Gene Symbol: Pgd
Description: Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase
Alias: 6-PGD, 6-Pgd, 6-pgd, 6PGD, 6PGDH, 6Pgd, 6Pgdh, 6pgdh, CG3724, Dmel\CG3724, EG:87B1.4, PGD, Pdg, l(1)2Dc, l(1)2De, l(1)A7, l(1)G0385, l(1)N1, l(1)N3[90], l(1)Pgd, l(1)Pgd-A, l35, pgd, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, CG3724-PA, CG3724-PB, NADP-6 phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, Pgd-PA, Pgd-PB, dehydrogenase
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Pgd

Top Publications

  1. Geer B, Lindel D, Lindel D. Relationship of the oxidative pentose shunt pathway to lipid synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Genet. 1979;17:881-95 pubmed
    ..C. and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1...
  2. Smith E, Allis C, Lucchesi J. Linking global histone acetylation to the transcription enhancement of X-chromosomal genes in Drosophila males. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:31483-6 pubmed
    ..This study represents the first biochemical interpretation of the very large body of cytological observations on the chromosomal distribution of the MSL complex. ..
  3. Gutierrez A, Christensen A, Manning J, Lucchesi J. Cloning and dosage compensation of the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase gene (Pgd+) of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Genet. 1989;10:155-61 pubmed
    ..Drosophila melanogaster genomic clone containing the X-linked gene Pgd+, which encodes the enzyme 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD)...
  4. Bowman J, Simmons J. Gene modulation in Drosophila: dosage compensation of Pgd+ and Zw+ genes. Biochem Genet. 1973;10:319-31 pubmed
  5. Yokoyama R, Pannuti A, Ling H, Smith E, Lucchesi J. A plasmid model system shows that Drosophila dosage compensation depends on the global acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 and is not affected by depletion of common transcription elongation chromatin marks. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:7865-70 pubmed
  6. Bai X, Larschan E, Kwon S, Badenhorst P, Kuroda M. Regional control of chromatin organization by noncoding roX RNAs and the NURF remodeling complex in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2007;176:1491-9 pubmed
    ..Together, these results demonstrate the importance of a local balance between modifying activities that promote and antagonize chromatin compaction within defined chromatin domains in higher organisms. ..
  7. Wang J, Lee C, Lin S, Lee T. Steroid hormone-dependent transformation of polyhomeotic mutant neurons in the Drosophila brain. Development. 2006;133:1231-40 pubmed
    ..Taken together, Drosophila Ph is essential for governing neuronal diversity, especially during steroid hormone signaling. ..
  8. Faizullin L, Gvozdev V. Dosage compensation of sex-linked genes in Drosophila melanogaster. The activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in flies with normal and disturbed genetic balance. Mol Gen Genet. 1973;126:233-45 pubmed
  9. Clark A, Fucito C. Stress tolerance and metabolic response to stress in Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity (Edinb). 1998;81 ( Pt 5):514-27 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that transient environmental stress may play an important role in the evolution of this highly intercorrelated set of metabolic traits. ..

More Information


  1. Flowers J, Sezgin E, Kumagai S, Duvernell D, Matzkin L, Schmidt P, et al. Adaptive evolution of metabolic pathways in Drosophila. Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24:1347-54 pubmed
    ..The other 4 genes that were inconsistent with neutral evolution (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6pd]), phosphoglucomutase [Pgm], trehalose-6-phosphate synthetase [Tps1], and glucose-6phosphatase [G6pase] ..
  2. Dura J, Brock H, Santamaria P. Polyhomeotic: a gene of Drosophila melanogaster required for correct expression of segmental identity. Mol Gen Genet. 1985;198:213-20 pubmed
    ..We propose that ph mutants in some way disrupt the normal expression of the ANT-C and BX-C, and, therefore, that ph+ is needed for maintenance of segmental identity. ..
  3. Geiger Thornsberry G, Mackay T. Quantitative trait loci affecting natural variation in Drosophila longevity. Mech Ageing Dev. 2004;125:179-89 pubmed
    ..and Df(3R)e-BS2 showed significant failure to complement wild-type alleles in both sexes, and an Alcohol dehydrogenase mutant failed to complement in females. Several genes that regulate life span (e.g...
  4. Bhadra U, Pal Bhadra M, Birchler J. Histone acetylation and gene expression analysis of sex lethal mutants in Drosophila. Genetics. 2000;155:753-63 pubmed
    ..In both cases we find relatively little effect upon X chromosomal gene expression. ..
  5. Wang L, Clark A. Physiological genetics of the response to a high-sucrose diet by Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Genet. 1995;33:149-65 pubmed
    ..The pattern of phenotypic correlations did not resolve the reasons for the direction of the genetic responses. Correlations were generally stable across diets and after selection, but there were notable exceptions. ..
  6. Seecof R, Kaplan W, Futch D. Dosage compensation for enzyme activities in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1969;62:528-35 pubmed
    ..Normal females (two-dose) had the same 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity as normal males (one-dose). One-dose females had reduced activity (0...
  7. Kazazian H, Young W, Childs B. X-linked 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in drosophila: subunit associations. Science. 1965;150:1601-2 pubmed
    6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) subunits have been dissociated and reassociated in vitro...
  8. Pecsenye K, Komlósi I, Saura A. Heritabilities and additive genetic variances of the activities of some enzymes in Drosophila melanogaster populations living in different habitats. Heredity (Edinb). 2004;93:215-21 pubmed
    ..Activities of four enzymes (ADH, alpha GPDH, IDH and 6PGDH) were measured in the offspring of each cross on starch gel after electrophoresis...
  9. Montooth K, Marden J, Clark A. Mapping determinants of variation in energy metabolism, respiration and flight in Drosophila. Genetics. 2003;165:623-35 pubmed
    ..This has important consequences for the evolution of performance traits that depend upon these metabolic networks. ..
  10. Lucchesi J, Hughes M, Geer B. Genetic control of pentose phosphate pathway enzymes in Drosophila. Curr Top Cell Regul. 1979;15:143-54 pubmed
  11. Bhadra M, Bhadra U, Kundu J, Birchler J. Gene expression analysis of the function of the male-specific lethal complex in Drosophila. Genetics. 2005;169:2061-74 pubmed
  12. Pal Bhadra M, Bhadra U, Birchler J. Misregulation of sex-lethal and disruption of male-specific lethal complex localization in Drosophila species hybrids. Genetics. 2006;174:1151-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr), which allows hybrid males from this cross to survive, corrects the SXL and MSL defects. The reciprocal cross of D. simulans mothers by D. melanogaster males exhibits underexpression of Sxl in embryos...
  13. Clark A, Szumski F, Bell K, Keith L, Houtz S, Merriwether D. Direct and correlated responses to artificial selection on lipid and glycogen contents in Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res. 1990;56:49-56 pubmed
    ..The results are interpreted with respect to the evolutionary constraints on energy storage evolution and the genetic basis of the allometric relationship between body weight and fat content. ..
  14. Seegmiller A, Dobrosotskaya I, Goldstein J, Ho Y, Brown M, Rawson R. The SREBP pathway in Drosophila: regulation by palmitate, not sterols. Dev Cell. 2002;2:229-38 pubmed
    ..Instead, dSREBP processing is blocked by palmitic acid. These findings suggest that the ancestral SREBP pathway functions to maintain membrane integrity rather than to control cholesterol homeostasis. ..
  15. Pecsenye K. Detection of individual variation in enzyme activity in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Hereditas. 1998;128:145-51 pubmed
    ..ADH), alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha GPDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), were measured in each sample on starch gel after the proteins were separated by ..
  16. Begun D, Aquadro C. Molecular population genetics of the distal portion of the X chromosome in Drosophila: evidence for genetic hitchhiking of the yellow-achaete region. Genetics. 1991;129:1147-58 pubmed
    ..species, Drosophila simulans, using six-cutter restriction site variation at yellow-achaete (y-ac), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (Pgd), and period (per)...
  17. Nero D, Bowditch N, Pickert S, MacIntyre R. A genetic and molecular analysis of P-induced mutations at the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase locus in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;219:429-38 pubmed
    ..The second mutation was either a simple, non-dysgenically induced point mutation or a very unstable insertion. ..
  18. Begun D, Aquadro C. Evolutionary inferences from DNA variation at the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase locus in natural populations of drosophila: selection and geographic differentiation. Genetics. 1994;136:155-71 pubmed
    ..One such locus, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (Pgd), has previously been shown to exhibit clinal variation for Fast/Slow electromorph variation in ..
  19. Pecsenye K, Saura A. Structure of variation in enzyme activity in natural Drosophila melanogaster populations. Hereditas. 2002;136:75-83 pubmed
    ..The activities of ADH, alphaGPDH, IDH and 6PGDH were determined in the adults (in the F1 generation) and in the larvae (in the F3 generation) as well...
  20. Charlesworth B. Measures of divergence between populations and the effect of forces that reduce variability. Mol Biol Evol. 1998;15:538-43 pubmed publisher
  21. Kovac I, Marinkovic D. Analysis of background-dependent genetic interactions without inbred strains. Biochem Genet. 1999;37:23-40 pubmed
    ..The newly developing functional genomics research and the absence of inbreeding make CIFA directly applicable to complex human traits in large samples. ..
  22. Fay J, Wu C. Hitchhiking under positive Darwinian selection. Genetics. 2000;155:1405-13 pubmed
    ..Application of the H test to published surveys of Drosophila variation reveals an excess of high frequency variants that are likely to have been influenced by positive selection...
  23. Kazazian H. Molecular size studies on 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Nature. 1966;212:197-8 pubmed
  24. Scott M, Lucchesi J. Structure and expression of the Drosophila melanogaster gene encoding 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Gene. 1991;109:177-83 pubmed
    ..nucleotide sequence and structure of Pgd+, the Drosophila melanogaster gene that encodes the enzyme, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD). The derived 481-amino acid sequence for D...
  25. Gvozdev V, Gerasimova T, Kogan G, Rosovsky J. Investigations on the organization of genetic loci in Drosophila melanogaster: lethal mutations affecting 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and their suppression. Mol Gen Genet. 1977;153:191-8 pubmed
    ..The molecular nature of lethal and semilethal mutations in the Pgd locus of D. melanogaster coding for 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) was studied...
  26. Furuhashi H, Nakajima M, Hirose S. DNA supercoiling factor contributes to dosage compensation in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:4475-83 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that SCF plays a role in transcriptional activation via alteration of chromatin structure and provide evidence that SCF contributes to dosage compensation. ..
  27. Hughes M, Lucchesi J. Genetic rescue of a lethal "null" activity allele of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in Drosophila melanogaster. Science. 1977;196:1114-5 pubmed
    While a null activity mutant allele of the structural gene for 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in Drosophila melanogaster is lethal, a similar mutation for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is not...
  28. Arking R, Burde V, Graves K, Hari R, Feldman E, Zeevi A, et al. Forward and reverse selection for longevity in Drosophila is characterized by alteration of antioxidant gene expression and oxidative damage patterns. Exp Gerontol. 2000;35:167-85 pubmed
  29. el Abidin Salam A, Hussein E, el Itriby H, Anwar W, Mansour S. The mutagenicity of Gramoxone (paraquat) on different eukaryotic systems. Mutat Res. 1993;319:89-101 pubmed
    ..At the protein level, Gramoxone had detectable mutagenic effects on the genetic background of two enzymes, Adh and Est-6. Gramoxone should be considered a mutagenic herbicide. ..
  30. Akhtar A. Dosage compensation: an intertwined world of RNA and chromatin remodelling. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2003;13:161-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, non-coding RNAs appear to play a dual role, being targeting modules as well as encoding for target sites for complex recognition. ..
  31. Bhadra U, Pal Bhadra M, Birchler J. A trans-acting modifier causing extensive overexpression of genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1997;254:621-34 pubmed
    ..The white allele specificity analysis and the lack of response of an Alcohol dehydrogenase promoter-white reporter fusion construct suggest that the 5' regulatory sequences of white are required for ..
  32. Bhadra U, Pal Bhadra M, Birchler J. A sex-influenced modifier in Drosophila that affects a broad spectrum of target loci including the histone repeats. Genetics. 1997;146:903-17 pubmed
    ..Thus, Low is a modifier that plays a role in modulating the expression of genes governing various processes including pigment deposition, eye development, chromosomal proteins and position effect variegation. ..
  33. Bubliy O, Kalabushkin B, Imasheva A. Geographic variation of six allozyme loci in Drosophila melanogaster: an analysis of data from different continents. Hereditas. 1999;130:25-32 pubmed
    ..The analyzed loci were Adh, Odh, Gpdh, G6pd, Pgd, and Est-6, which have been previously reported by other authors to show latitudinal variation in North America, ..
  34. Pecsenye K, Saura A. Enzyme activities and alcohol tolerance in isofemale lines of Drosophila melanogaster originating from different habitats. Genetica. 2004;121:277-83 pubmed
    ..The activities of ADH, alphaGPDH, IDH and 6PGDH were determined on starch gel after electrophoresis in 10 F1 females of each of the 35 isofemale lines...
  35. Feng S, Huang J, Wang J. Loss of the Polycomb group gene polyhomeotic induces non-autonomous cell overproliferation. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that PcG misregulation promotes tumorigenesis through several cellular mechanisms. ..
  36. Frolov M, Birchler J. Mutation in P0, a dual function ribosomal protein/apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, modifies gene expression and position effect variegation in Drosophila. Genetics. 1998;150:1487-95 pubmed
    ..Recent work revealed that Drosophila ribosomal protein P0 contains an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity. Our results suggest that this multifunctional protein is also involved in regulation of gene expression in Drosophila. ..
  37. Verni F, Gandhi R, Goldberg M, Gatti M. Genetic and molecular analysis of wings apart-like (wapl), a gene controlling heterochromatin organization in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2000;154:1693-710 pubmed
    ..wapl maps to region 2D of the X chromosome between Pgd and pn. We identified the wapl gene within a previously conducted chromosomal walk in this region...
  38. Weake V, Scott M. The non-dosage compensated Lsp1alpha gene of Drosophila melanogaster escapes acetylation by MOF in larval fat body nuclei, but is flanked by two dosage compensated genes. BMC Mol Biol. 2007;8:35 pubmed
    ..The X-linked Larval serum protein one alpha (Lsp1alpha) gene has long been known to be not dosage compensated. Here we have examined possible explanations for why the Lsp1alpha gene is not dosage compensated...
  39. Dura J, Randsholt N, Deatrick J, Erk I, Santamaria P, Freeman J, et al. A complex genetic locus, polyhomeotic, is required for segmental specification and epidermal development in D. melanogaster. Cell. 1987;51:829-39 pubmed
    ..We propose a model that may account for this unusual functional organization. ..
  40. Beisswanger S, Stephan W, De Lorenzo D. Evidence for a selective sweep in the wapl region of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2006;172:265-74 pubmed
    ..We detect a 60.5-kb stretch of DNA encompassing the genes ph-d, ph-p, CG3835, bcn92, Pgd, wapl, and Cyp4d1, which almost completely lacks variation in the European sample...
  41. Xie H, Cammarato A, Rajasekaran N, Zhang H, Suggs J, Lin H, et al. The NADPH metabolic network regulates human ?B-crystallin cardiomyopathy and reductive stress in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003544 pubmed publisher
    ..CryAB pathology responds generally to NADPH levels we tested mutants or RNAi-mediated knockdowns of phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), and malic enzyme (MEN), the other major enzymatic sources of ..
  42. Harada K. A quantitative analysis of modifier mutations which occur in mutation accumulation lines in Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity (Edinb). 1995;75 ( Pt 6):589-98 pubmed
    ..dehydrogenase (MDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) and alpha-amylase (AMY). A significant genetic variance was observed for some enzyme activities...
  43. Cirera S, Martin Campos J, Segarra C, Aguade M. Molecular characterization of the breakpoints of an inversion fixed between Drosophila melanogaster and D. subobscura. Genetics. 1995;139:321-6 pubmed
    ..Although alternating Pur-Pyr sequences were detected, these putative target sites for topoisomerase II were not differentially clustered in the breakpoints. ..
  44. Navascués M, Legrand D, Campagne C, Cariou M, Depaulis F. Distinguishing migration from isolation using genes with intragenic recombination: detecting introgression in the Drosophila simulans species complex. BMC Evol Biol. 2014;14:89 pubmed publisher
    ..The properties of these statistics make them especially suitable for analyzing high-throughput sequencing data or for their integration within the approximate Bayesian computation framework. ..
  45. Gandhi R, Varak E, Goldberg M. Molecular analysis of a cytochrome P450 gene of family 4 on the Drosophila X chromosome. DNA Cell Biol. 1992;11:397-404 pubmed
    ..This transduced fragment does not rescue any of the lethal mutations that have been identified in this genetically well-characterized region of the Drosophila genome. ..
  46. Bewley G, Lucchesi J. Lethal effects of low and "null" activity alleles of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1975;79:451-7 pubmed
    EMS-induced "null" and low activity alleles for 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were characterized with respect to enzymatic activity, relative viability, fertility, and the effective lethal phase...
  47. Bubli O, Rakitskaya T, Imasheva A. Variation of allozyme loci in populations of Drosophila melanogaster from the former USSR. Heredity (Edinb). 1996;77 ( Pt 6):638-45 pubmed
    Variation of eight allozyme loci, Acph, Adh, Est-6, Est-C, alpha-Gpdh, Idh (NADP-dependent), 6-Pgd and Pgm, was studied in 20 populations of Drosophila melanogaster from the territory of the former USSR, including Eastern Europe, the ..
  48. Clark A, Wang L, Hulleberg T. P-element-induced variation in metabolic regulation in Drosophila. Genetics. 1995;139:337-48 pubmed
  49. Adrion J, Hahn M, Cooper B. Revisiting classic clines in Drosophila melanogaster in the age of genomics. Trends Genet. 2015;31:434-44 pubmed publisher
  50. Greenspan R. The varieties of selectional experience in behavioral genetics. J Neurogenet. 2003;17:241-70 pubmed
  51. Tolchkov E, Kramerova I, Lavrov S, Rasheva V, Bonaccorsi S, Alatortsev V, et al. Position-effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome inversion with a breakpoint in a satellite block and its suppression in a secondary rearrangement. Chromosoma. 1997;106:520-5 pubmed
    ..It is associated with position-effect variegation (PEV) of the pn, wapl, Pgd and other vital loci of the 2E region, which are relocated near the bulk of the X heterochromatin...
  52. Eanes W, Katona L, Longtine M. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo activities associated with the G6PD allozyme polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;125:845-53 pubmed
    ..ability of the genotypes to suppress the loss of viability associated with a low activity 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase mutation, 6Pgdlo1...
  53. Nishida Y, Hata M, Ayaki T, Ryo H, Yamagata M, Shimizu K, et al. Proliferation of both somatic and germ cells is affected in the Drosophila mutants of raf proto-oncogene. EMBO J. 1988;7:775-81 pubmed
    ..Maternal effects on embryogenesis indicated that Draf-1 is also required in early larval development. ..
  54. Slobodyanyuk S, Serov O. Variations in the expression of the gene Pgd due to the effect of chromosomal rearrangements in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1983;191:372-7 pubmed
    The effects of chromosomal rearrangements on the expression of the gene Pgd coding for 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) was studied in D. melanogaster...
  55. Ivashchenko N, Grishaeva T. [Mutational variability of enzyme loci in unstable Drosophila melanogaster strains]. Genetika. 1990;26:257-65 pubmed
    ..Activity and mobility variants of alpha-GPDH, ADH, SOD, G6PD, 6PGD and EST-6 were analysed...
  56. Hughes M, Lucchesi J. Dietary rescue of a lethal "null" activity allele of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Genet. 1978;16:469-75 pubmed
    ..rescue of Pgdn lethal alleles, accomplished by combining them with mutations lacking glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, has led to the hypothesis that Pgdn lethality may be due to the accumulation of 6-phosphogluconate...
  57. Clark A, Wang L. Epistasis in measured genotypes: Drosophila P-element insertions. Genetics. 1997;147:157-63 pubmed
    ..Measured genotypes have been used in other contexts to quantify epistatic effects on phenotypic expression, and these results are also briefly reviewed. ..
  58. Williamson J, Krochko D, Geer B. 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from Drosophila melanogaster. I. Purification and properties of the A isozyme. Biochem Genet. 1980;18:87-101 pubmed
    6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase is evident at all developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster...
  59. Bloyer S, Cavalli G, Brock H, Dura J. Identification and characterization of polyhomeotic PREs and TREs. Dev Biol. 2003;261:426-42 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that ph PRE/TREs are cis-acting DNA elements that modulate rather than silence Pc-G- and trx-G-mediated regulation, enlarging the role of these two groups of genes in transcriptional regulation. ..
  60. Perrimon N, Engstrom L, Mahowald A. Developmental genetics of the 2C-D region of the Drosophila X chromosome. Genetics. 1985;111:23-41 pubmed
    ..ultraspiracle) is required for normal embryogenesis; normal activity at three larval lethal loci (DF967, VE651 and Pgd) is required for normal oogenesis; and activity at only one locus (EA82), a larval lethal, appears to have no ..
  61. Hiebert J, Birchler J. Effects of the maleless mutation on X and autosomal gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1994;136:913-26 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that if mle plays a role in the discrimination of the X and the autosomes, it may do so by modification of the effects of dosage sensitive regulatory genes. ..
  62. Aquadro C. Insights into the evolutionary process from patterns of DNA sequence variability. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1997;7:835-40 pubmed
    ..The impact of both adaptive and deleterious mutations are evident. Extension of these types of studies to other organisms has begun in earnest. ..
  63. Arking R, Burde V, Graves K, Hari R, Feldman E, Zeevi A, et al. Identical longevity phenotypes are characterized by different patterns of gene expression and oxidative damage. Exp Gerontol. 2000;35:353-73 pubmed
    ..The theoretical and empirical implications of these findings are discussed. ..
  64. Lachaise D, Harry M, Solignac M, Lemeunier F, B nassi V, Cariou M. Evolutionary novelties in islands: Drosophila santomea, a new melanogaster sister species from São Tomé. Proc Biol Sci. 2000;267:1487-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These were shown to harbour the same Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria which could possibly be responsible for mitochondrial DNA hitchhiking across the species barrier...
  65. Chiang P, Kurnit D. Study of dosage compensation in Drosophila. Genetics. 2003;165:1167-81 pubmed
  66. Begun D, Aquadro C. African and North American populations of Drosophila melanogaster are very different at the DNA level. Nature. 1993;365:548-50 pubmed
    ..It appears that there is an unappreciated degree of population structure in D. melanogaster and that equilibrium models of molecular evolution are inappropriate for this species. ..
  67. Buscaino A, Legube G, Akhtar A. X-chromosome targeting and dosage compensation are mediated by distinct domains in MSL-3. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:531-8 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that MSL-3 localization to the male X chromosome and transcriptional upregulation of X-linked genes are two separable functions of the MSL-3 protein. ..
  68. Geer B, McKechnie S, Langevin M. Regulation of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in Drosophila melanogaster larvae by dietary ethanol and sucrose. J Nutr. 1983;113:1632-42 pubmed
    Dietary sucrose and ethanol are potent modulators of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) in the third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster...
  69. Bolukbasi E, Vass S, Cobbe N, Nelson B, Simossis V, Dunbar D, et al. Drosophila poly suggests a novel role for the Elongator complex in insulin receptor-target of rapamycin signalling. Open Biol. 2012;2:110031 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, homology to small subunits of Elongator demonstrates a novel, unexpected role for this complex in insulin signalling. ..
  70. Granadino B, Torres M, Bachiller D, Torroja E, Barbero J, Sanchez L. Genetic and molecular analysis of new female-specific lethal mutations at the gene Sxl of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1991;129:371-83 pubmed
  71. Segarra C, Aguad M. Molecular organization of the X chromosome in different species of the obscura group of Drosophila. Genetics. 1992;130:513-21 pubmed
    ..persimilis and D. miranda, have been studied. Eight of the regions include known genes from D. melanogaster (Pgd, zeste, white, cut, vermilion, RNA polymerase II 215, forked and suppressor of forked) and the ninth region (lambda ..
  72. Sieber M, Thomsen M, Spradling A. Electron Transport Chain Remodeling by GSK3 during Oogenesis Connects Nutrient State to Reproduction. Cell. 2016;164:420-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies reveal an important link between metabolism and oocyte maturation. ..