Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: PGRP-LC
Description: Peptidoglycan recognition protein LC
Alias: (PGRP)-LC, CG4432, Dm PGRP-LC, Dmel\CG4432, PGRP-LCa, PGRP-LCx, PGRPLC, Pgrp-LC, ird7, pgrp-lc, tot, CG4432-PA, CG4432-PB, CG4432-PC, CG4432-PD, CG4432-PE, CG4432-PG, CG4432-PH, PGRP-LC-PA, PGRP-LC-PB, PGRP-LC-PC, PGRP-LC-PD, PGRP-LC-PE, PGRP-LC-PG, PGRP-LC-PH, Peptidoglycan-recognition protein-LC, immune response deficient 7, peptidoglycan recognition protein LC, totem
Species: fruit fly
- Ligand-induced dimerization of Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition proteins in vitroPeter Mellroth
Department of Genetics, Microbiology, and Toxicology, University of Stockholm, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:6455-60. 2005..Instead, PGRP-LCa can form heterodimers with LCx when the latter is bound to monomeric peptidoglycan. Hence, PGRP-LCa can be said to function as an adaptor, thus adding a new function to a member of the PGRP family...
- Eater, a transmembrane protein mediating phagocytosis of bacterial pathogens in DrosophilaChristine Kocks
Laboratory of Developmental Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
Cell 123:335-46. 2005..Our results suggest that Eater is a major phagocytic receptor for a broad range of bacterial pathogens in Drosophila and provide a powerful model to address the role of phagocytosis in vivo...
- PGRP-LC and PGRP-LE have essential yet distinct functions in the drosophila immune response to monomeric DAP-type peptidoglycanTakashi Kaneko
Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
Nat Immunol 7:715-23. 2006..These data demonstrate that like mammals, drosophila use both extracellular and intracellular receptors, which have conserved signaling mechanisms, for innate immune recognition...
- A family of peptidoglycan recognition proteins in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogasterT Werner
Umea Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis, Umea University, S 901 87 Umea, Sweden
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:13772-7. 2000..We demonstrate that at least PGRP-SA and SC1B can bind peptidoglycan, and a function in immunity is likely for this family...
- Infection-induced proteolysis of PGRP-LC controls the IMD activation and melanization cascades in DrosophilaRebecca L Schmidt
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905 USA
FASEB J 22:918-29. 2008....
- Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-LE and PGRP-LC act synergistically in Drosophila immunityAya Takehana
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Sendai, Japan
EMBO J 23:4690-700. 2004..A role for PGRP-LE in the epithelial induction of antimicrobial peptides is also suggested...
- Caspar, a suppressor of antibacterial immunity in DrosophilaMyungjin Kim
National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Cell Growth Regulation and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373 1 Kusong Dong, Yusong, Taejon 305 701, Korea
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:16358-63. 2006..Collectively, our elucidation of an inhibitory mechanism of the Imd pathway by Caspar will provide a valuable insight into understanding complex regulatory mechanisms of the innate immune systems in both Drosophila and mammals...
- Monomeric and polymeric gram-negative peptidoglycan but not purified LPS stimulate the Drosophila IMD pathwayTakashi Kaneko
Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Immunity 20:637-49. 2004..Recognition of monomeric and polymeric peptidoglycan required different PGRP-LC splice isoforms, while lipid A recognition required an unidentified soluble factor in the hemolymph of Bombyx morii...
- The Drosophila immune system detects bacteria through specific peptidoglycan recognitionFrançois Leulier
Centre de Génétique Moléculaire du CNRS, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
Nat Immunol 4:478-84. 2003..Thus, the ability of Drosophila to discriminate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria relies on the recognition of specific forms of peptidoglycan...
- The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition proteinMarie Gottar
UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg, Cedex, France
Nature 416:640-4. 2002..The data on PGRP-SA with respect to the response to Gram-positive infections, together with the present report, indicate that the PGRP family has a principal role in sensing microbial infections in Drosophila...
- Pirk is a negative regulator of the Drosophila Imd pathwayAnni Kleino
Institute of Medical Technology, University of Tampere, Finland
J Immunol 180:5413-22. 2008..pirk encodes a cytoplasmic protein that coimmunoprecipitates with Imd and the cytoplasmic tail of peptidoglycan recognition protein LC (PGRP-LC)...
- Requirement for a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Relish activation and antibacterial immune responses in DrosophilaKwang Min Choe
Molecular Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Science 296:359-62. 2002....
- Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein LC (PGRP-LC) acts as a signal-transducing innate immune receptorKwang Min Choe
Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:1122-6. 2005Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein LC (PGRP-LC), a transmembrane protein required for the response to bacterial infection, acts at the top of a cytoplasmic signaling cascade that requires the death-domain protein Imd and an ..
- Autophagic control of listeria through intracellular innate immune recognition in drosophilaTamaki Yano
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 8578, Japan
Nat Immunol 9:908-16. 2008..Autophagy induction occurred independently of the Toll and IMD innate signaling pathways. Our findings define a pathway leading from the intracellular pattern-recognition receptors to the induction of autophagy to host defense...
- The Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-LF blocks PGRP-LC and IMD/JNK pathway activationFrédéric Maillet
Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille Luminy, UMR 6216 CNRS, Université de la Méditérannée Aix Marseille II, Parc Scientifique de Luminy Case 907, F 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France
Cell Host Microbe 3:293-303. 2008..Thus, PGRP-LF prevents constitutive activation of both the JNK and the IMD pathways. We propose a model in which PGRP-LF keeps the Drosophila IMD pathway silent by sequestering circulating peptidoglycan...
- Circadian regulation in the ability of Drosophila to combat pathogenic infectionsJung Eun Lee
Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers University, 679 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
Curr Biol 18:195-9. 2008..Our findings suggest that medical intervention strategies incorporating chronobiological considerations could enhance the innate immune response, boosting the efficacy of combating pathogenic infections...
- Drosophila melanogaster as a model for elucidating the pathogenicity of Francisella tularensisMalin Vonkavaara
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umea University, 90185 Umea, Sweden
Cell Microbiol 10:1327-38. 2008..melanogaster is a suitable model for the analysis of interactions between F. tularensis and its arthropod hosts and that it can also be used to identify F. tularensis virulence factors relevant for mammalian hosts...
- Akirins are highly conserved nuclear proteins required for NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression in drosophila and miceAkira Goto
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UPR 9022, Universite Louis Pasteur, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Nat Immunol 9:97-104. 2008..Thus, Akirin is a conserved nuclear factor required for innate immune responses...
- The effects of temperature on host-pathogen interactions in D. melanogaster: who benefits?Jodell E Linder
Department of Genetics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
J Insect Physiol 54:297-308. 2008..The approach described here allows us to determine whether this effect is due primarily to temperature-specific effects on the host or on its pathogen. These results suggest that both may be important...
- A Drosophila ortholog of the human cylindromatosis tumor suppressor gene regulates triglyceride content and antibacterial defenseTheodore Tsichritzis
Institute of Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Research Center Al Fleming, 34 Al Fleming Street, 16672 Vari, Greece
Development 134:2605-14. 2007..All mutant phenotypes described were reversible upon conditional expression of CYLD transgenes. Our results implicate CYLD in a broad range of functions associated with fat homeostasis and host defence in Drosophila...
- Rudra interrupts receptor signaling complexes to negatively regulate the IMD pathwayKamna Aggarwal
Divison of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 4:e1000120. 2008..These results show that Rudra is a critical component in a negative feedback loop, whereby immune-induced gene expression rapidly produces a potent inhibitor that binds and inhibits pattern recognition receptors...
- PIMS modulates immune tolerance by negatively regulating Drosophila innate immune signalingNouara Lhocine
CNRS, Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, UPR2167, Gif sur Yvette, F 91198, France
Cell Host Microbe 4:147-58. 2008..Therefore, PIMS is required to establish immune tolerance to commensal bacteria and to maintain a balanced Imd response following exposure to bacterial infections...
- The Drosophila peptidoglycan-recognition protein LF interacts with peptidoglycan-recognition protein LC to downregulate the Imd pathwayNada Basbous
Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, UPR 4301 CNRS, rue Charles Sadron, Orléans 2 45071, France
EMBO Rep 12:327-33. 2011..Our results suggest a mechanism for downregulation of the Imd pathway on the basis of the competition between PRGP-LCa and PGRP-LF to bind to PGRP-LCx...
- Cooperative regulation of the induction of the novel antibacterial Listericin by peptidoglycan recognition protein LE and the JAK-STAT pathwayAkira Goto
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 8578, Japan
J Biol Chem 285:15731-8. 2010..Based on these findings, we propose that the Listericin gene encodes a novel antibacterial peptide-like protein whose induction is cooperatively regulated by PGRP-LE and the JAK-STAT pathway...
- Caspase-mediated cleavage, IAP binding, and ubiquitination: linking three mechanisms crucial for Drosophila NF-kappaB signalingNicholas Paquette
Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
Mol Cell 37:172-82. 2010..Through its association with DIAP2, IMD is rapidly conjugated with K63-linked polyubiquitin chains. These results mechanistically connect caspase-mediated cleavage and K63 ubiquitination in immune-induced NF-kappaB signaling...
- Extracellular and intracellular pathogen recognition by Drosophila PGRP-LE and PGRP-LCShoichiro Kurata
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6 3 Aza Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba ku, Sendai 980 8578, Japan
Int Immunol 22:143-8. 2010..Some intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes are, nevertheless, eliminated by immune reactions such as autophagy through intracellular identification by pattern-recognition receptors...
- The Imd pathway is involved in antiviral immune responses in DrosophilaAlexandre Costa
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
PLoS ONE 4:e7436. 2009..Our data show that antiviral innate immune responses in flies infected with CrPV depend upon hemocytes and signaling through the Imd pathway...
- Invasive and indigenous microbiota impact intestinal stem cell activity through multiple pathways in DrosophilaNicolas Buchon
Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Genes Dev 23:2333-44. 2009..Altogether, these results indicate that gut homeostasis is achieved by a complex interregulation of the immune response, gut microbiota, and stem cell activity...
- Coordination of multiple dual oxidase-regulatory pathways in responses to commensal and infectious microbes in drosophila gutEun Mi Ha
Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Science, National Creative Research Initiative Center for Symbiosystem, Ewha Woman s University, Seoul, South Korea
Nat Immunol 10:949-57. 2009..Thus, the coordinated regulation of DUOX enables the host to achieve gut-microbe homeostasis by efficiently combating infection while tolerating commensal microbes...
- Two roles for the Drosophila IKK complex in the activation of Relish and the induction of antimicrobial peptide genesDeniz Erturk-Hasdemir
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:9779-84. 2009..Instead they are critical for recruitment of RNA polymerase II and antimicrobial peptide gene induction, whereas IKK functions noncatalytically to support Dredd-mediated cleavage of Relish...
- Regulation of DUOX by the Galphaq-phospholipase Cbeta-Ca2+ pathway in Drosophila gut immunityEun Mi Ha
Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Science, Ewha Woman s University, Seoul 120 750, South Korea
Dev Cell 16:386-97. 2009..These results demonstrate that the Galphaq-PLCbeta-Ca(2+)-DUOX-ROS signaling pathway acts as a bona fide first line of defense that enables gut epithelia to dynamically control yeast during the Drosophila life cycle...
- Molecular architecture of the fruit fly's airway epithelial immune systemChristina Wagner
Forschungszentrum Borstel, Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, Borstel, Germany
BMC Genomics 9:446. 2008....
- TM9SF4 is required for Drosophila cellular immunity via cell adhesion and phagocytosisEvelyne Bergeret
CEA, iRTSV, LTS, 38054 Grenoble, France
J Cell Sci 121:3325-34. 2008..Our study highlights the contribution of phagocytes to host defence in an organism possessing a complex innate immune response and suggests an evolutionarily conserved function of TM9SF4 in eukaryotic phagocytes...
- Toll and IMD pathways synergistically activate an innate immune response in Drosophila melanogasterTakahiro Tanji
Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
Mol Cell Biol 27:4578-88. 2007..of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila melanogaster is regulated by the conserved Toll and peptidoglycan recognition protein LC/immune deficiency (PGRP-LC/IMD) signaling pathways...
- Crystal cell rupture after injury in Drosophila requires the JNK pathway, small GTPases and the TNF homolog EigerGawa Bidla
Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, University of Stockholm, Svante Arrheniusväg 16 18, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
J Cell Sci 120:1209-15. 2007..Our results provide a more comprehensive view of immune signal transduction pathways, with implications for immune reactions where cell death is used as a terminal mode of cell activation...
- Function of the drosophila pattern-recognition receptor PGRP-SD in the detection of Gram-positive bacteriaVincent Bischoff
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UPR 9022, 15 rue Rene Descartes, Universite Louis Pasteur, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Nat Immunol 5:1175-80. 2004..These data indicate that PGRP-SD can function as a receptor for Gram-positive bacteria and shows partial redundancy with the PGRP-SA-GNBP1 complex...
- Innate immunity in fruit flies: a textbook example of genomic recyclingShubha Govind
Department of Biology and The Graduate Center, City College of New York, New York, New York, USA
PLoS Biol 2:E276. 2004
- Functional diversity of the Drosophila PGRP-LC gene cluster in the response to lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycanThomas Werner
Umea Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis, Umea University, S 901 87 Umea, Sweden
J Biol Chem 278:26319-22. 2003..Two additional PGRP domains in the gene cluster, z and w, are both included in a single transcript of a separate gene, PGRP-LF. Suppression of this transcript does not block the response to any of the microorganisms tested...
- In vivo RNA interference analysis reveals an unexpected role for GNBP1 in the defense against Gram-positive bacterial infection in Drosophila adultsSebastien Pili-Floury
Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France
J Biol Chem 279:12848-53. 2004..Altogether, our results demonstrate that the detection of Gram-positive bacteria in Drosophila requires two putative pattern recognition receptors, PGRP-SA and GNBP1...
- Dual activation of the Drosophila toll pathway by two pattern recognition receptorsVanessa Gobert
Unité Propre de Recherche 9022 du CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Science 302:2126-30. 2003..The potential for a combination of distinct proteins to mediate detection of infectious nonself in the fly will refine the concept of pattern recognition in insects...
- The immune response of DrosophilaJules A Hoffmann
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire du CNRS, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Nature 426:33-8. 2003..Recent progress in research on Drosophila immune defence provides evidence for similarities and differences between Drosophila immune responses and mammalian innate immunity...
- Role of Toll-like receptors in pathogen recognitionS Janssens
Unit for Molecular Signal Transduction in Inflammation, Department of Molecular Biomedical Research, Ghent University VIB, B 9052 Ghent, Belgium
Clin Microbiol Rev 16:637-46. 2003..The fact that TLR expression is regulated in both a cell type- and stimulus-dependent fashion further contributes to the complexity...
- Spatio-temporal analysis of gene expression during aging in Drosophila melanogasterLaurent Seroude
California Institute of Technology, Division of Biology 156 29, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
Aging Cell 1:47-56. 2002....
- Immunology. Pathogen surveillance--the flies have itRanjiv S Khush
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Science 296:273-5. 2002
- An antioxidant system required for host protection against gut infection in DrosophilaEun Mi Ha
Division of Molecular Life Science and Center for Cell Signaling Research, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120 750, South Korea
Dev Cell 8:125-32. 2005..These results imply that homeostasis of redox balance by IRC is one of the most critical factors affecting host survival during continuous host-microbe interaction in the gastrointestinal tract...
- The complexity of genetic variation in a simple immune systemDominic P Kwiatkowski
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, UK OX3 7BN
Trends Genet 21:197-9. 2005..However, the effects of individual polymorphisms on the resistance phenotype were modest, and epistatic interactions appeared to be common. What might these findings tell us about genetic resistance to infection in humans?..
- Dual detection of fungal infections in Drosophila via recognition of glucans and sensing of virulence factorsMarie Gottar
UPR 9022 du CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, F67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Cell 127:1425-37. 2006..Thus, the detection of fungal infections in Drosophila relies both on the recognition of invariant microbial patterns and on monitoring the effects of virulence factors on the host...
- Trade-offs between longevity and pathogen resistance in Drosophila melanogaster are mediated by NFkappaB signalingSergiy Libert
Huffington Center on Aging, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Aging Cell 5:533-43. 2006..These phenotypes are dependent on the NFkappaB-related transcriptional factor, Relish, and they establish a mechanistic basis for a link between immunity, inflammation, and longevity...
- Structure of the ectodomain of Drosophila peptidoglycan-recognition protein LCa suggests a molecular mechanism for pattern recognitionChung I Chang
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390 9050, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:10279-84. 2005..Such features include N-acetyl glucosamine and the anhydro bond in the glycan of the muropeptide, which have been demonstrated to be critical for immune stimulatory activity...
- Structure of tracheal cytotoxin in complex with a heterodimeric pattern-recognition receptorChung I Chang
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 6001 Forest Park Road, Dallas, TX 75390 9050, USA
Science 311:1761-4. 2006....
- The peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-SC1a is essential for Toll signaling and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus in DrosophilaLindsey S Garver
Center for Biosystems Research, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, 5115 Plant Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:660-5. 2006....
- Dual strategies for peptidoglycan discrimination by peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs)Chittoor P Swaminathan
Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology, W M Keck Laboratory for Structural Biology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:684-9. 2006..The plasticity of the PGRP-binding site revealed by these mutants suggests an intrinsic capacity of the innate immune system to rapidly evolve specificities to meet new microbial challenges...
- Eater: a big bite into phagocytosisDeniz Erturk-Hasdemir
Division of Infectious Disease, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester 01605, USA
Cell 123:190-2. 2005..In this issue of Cell, Kocks et al. (2005) demonstrate that Eater, a scavenger receptor, plays an important role in the recognition and phagocytosis of bacteria in the fruit fly Drosophila...
- Insect renal tubules constitute a cell-autonomous immune system that protects the organism against bacterial infectionJ McGettigan
Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
Insect Biochem Mol Biol 35:741-54. 2005..coli challenge. Thus, we describe a novel role of Malpighian tubules in immune sensing and insect survival...
- Drosophila immunity: genes on the third chromosome required for the response to bacterial infectionL P Wu
Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
Genetics 159:189-99. 2001..These genetic studies should provide a basis for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic control of immune responses in Drosophila...