Drosophila melanogaster during the innate immune response. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4883-95 pubmed publisher..We propose that the involvement of DDC in a new pathway involved in Drosophila immunity increases the levels of dopamine, which is metabolized to produce reactive quinones that exert an antimicrobial effect on invading bacteria. ..
- Akira S, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O. Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell. 2006;124:783-801 pubmed..New insights into innate immunity are changing the way we think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity. ..
- Aymeric J, Givaudan A, Duvic B. Imd pathway is involved in the interaction of Drosophila melanogaster with the entomopathogenic bacteria, Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:2342-8 pubmed publisher..coli-induced protection. However, phoP recovered a level of pathogenicity comparable to P. luminescens wild-type TT01 when injected to Drosophila flies affected on the imd pathway. ..
- Bou Aoun R, Hetru C, Troxler L, Doucet D, Ferrandon D, Matt N. Analysis of thioester-containing proteins during the innate immune response of Drosophila melanogaster. J Innate Immun. 2011;3:52-64 pubmed publisher..TEPs may thus provide a subtle selective advantage during evolution. Alternatively, they may be required in host defense against specific as yet unidentified natural pathogens of Drosophila. ..
- Geuking P, Narasimamurthy R, Lemaitre B, Basler K, Leulier F. A non-redundant role for Drosophila Mkk4 and hemipterous/Mkk7 in TAK1-mediated activation of JNK. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7709 pubmed publisher..In contrast to mammals, it seems that in Drosophila both MAPKKs, Hep/Mkk7 and Mkk4, are required to induce JNK upon TNF or pro-inflammatory stimulation. ..
- Underhill D. Toll gets tied in a knot. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:723-4 pubmed
- Tsai C, McGraw E, Ammar E, Dietzgen R, Hogenhout S. Drosophila melanogaster mounts a unique immune response to the Rhabdovirus sigma virus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:3251-6 pubmed publisher..These results highlight shared and unique aspects of the Drosophila immune response to the three viruses and may shed light on the nature of the interaction with the host and the evolution of these associations. ..
- Kwiatkowski D. The complexity of genetic variation in a simple immune system. Trends Genet. 2005;21:197-9 pubmed..However, the effects of individual polymorphisms on the resistance phenotype were modest, and epistatic interactions appeared to be common. What might these findings tell us about genetic resistance to infection in humans? ..
- Reiser J, Teyton L, Wilson I. Crystal structure of the Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-SA at 1.56 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 2004;340:909-17 pubmed
- Atilano M, Pereira P, Vaz F, Catal o M, Reed P, Grilo I, et al. Bacterial autolysins trim cell surface peptidoglycan to prevent detection by the Drosophila innate immune system. elife. 2014;3:e02277 pubmed publisher..DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02277.001...
- Fullaondo A, Garcia Sanchez S, Sanz Parra A, Recio E, Lee S, Gubb D. Spn1 regulates the GNBP3-dependent Toll signaling pathway in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2960-72 pubmed publisher..Spn1 null mutants show altered susceptibility to fungal infection compared to the wild type, demonstrating a requirement for Spn1 in the fine regulation of the immune response. ..
- Reed P, Atilano M, Alves R, Hoiczyk E, Sher X, Reichmann N, et al. Staphylococcus aureus Survives with a Minimal Peptidoglycan Synthesis Machine but Sacrifices Virulence and Antibiotic Resistance. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1004891 pubmed publisher..aureus. However a complex molecular machine is important in environments other than in vitro growth as the expendable PG synthesis enzymes play an important role in the pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus. ..
- Doroszuk A, Jonker M, Pul N, Breit T, Zwaan B. Transcriptome analysis of a long-lived natural Drosophila variant: a prominent role of stress- and reproduction-genes in lifespan extension. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:167 pubmed publisher..The results suggest that natural genetic variation for SR and lifespan can operate through similar transcriptional mechanisms as those of dietary restriction and life-extending mutations. ..
- El Chamy L, Leclerc V, Caldelari I, Reichhart J. Sensing of 'danger signals' and pathogen-associated molecular patterns defines binary signaling pathways 'upstream' of Toll. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1165-70 pubmed publisher..Hence, Persephone defines a parallel proteolytic cascade activated by 'danger signals' such as abnormal proteolytic activities. ..
- Park J, Kim C, Kim J, Je B, Roh K, Kim S, et al. Clustering of peptidoglycan recognition protein-SA is required for sensing lysine-type peptidoglycan in insects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:6602-7 pubmed
- Bidla G, Dushay M, Theopold U. Crystal cell rupture after injury in Drosophila requires the JNK pathway, small GTPases and the TNF homolog Eiger. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1209-15 pubmed..Our results provide a more comprehensive view of immune signal transduction pathways, with implications for immune reactions where cell death is used as a terminal mode of cell activation. ..
- Mellroth P, Karlsson J, Håkansson J, Schultz N, Goldman W, Steiner H. Ligand-induced dimerization of Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition proteins in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:6455-60 pubmed..Instead, PGRP-LCa can form heterodimers with LCx when the latter is bound to monomeric peptidoglycan. Hence, PGRP-LCa can be said to function as an adaptor, thus adding a new function to a member of the PGRP family. ..
- Govind S, Nehm R. Innate immunity in fruit flies: a textbook example of genomic recycling. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E276 pubmed
- Khush R, Leulier F, Lemaitre B. Immunology. Pathogen surveillance--the flies have it. Science. 2002;296:273-5 pubmed
- Kaisho T, Akira S. Bug detectors. Nature. 2001;414:701-3 pubmed
- Hill Burns E, Clark A. X-linked variation in immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2009;183:1477-91 pubmed publisher..Many of the associations act in a sex-specific or sexually antagonistic manner, supporting the theory that with the selective pressures facing genes on the X chromosome, sexually antagonistic variation may be more easily maintained. ..
- Tang H, Kambris Z, Lemaitre B, Hashimoto C. A serpin that regulates immune melanization in the respiratory system of Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;15:617-26 pubmed publisher..Such signaling between local and systemic immune responses could represent an alarm mechanism that prepares the host in case a pathogen breaches epithelial defenses to invade internal tissues. ..
- Wagner C, Isermann K, Fehrenbach H, Roeder T. Molecular architecture of the fruit fly's airway epithelial immune system. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:446 pubmed publisher..This architecture will allow reacting if confronted with different bacterial or fungal elicitors by activation of a multitude of effectors. ..
- Nehme N, Quintin J, Cho J, Lee J, Lafarge M, Kocks C, et al. Relative roles of the cellular and humoral responses in the Drosophila host defense against three gram-positive bacterial infections. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14743 pubmed publisher..However, it is less clear to what extent macrophage-like hemocytes contribute to host defense...
- Schmidt R, Rinaldo F, Hesse S, Hamada M, Ortiz Z, Beleford D, et al. Cleavage of PGRP-LC receptor in the Drosophila IMD pathway in response to live bacterial infection in S2 cells. Self Nonself. 2011;2:125-141 pubmed