Gene Symbol: pdm2
Description: POU domain protein 2
Alias: CG12287, CG15486, CG15487, Dmel\CG12287, Oct-2, Oct2, Pdm, Pdm-2, Pdm2, dOct2, dPOU-28, dPOU28, dPOU28/pdm-2, dim, dpou28, miti, pdm, pdm-2, POU domain protein 2, CG12287-PA, CG12287-PB, CG12287-PC, CG12287-PD, Miti-mere, POU domain prot 2, didymous, pdm2-PA, pdm2-PB, pdm2-PC, pdm2-PD
Species: fruit fly
Products:     pdm2

Top Publications

  1. Markstein M, Levine M. Decoding cis-regulatory DNAs in the Drosophila genome. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2002;12:601-6 pubmed
    ..These methods change the way that cis-DNAs will be analyzed in future studies and offer the promise of unraveling complex gene networks. ..
  2. Mace D, Varnado N, Zhang W, Frise E, Ohler U. Extraction and comparison of gene expression patterns from 2D RNA in situ hybridization images. Bioinformatics. 2010;26:761-9 pubmed publisher
    ..genome.duke.edu/generegulation/image_analysis/insitu uwe.ohler@duke.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. ..
  3. Tran K, Doe C. Pdm and Castor close successive temporal identity windows in the NB3-1 lineage. Development. 2008;135:3491-9 pubmed publisher
    ..embryonic neural progenitors (neuroblasts) sequentially express the transcription factors Hunchback, Kruppel, Pdm1/Pdm2 (Pdm) and Castor as they generate a stereotyped sequence of neuronal and glial progeny...
  4. Yang X, Yeo S, Dick T, Chia W. The role of a Drosophila POU homeo domain gene in the specification of neural precursor cell identity in the developing embryonic central nervous system. Genes Dev. 1993;7:504-16 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that the protein product encoded by a POU homeo domain gene (dPOU28/pdm-2) is expressed in the cell nuclei of a subset of NBs and GMCs...
  5. Berman B, Pfeiffer B, Laverty T, Salzberg S, Rubin G, Eisen M, et al. Computational identification of developmental enhancers: conservation and function of transcription factor binding-site clusters in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genome Biol. 2004;5:R61 pubmed
    ..Six clusters are enhancers of adjacent genes: giant, fushi tarazu, odd-skipped, nubbin, squeeze and pdm2; three drive expression in patterns unrelated to those of neighboring genes; the remaining 18 do not appear to have ..
  6. Schroeder M, Pearce M, Fak J, Fan H, Unnerstall U, Emberly E, et al. Transcriptional control in the segmentation gene network of Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E271 pubmed
    ..The study demonstrates that computational methods are a powerful complement to experimental approaches in the analysis of transcription networks. ..
  7. Berman B, Nibu Y, Pfeiffer B, Tomancak P, Celniker S, Levine M, et al. Exploiting transcription factor binding site clustering to identify cis-regulatory modules involved in pattern formation in the Drosophila genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:757-62 pubmed
    ..We tested one of the newly identified clusters, mapping upstream of the gap gene giant (gt), and show that it acts as an enhancer that recapitulates the posterior expression pattern of gt. ..
  8. Grosskortenhaus R, Robinson K, Doe C. Pdm and Castor specify late-born motor neuron identity in the NB7-1 lineage. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2618-27 pubmed
    ..Embryonic neuroblasts sequentially express Hunchback, Krüppel, Pdm1/Pdm2 (Pdm), and Castor (Cas) transcription factors...
  9. Ma Y, Certel K, Gao Y, Niemitz E, Mosher J, Mukherjee A, et al. Functional interactions between Drosophila bHLH/PAS, Sox, and POU transcription factors regulate CNS midline expression of the slit gene. J Neurosci. 2000;20:4596-605 pubmed
    ..Functional interactions between members of these protein families may be important for numerous developmental and physiological processes. ..

More Information


  1. Brody T, Odenwald W. Cellular diversity in the developing nervous system: a temporal view from Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:3763-70 pubmed
    ..competence states have so far been identified, characterized by the successive expression of Hb-->Kr-->Pdm-->Cas-->Gh in many, but not all, neuroblasts...
  2. Dick T, Yang X, Yeo S, Chia W. Two closely linked Drosophila POU domain genes are expressed in neuroblasts and sensory elements. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:7645-9 pubmed
    ..encode 601- and 475-amino acid deduced proteins; their POU domains are most related to those of the human OCT1 and OCT2. Both genes give similar nervous system expression patterns and map to an indistinguishable site at 33F on the ..
  3. Poole S. Conservation of complex expression domains of the pdm-2 POU domain gene between Drosophila virilis and Drosophila melanogaster. Mech Dev. 1995;49:107-16 pubmed
    The closely linked pdm-1 and pdm-2 genes of Drosophila are expressed in complex patterns that suggest diverse roles in segmentation and nervous system development. A D. virilis pdm cDNA clone was isolated and sequenced...
  4. Gaziova I, Bhat K. Ancestry-independent fate specification and plasticity in the developmental timing of a typical Drosophila neuronal lineage. Development. 2009;136:263-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a GMC identity can be independent of parental identity and GMC formation and elaboration need not be strictly time-bound. ..
  5. Gabilondo H, Stratmann J, Rubio Ferrera I, Millán Crespo I, Contero García P, Bahrampour S, et al. Neuronal Cell Fate Specification by the Convergence of Different Spatiotemporal Cues on a Common Terminal Selector Cascade. PLoS Biol. 2016;14:e1002450 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we find that the same terminal selector cascade is triggered by Kr/pdm>grn in dAp neurons, but by Antp/hth/exd/lbe/cas in Tv1 neurons...
  6. Tran K, Miller M, Doe C. Recombineering Hunchback identifies two conserved domains required to maintain neuroblast competence and specify early-born neuronal identity. Development. 2010;137:1421-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify pdm2 as a direct target gene that must be repressed to maintain competence, but show that additional genes must also be ..
  7. Cockerill K, Billin A, Poole S. Regulation of expression domains and effects of ectopic expression reveal gap gene-like properties of the linked pdm genes of Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1993;41:139-53 pubmed
    The closely linked POU domain genes pdm-1 and pdm-2 are first expressed early during cellularization in the presumptive abdomen in a broad domain that soon resolves into two stripes...
  8. Rebeiz M, Jikomes N, Kassner V, Carroll S. Evolutionary origin of a novel gene expression pattern through co-option of the latent activities of existing regulatory sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:10036-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the novel optic lobe enhancer evolved by exploiting the cryptic activity of extant regulatory sequences, and this may reflect a general mechanism whereby new enhancers evolve. ..
  9. Suzuki T, Sato M. Neurogenesis and neuronal circuit formation in the Drosophila visual center. Dev Growth Differ. 2014;56:491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review recent investigations into the development of the medulla and discuss the mechanisms that establish functional neuronal circuits. ..
  10. Kreiman G. Identification of sparsely distributed clusters of cis-regulatory elements in sets of co-expressed genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:2889-900 pubmed
    ..Supplementary information is available at http://www.mit.edu/ approximately kreiman/resources/cisregul/. ..
  11. Brewster R, Hardiman K, Deo M, Khan S, Bodmer R. The selector gene cut represses a neural cell fate that is specified independently of the Achaete-Scute-Complex and atonal. Mech Dev. 2001;105:57-68 pubmed
    ..Thus, cut is not only required to promote an ASC-dependent mode of differentiation, but also represses an ASC- and ato-independent fate that leads to dbd and dda1 differentiation. ..
  12. Skeath J. Tag team specification of a neural precursor in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system. Bioessays. 1995;17:829-31 pubmed
    ..A recent report details the roles that two genes, pdm-1 and pdm-2, play within an identified neural stem cell lineage in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system...
  13. Peng P, Hassan Samee M, Sinha S. Incorporating chromatin accessibility data into sequence-to-expression modeling. Biophys J. 2015;108:1257-67 pubmed publisher
    ..It also calls for future advances in modeling accessibility levels from sequence and the transregulatory context, so as to predict accurately the effect of cis and trans perturbations on gene expression. ..
  14. Ghavi Helm Y, Klein F, Pakozdi T, Ciglar L, Noordermeer D, Huber W, et al. Enhancer loops appear stable during development and are associated with paused polymerase. Nature. 2014;512:96-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the general topology governing enhancer contacts is conserved from flies to humans and suggest that transcription initiates from preformed enhancer-promoter loops through release of paused polymerase. ..
  15. Turchyn N, Chesebro J, Hrycaj S, Couso J, Popadić A. Evolution of nubbin function in hemimetabolous and holometabolous insect appendages. Dev Biol. 2011;357:83-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data represent the first functional evidence defining a role for nub in leg segmentation and highlight the varying degrees of its involvement in this process across insects. ..
  16. Bhat K, Schedl P. The Drosophila miti-mere gene, a member of the POU family, is required for the specification of the RP2/sibling lineage during neurogenesis. Development. 1994;120:1483-501 pubmed
    The Drosophila POU gene miti-mere (previously known as pdm2) has a complex spatial and temporal pattern of expression during early development; initially it is expressed in gap-gene-like pattern, then in 14 stripes and finally in a subset ..
  17. Malin S, Linderson Y, Almqvist J, Ernberg I, Tallone T, Pettersson S. DNA-dependent conversion of Oct-1 and Oct-2 into transcriptional repressors by Groucho/TLE. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:4618-25 pubmed
  18. Billin A, Cockerill K, Poole S. Isolation of a family of Drosophila POU domain genes expressed in early development. Mech Dev. 1991;34:75-84 pubmed
    ..We have isolated genomic and cDNA clones from three Drosophila POU domain genes, designated pdm-1, pdm-2, and Cf1a...
  19. Jacobsen T, Cain D, Paul L, Justiniano S, Alli A, Mullins J, et al. Functional analysis of genes differentially expressed in the Drosophila wing disc: role of transcripts enriched in the wing region. Genetics. 2006;174:1973-82 pubmed
    ..However, there are both technical and biological limitations to this approach, including the efficacy of RNAi and the role that gene redundancy may play in masking phenotypes. ..
  20. Jan Y, Jan L. Neuronal cell fate specification in Drosophila. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1994;4:8-13 pubmed
    ..Selective expression of certain neuronal-type selector genes further specifies the type of neuron(s) that a neural precursor will produce. ..
  21. Parsch J, Stephan W, Tanda S. Long-range base pairing in Drosophila and human mRNA sequences. Mol Biol Evol. 1998;15:820-6 pubmed
    ..The human pairings appear to be stronger and localized to more specific regions near the ends of the mRNA sequence than those of Drosophila. ..
  22. Jimenez F, Modolell J. Neural fate specification in Drosophila. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1993;3:626-32 pubmed
    ..These comprise the initial selection of neural precursors from the ectoderm, the implementation of a basic neural fate common to all precursors and the concomitant endowment of each precursor and its progeny with specific fates. ..
  23. Odenwald W. Changing fates on the road to neuronal diversity. Dev Cell. 2005;8:133-4 pubmed
    ..Two new studies, in this issue of Developmental Cell, provide novel insights into the molecular details of how Drosophila NPCs transition from one offspring identity program to the next. ..
  24. Bellaiche Y, Schweisguth F. Lineage diversity in the Drosophila nervous system. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2001;11:418-23 pubmed
    ..The detailed descriptions of cellular lineages in the Drosophila nervous system have provided the foundations for an in-depth genetic analysis of the mechanisms that regulate fate decisions at every cell cycle. ..
  25. Nakagoshi H, Hoshi M, Nabeshima Y, Matsuzaki F. A novel homeobox gene mediates the Dpp signal to establish functional specificity within target cells. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2724-34 pubmed
    ..Thus, the dve gene acts under the two distinct extracellular signals at distant parts of the midgut primordia. ..
  26. Eisen J. Genetic and molecular analyses of motoneuron development. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1998;8:697-704 pubmed
    ..Many of the same molecules participate in the guidance of both vertebrate and fly motor axons. It is less clear, however, whether the same molecular mechanisms establish vertebrate and fly motoneuron identities. ..
  27. Mehta B, Bhat K. Slit signaling promotes the terminal asymmetric division of neural precursor cells in the Drosophila CNS. Development. 2001;128:3161-8 pubmed
    ..These results tie a cell-non-autonomous signaling pathway to the asymmetric division of precursor cells during neurogenesis. ..
  28. Bhat K, Poole S, Schedl P. The miti-mere and pdm1 genes collaborate during specification of the RP2/sib lineage in Drosophila neurogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4052-63 pubmed
    ..lineage and (ii) the functional relationship between pdm1 and the closely linked second POU gene, miti-mere, in this lineage...
  29. Duque T, Sinha S. What does it take to evolve an enhancer? A simulation-based study of factors influencing the emergence of combinatorial regulation. Genome Biol Evol. 2015;7:1415-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our simulations also revealed that certain features of an enhancer might evolve not due to their biological function but as aids to the evolutionary process itself. ..
  30. Junell A, Uvell H, Pick L, Engstrom Y. Isolation of regulators of Drosophila immune defense genes by a double interaction screen in yeast. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:202-12 pubmed
    ..Most interestingly, three transcription factors belonging to the POU domain class of homeodomain proteins, Pdm1, Pdm2 and Dfr/Vvl were isolated as Dif-interacting partners, and subsequently verified as regulators of CecA1 expression ..
  31. Yu D, Small S. Precise registration of gene expression boundaries by a repressive morphogen in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2008;18:868-76 pubmed publisher
  32. Harris W. Temporal coordinates: the genes that fix cell fate with birth order. Dev Cell. 2001;1:313-4 pubmed
    ..In analogy to spatial coordinate genes that specify neuroblasts by position, these sequentially expressed genes can be called "temporal coordinate genes." ..
  33. Cabrera C. The generation of cell diversity during early neurogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 1992;115:893-901 pubmed
  34. Doe C, Skeath J. Neurogenesis in the insect central nervous system. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1996;6:18-24 pubmed
    ..And finally, new cell-lineage methods are being used to determine the entire lineage of identified neuroblasts, including axon projections and synaptic contacts. ..
  35. Prakash K, Fang X, Engelberg D, Behal A, Parker C. dOct2, a Drosophila Oct transcription factor that functions in yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:7080-4 pubmed
    ..Our data strongly suggest possible functions for the Oct factor in pattern formation in Drosophila that might transcend the boundaries of genetically defined segmentation genes. ..
  36. Ross J, Kuzin A, Brody T, Odenwald W. cis-regulatory analysis of the Drosophila pdm locus reveals a diversity of neural enhancers. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:700 pubmed publisher
    ..Two of the regulators essential to this network are the POU-domain TFs Nubbin and Pdm-2, encoded by adjacent genes collectively known as pdm...
  37. Kao C, Yu H, He Y, Kao J, Lee T. Hierarchical deployment of factors regulating temporal fate in a diverse neuronal lineage of the Drosophila central brain. Neuron. 2012;73:677-84 pubmed publisher
    ..this complete lineage sequence to examine the role of known temporal fating factors, including Chinmo and the Hb/Kr/Pdm/Cas transcriptional cascade, within this diverse central brain lineage...
  38. Tsuji T, Hasegawa E, Isshiki T. Neuroblast entry into quiescence is regulated intrinsically by the combined action of spatial Hox proteins and temporal identity factors. Development. 2008;135:3859-69 pubmed publisher
  39. Hooper S, Boue S, Krause R, Jensen L, Mason C, Ghanim M, et al. Identification of tightly regulated groups of genes during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. Mol Syst Biol. 2007;3:72 pubmed
    ..By mapping the groups to the protein network, we also predict and experimentally confirm new functional associations. ..
  40. Losada Pérez M, Gabilondo H, del Saz D, Baumgardt M, Molina I, Leon Y, et al. Lineage-unrelated neurons generated in different temporal windows and expressing different combinatorial codes can converge in the activation of the same terminal differentiation gene. Mech Dev. 2010;127:458-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, these results imply that the activation of a particular terminal differentiation gene in temporally unrestricted. ..
  41. Nakajima A, Isshiki T, Kaneko K, Ishihara S. Robustness under functional constraint: the genetic network for temporal expression in Drosophila neurogenesis. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010;6:e1000760 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that the Drosophila network for sequential expression has evolved to generate the robust temporal expression for neuronal specification. ..
  42. Hemavathy K, Ashraf S, Ip Y. Snail/slug family of repressors: slowly going into the fast lane of development and cancer. Gene. 2000;257:1-12 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the studies may enable us to trace the evolution of this gene family. ..
  43. Nikulova A, Favorov A, Sutormin R, Makeev V, Mironov A. CORECLUST: identification of the conserved CRM grammar together with prediction of gene regulation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:e93 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with related methods, CORECLUST shows better performance at identification of CRMs conferring muscle-specific gene expression in vertebrates and early-developmental CRMs in Drosophila. ..
  44. Lloyd A, Sakonju S. Characterization of two Drosophila POU domain genes, related to oct-1 and oct-2, and the regulation of their expression patterns. Mech Dev. 1991;36:87-102 pubmed
    ..These POU domain genes, pdm-1 and pdm-2, are expressed at high levels during early embryogenesis and at lower levels throughout the rest of ..
  45. Rougvie A. Intrinsic and extrinsic regulators of developmental timing: from miRNAs to nutritional cues. Development. 2005;132:3787-98 pubmed
    ..Particular attention is given to the roles of miRNAs in developmental timing and to the emerging mechanisms that link developmental programs to nutritional cues. ..
  46. Yuan L, Woodard A, Ji S, Jiang Y, Zhou Z, Kumar S, et al. Learning sparse representations for fruit-fly gene expression pattern image annotation and retrieval. BMC Bioinformatics. 2012;13:107 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental results indicate that the integration of spatial information and sparse features lead to consistent performance improvement in image annotation, while for the task of retrieval, sparse features alone yields better results. ..
  47. Bhat K, Apsel N. Upregulation of Mitimere and Nubbin acts through cyclin E to confer self-renewing asymmetric division potential to neural precursor cells. Development. 2004;131:1123-34 pubmed
    ..These results add to our understanding of maintenance and loss of pluripotential stem cell identity. ..
  48. Yeo S, Lloyd A, Kozak K, Dinh A, Dick T, Yang X, et al. On the functional overlap between two Drosophila POU homeo domain genes and the cell fate specification of a CNS neural precursor. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1223-36 pubmed
    ..the early part of the NB4-2 lineage, two closely linked and structurally related POU homeo domain genes, pdm-2 (dPOU28) and pdm-1 (dPOU19), both encode proteins that accumulate to high levels only in the first GMC (GMC4-2a) and not ..
  49. Macdonald S, Long A. Fine scale structural variants distinguish the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura. Genome Biol. 2006;7:R67 pubmed
    ..Further examination of other Drosophila genome sequences will likely identify an array of novel microinversion events. ..
  50. Abbott A. Heterochronic genes. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R824-5 pubmed