Gene Symbol: Pdf
Description: Pigment-dispersing factor
Alias: BcDNA:RH08487, CG6496, Dmel\CG6496, Drm-PDF, Drm-PDH, Drm-pdf, PAP, PDF, PDH, anon-WO0140519.261, anon-WO0140519.3, cPDH, pdf, Pigment-dispersing factor, CG6496-PA, PDF-associated peptide, PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR, Pdf-PA, Pigment-dispersing hormone-like peptide, pigment dispersing hormone, pigment dispersion factor, pigment-dispersing hormone
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Pdf

Top Publications

  1. Dockendorff T, Su H, McBride S, Yang Z, Choi C, Siwicki K, et al. Drosophila lacking dfmr1 activity show defects in circadian output and fail to maintain courtship interest. Neuron. 2002;34:973-84 pubmed
    ..Morphological analysis of neurons required for normal circadian behavior reveals subtle abnormalities, suggesting that defects in axonal pathfinding or synapse formation may cause the observed behavioral defects. ..
  2. Helfrich Forster C, Edwards T, Yasuyama K, Wisotzki B, Schneuwly S, Stanewsky R, et al. The extraretinal eyelet of Drosophila: development, ultrastructure, and putative circadian function. J Neurosci. 2002;22:9255-66 pubmed
    ..Thus a functional role in circadian entrainment first found in Bolwig's organ in the larva is retained in eyelet, the adult remnant of Bolwig's organ, even in the face of metamorphic restructuring. ..
  3. Dissel S, Codd V, Fedic R, Garner K, Costa R, Kyriacou C, et al. A constitutively active cryptochrome in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:834-40 pubmed
    ..These effects are similar to those seen in wild-type flies under continuous light and suggest a regulatory role for the C terminus of CRY on the photosensitive, photolyase-like part of the protein. ..
  4. Helfrich Forster C. Development of pigment-dispersing hormone-immunoreactive neurons in the nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 1997;380:335-54 pubmed
    An antiserum against the crustacean pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) was used to identify PDH-immunoreactive neurons in the developing nervous systems of wild type Drosophila melanogaster and the brain mutant disconnected...
  5. Fernández M, Chu J, Villella A, Atkinson N, Kay S, Ceriani M. Impaired clock output by altered connectivity in the circadian network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:5650-5 pubmed
    ..small ventral lateral neurons can synchronize certain dorsal oscillators likely through the release of pigment dispersing factor (PDF), a neuropeptide central to the control of rhythmic rest-activity cycles...
  6. Seluzicki A, Flourakis M, Kula Eversole E, Zhang L, Kilman V, Allada R. Dual PDF signaling pathways reset clocks via TIMELESS and acutely excite target neurons to control circadian behavior. PLoS Biol. 2014;12:e1001810 pubmed publisher
    Molecular circadian clocks are interconnected via neural networks. In Drosophila, PIGMENT-DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) acts as a master network regulator with dual functions in synchronizing molecular oscillations between disparate PDF(+) and ..
  7. Stoleru D, Peng Y, Nawathean P, Rosbash M. A resetting signal between Drosophila pacemakers synchronizes morning and evening activity. Nature. 2005;438:238-42 pubmed
    ..of view: we and others have recently shown that a group of adult brain clock neurons expresses the neuropeptide PDF and controls morning activity (small LN(v) cells; M-cells), whereas another group of clock neurons controls evening ..
  8. Hodge J, Stanewsky R. Function of the Shaw potassium channel within the Drosophila circadian clock. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2274 pubmed publisher
    ..Changing Shaw levels in all clock neurons also disrupts the rhythmic accumulation and levels of Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF) in the dorsal projections of LNv neurons...
  9. Lamaze A, Lamouroux A, Vias C, Hung H, Weber F, Rouyer F. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CTRIP controls CLOCK levels and PERIOD oscillations in Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:549-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The control of CLOCK protein levels does not require PERIOD. Thus, CTRIP seems to regulate the pace of the oscillator by controlling the stability of both the activator and the repressor of the feedback loop. ..

More Information


  1. Park D, Griffith L. Electrophysiological and anatomical characterization of PDF-positive clock neurons in the intact adult Drosophila brain. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95:3955-60 pubmed
    ..measure, for the first time, electrophysiological properties and anatomy of individual filled large lateral PDF-positive clock neurons, a cell group believed to be involved in synchronization of the clock in constant conditions...
  2. Neupert S, Johard H, Nassel D, Predel R. Single-cell peptidomics of drosophila melanogaster neurons identified by Gal4-driven fluorescence. Anal Chem. 2007;79:3690-4 pubmed
    ..Two Gal4 lines were used here to identify pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) and hugin-expressing neurons...
  3. Helfrich Forster C, Shafer O, Wülbeck C, Grieshaber E, Rieger D, Taghert P. Development and morphology of the clock-gene-expressing lateral neurons of Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 2007;500:47-70 pubmed
    ..whereby the latter group consists of four neurons that express the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) and a fifth PDF-negative neuron...
  4. Wülbeck C, Szabo G, Shafer O, Helfrich Forster C, Stanewsky R. The novel Drosophila tim(blind) mutation affects behavioral rhythms but not periodic eclosion. Genetics. 2005;169:751-66 pubmed
    ..Therefore it seems possible that TIM--in addition to its well-established role as core clock factor--functions as a clock output factor, involved in determining the period length of adult locomotor rhythms. ..
  5. Stanewsky R. Genetic analysis of the circadian system in Drosophila melanogaster and mammals. J Neurobiol. 2003;54:111-47 pubmed
    ..This review will try to give a comparative overview about the two systems, highlighting similarities as well as specifics of both insect and murine clocks. ..
  6. Yoshii T, Todo T, Wülbeck C, Stanewsky R, Helfrich Forster C. Cryptochrome is present in the compound eyes and a subset of Drosophila's clock neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2008;508:952-66 pubmed publisher
  7. Fernández M, Berni J, Ceriani M. Circadian remodeling of neuronal circuits involved in rhythmic behavior. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e69 pubmed publisher
    ..Rhythmic release of pigment dispersing factor (PDF) has been proposed to propagate the time of day information from core pacemaker cells to downstream ..
  8. Murad A, Emery Le M, Emery P. A subset of dorsal neurons modulates circadian behavior and light responses in Drosophila. Neuron. 2007;53:689-701 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, the LNvs do not drive these rhythms: they are molecularly arrhythmic, and PDF--the neuropeptide they secrete to synchronize behavioral rhythms under constant darkness--is dispensable for ..
  9. Kula Eversole E, Nagoshi E, Shang Y, Rodriguez J, Allada R, Rosbash M. Surprising gene expression patterns within and between PDF-containing circadian neurons in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13497-502 pubmed publisher
    ..and characterized two adjacent but distinct groups of Drosophila adult circadian neurons: the 8 small and 10 large PDF-expressing ventral lateral neurons (s-LNvs and l-LNvs, respectively)...
  10. Kilman V, Zhang L, Meissner R, Burg E, Allada R. Perturbing dynamin reveals potent effects on the Drosophila circadian clock. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5235 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of the neuropeptide PIGMENT-DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF), the only known LNv neurotransmitter, were also reduced, but PERIOD cycling was still delayed in flies lacking PDF,..
  11. Peng Y, Stoleru D, Levine J, Hall J, Rosbash M. Drosophila free-running rhythms require intercellular communication. PLoS Biol. 2003;1:E13 pubmed
    ..This persistent molecular rhythm requires pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), an LN(v)-specific neuropeptide, because the molecular oscillations are gradually lost when Pdf(01) mutant flies ..
  12. Iversen A, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first insect ecdysis triggering hormone receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:924-31 pubmed
    ..Ecdysis (cuticle shedding) is an important behaviour, allowing growth and metamorphosis in insects and other arthropods. Our paper is the first report on the molecular identification of ecdysis triggering hormone receptors from insects. ..
  13. Duvall L, Taghert P. The circadian neuropeptide PDF signals preferentially through a specific adenylate cyclase isoform AC3 in M pacemakers of Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001337 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF) is essential for normal circadian function in Drosophila. It synchronizes the phases of M pacemakers, while in E pacemakers it decelerates their cycling and supports their amplitude...
  14. Donlea J, Ramanan N, Shaw P. Use-dependent plasticity in clock neurons regulates sleep need in Drosophila. Science. 2009;324:105-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of synaptic terminals was reduced during sleep and this decline was prevented by sleep deprivation. ..
  15. Williams J, Su H, Bernards A, Field J, Sehgal A. A circadian output in Drosophila mediated by neurofibromatosis-1 and Ras/MAPK. Science. 2001;293:2251-6 pubmed
    ..staining revealed a circadian oscillation of phospho-MAPK in the vicinity of nerve terminals containing pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), a secreted output from clock cells, suggesting a coupling of PDF to Ras/MAPK signaling.
  16. Lin J, Kilman V, Keegan K, Paddock B, Emery Le M, Rosbash M, et al. A role for casein kinase 2alpha in the Drosophila circadian clock. Nature. 2002;420:816-20 pubmed
    ..These effects are probably direct, as CK2alpha specifically phosphorylates Per in vitro. We propose that CK2 is an evolutionary link between the divergent circadian systems of animals, plants and fungi. ..
  17. Zhao J, Kilman V, Keegan K, Peng Y, Emery P, Rosbash M, et al. Drosophila clock can generate ectopic circadian clocks. Cell. 2003;113:755-66 pubmed
    ..We propose that Clock is uniquely able to induce and organize the core elements of interdependent feedback loops necessary for circadian rhythms. ..
  18. Knowles A, Koh K, Wu J, Chien C, Chamovitz D, Blau J. The COP9 signalosome is required for light-dependent timeless degradation and Drosophila clock resetting. J Neurosci. 2009;29:1152-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, we found that manipulations that strongly inhibit CSN activity had minimal effects on circadian rhythms in constant darkness, indicating a specific role for the CSN in light-mediated TIM degradation. ..
  19. Rieger D, Wülbeck C, Rouyer F, Helfrich Forster C. Period gene expression in four neurons is sufficient for rhythmic activity of Drosophila melanogaster under dim light conditions. J Biol Rhythms. 2009;24:271-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the LN, the PDF expressing small ventral lateral neurons (s-LN(v)) are thought to control the morning activity of the fly (M ..
  20. Naidoo N, Song W, Hunter Ensor M, Sehgal A. A role for the proteasome in the light response of the timeless clock protein. Science. 1999;285:1737-41 pubmed
    ..Degradation appeared to be preceded by tyrosine phosphorylation. Finally, TIM was ubiquitinated in response to light in cultured cells. ..
  21. Nitabach M, Blau J, Holmes T. Electrical silencing of Drosophila pacemaker neurons stops the free-running circadian clock. Cell. 2002;109:485-95 pubmed
  22. Mertens I, Vandingenen A, Johnson E, Shafer O, Li W, Trigg J, et al. PDF receptor signaling in Drosophila contributes to both circadian and geotactic behaviors. Neuron. 2005;48:213-9 pubmed
    The neuropeptide Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) is a principle transmitter regulating circadian locomotor rhythms in Drosophila...
  23. Sheeba V, Fogle K, Kaneko M, Rashid S, Chou Y, Sharma V, et al. Large ventral lateral neurons modulate arousal and sleep in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1537-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Light-activated lLNvs modulate behavioral arousal and sleep in Drosophila. ..
  24. Busza A, Murad A, Emery P. Interactions between circadian neurons control temperature synchronization of Drosophila behavior. J Neurosci. 2007;27:10722-33 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the behavioral responses to temperature input are determined by both the individual properties of specific groups of circadian neurons and their organization in a neural network. ..
  25. Zheng X, Koh K, Sowcik M, Smith C, Chen D, Wu M, et al. An isoform-specific mutant reveals a role of PDP1 epsilon in the circadian oscillator. J Neurosci. 2009;29:10920-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, expression of PDF (pigment-dispersing factor) is reduced in a subset of the central clock cells...
  26. Parisky K, Agosto J, Pulver S, Shang Y, Kuklin E, Hodge J, et al. PDF cells are a GABA-responsive wake-promoting component of the Drosophila sleep circuit. Neuron. 2008;60:672-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify here the relevant Rdl-containing cells as PDF-expressing small and large ventral lateral neurons (LNvs) of the circadian clock...
  27. Coffee R, Tessier C, Woodruff E, Broadie K. Fragile X mental retardation protein has a unique, evolutionarily conserved neuronal function not shared with FXR1P or FXR2P. Dis Model Mech. 2010;3:471-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that FMR1 has a neural-specific function that is distinct from its paralogs, and that the unique FMR1 function is responsible for regulating neuronal protein expression and synaptic connectivity...
  28. Myers E, Yu J, Sehgal A. Circadian control of eclosion: interaction between a central and peripheral clock in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2003;13:526-33 pubmed
    ..In addition, we demonstrate that pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), a neuropeptide secreted from LNs, is necessary for the PG clock and eclosion rhythms...
  29. Siller S, Broadie K. Neural circuit architecture defects in a Drosophila model of Fragile X syndrome are alleviated by minocycline treatment and genetic removal of matrix metalloproteinase. Dis Model Mech. 2011;4:673-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support minocycline as a promising potential FXS treatment and suggest that it might act via MMP inhibition. We conclude that FMRP and TIMP pathways interact in a reciprocal, bidirectional manner...
  30. Hermann C, Yoshii T, Dusik V, Helfrich Forster C. Neuropeptide F immunoreactive clock neurons modify evening locomotor activity and free-running period in Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:970-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that the simultaneous ablation of NPF and pigment dispersing factor (PDF)-immunoreactive neurons has additive effects in LD, resulting in an evening peak phase that is even ..
  31. Hamasaka Y, Rieger D, Parmentier M, Grau Y, Helfrich Forster C, Nassel D. Glutamate and its metabotropic receptor in Drosophila clock neuron circuits. J Comp Neurol. 2007;505:32-45 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that a glutamate signal from some of the DNs modulates the rhythmic behavior pattern via DmGluRA on the LN(v)s in Drosophila. ..
  32. Li Y, Guo F, Shen J, Rosbash M. PDF and cAMP enhance PER stability in Drosophila clock neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E1284-90 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide PDF is important for Drosophila circadian rhythms: pdf(01) (pdf-null) animals are mostly arrhythmic or short period in constant darkness and have an advanced activity peak in light-dark conditions...
  33. Helfrich Forster C. Robust circadian rhythmicity of Drosophila melanogaster requires the presence of lateral neurons: a brain-behavioral study of disconnected mutants. J Comp Physiol A. 1998;182:435-53 pubmed
    ..The presence of residual or bi-circadian rhythmicity in 20% of the flies without LNvs indicates that also other cells contribute to the rhythmic control of locomotor activity. ..
  34. Lim C, Lee J, Choi C, Kilman V, Kim J, Park S, et al. The novel gene twenty-four defines a critical translational step in the Drosophila clock. Nature. 2011;470:399-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that TYF potently activates PER translation in pacemaker neurons to sustain robust rhythms, revealing a new and important role for translational control in the Drosophila circadian clock. ..
  35. Birse R, Johnson E, Taghert P, Nassel D. Widely distributed Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor (CG7887) is activated by endogenous tachykinin-related peptides. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:33-46 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that DTKR is a DTK receptor in Drosophila and that this ligand-receptor system plays multiple functional roles. ..
  36. DiAngelo J, Erion R, Crocker A, Sehgal A. The central clock neurons regulate lipid storage in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19921 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the activity of the central clock neurons is necessary for proper lipid storage. ..
  37. Blanchard F, Collins B, Cyran S, Hancock D, Taylor M, Blau J. The transcription factor Mef2 is required for normal circadian behavior in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5855-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a normal level of Mef2 activity is required in clock neurons to maintain robust and accurate circadian behavioral rhythms. ..
  38. Damulewicz M, Pyza E. The clock input to the first optic neuropil of Drosophila melanogaster expressing neuronal circadian plasticity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21258 pubmed publisher
  39. Garbe D, Fang Y, Zheng X, Sowcik M, Anjum R, Gygi S, et al. Cooperative interaction between phosphorylation sites on PERIOD maintains circadian period in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003749 pubmed publisher
  40. Helfrich Forster C, Homberg U. Pigment-dispersing hormone-immunoreactive neurons in the nervous system of wild-type Drosophila melanogaster and of several mutants with altered circadian rhythmicity. J Comp Neurol. 1993;337:177-90 pubmed
    Antisera against the crustacean pigment-dispersing hormone (beta-PDH) were used in immunocytochemical preparations to investigate the anatomy of PDH-immunoreactive neurons in the nervous system of wild-type Drosophila melanogaster and in ..
  41. Zhang Y, Emery P. GW182 controls Drosophila circadian behavior and PDF-receptor signaling. Neuron. 2013;78:152-65 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide PDF is crucial for Drosophila circadian behavior: it keeps circadian neurons synchronized. Here, we identify GW182 as a key regulator of PDF signaling...
  42. Kadener S, Menet J, Sugino K, Horwich M, Weissbein U, Nawathean P, et al. A role for microRNAs in the Drosophila circadian clock. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2179-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, clk transgenes harboring mutated bantam sites in their 3' UTRs rescue rhythms of clk mutant flies much less well than wild-type CLK transgenes. ..
  43. Depetris Chauvin A, Berni J, Aranovich E, Muraro N, Beckwith E, Ceriani M. Adult-specific electrical silencing of pacemaker neurons uncouples molecular clock from circadian outputs. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1783-93 pubmed publisher
    ..neurons (sLNvs) command rhythmic behavior under free-running conditions releasing the neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) in a circadian fashion...
  44. Yew J, Wang Y, Barteneva N, Dikler S, Kutz Naber K, Li L, et al. Analysis of neuropeptide expression and localization in adult drosophila melanogaster central nervous system by affinity cell-capture mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:1271-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuropeptide profiling also was performed on targeted populations of cells which were enriched with immunoaffinity purification using a genetically expressed marker. ..
  45. Chung B, Kilman V, Keath J, Pitman J, Allada R. The GABA(A) receptor RDL acts in peptidergic PDF neurons to promote sleep in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2009;19:386-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed sleep-wake modulation by a core set of circadian pacemaker neurons that express the neuropeptide PDF. We find that disruption of PDF function increases sleep during the late night in light:dark and the first ..
  46. Cazzamali G, Saxild N, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a Drosophila corazonin receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;298:31-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a receptor that is structurally very similar to the Drosophila corazonin receptor can be found in the genomic database from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. ..
  47. Yoshii T, Heshiki Y, Ibuki Ishibashi T, Matsumoto A, Tanimura T, Tomioka K. Temperature cycles drive Drosophila circadian oscillation in constant light that otherwise induces behavioural arrhythmicity. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:1176-84 pubmed
    ..In flies lacking pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) or PDF-expressing cells, the anticipatory activity was relatively dispersed...
  48. Lear B, Zhang L, Allada R. The neuropeptide PDF acts directly on evening pacemaker neurons to regulate multiple features of circadian behavior. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000154 pubmed publisher
    ..A subset of these neurons expresses the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF), which is important for promoting morning behavior as well as maintaining robust free-running ..
  49. Wülbeck C, Grieshaber E, Helfrich Forster C. Blocking endocytosis in Drosophila's circadian pacemaker neurons interferes with the endogenous clock in a PDF-dependent way. Chronobiol Int. 2009;26:1307-22 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) plays an essential role in the circadian clock of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, but many details of PDF signaling in the clock network are still unknown...
  50. Blanchardon E, Grima B, Klarsfeld A, Chelot E, Hardin P, Preat T, et al. Defining the role of Drosophila lateral neurons in the control of circadian rhythms in motor activity and eclosion by targeted genetic ablation and PERIOD protein overexpression. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;13:871-88 pubmed
    The ventral lateral neurons (LNvs) of the Drosophila brain that express the period (per) and pigment dispersing factor (pdf) genes play a major role in the control of circadian activity rhythms...
  51. Emery P, Stanewsky R, Helfrich Forster C, Emery Le M, Hall J, Rosbash M. Drosophila CRY is a deep brain circadian photoreceptor. Neuron. 2000;26:493-504 pubmed
    ..These brain neurons therefore contain an identified deep brain photoreceptor, as well as the other circadian elements: a central pace-maker and a behavioral output system. ..
  52. Kula E, Levitan E, Pyza E, Rosbash M. PDF cycling in the dorsal protocerebrum of the Drosophila brain is not necessary for circadian clock function. J Biol Rhythms. 2006;21:104-17 pubmed
    In Drosophila, the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a likely circadian molecule, secreted by central pacemaker neurons (LNvs)...
  53. Rezaval C, Berni J, Gorostiza E, Werbajh S, Fagilde M, Fernández M, et al. A functional misexpression screen uncovers a role for enabled in progressive neurodegeneration. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3332 pubmed publisher
    ..e., vulnerability of certain neuronal populations and progressive degeneration, offering a unique scenario in which to unravel the specific mechanisms in an easily tractable organism. ..
  54. Grima B, Dognon A, Lamouroux A, Chélot E, Rouyer F. CULLIN-3 controls TIMELESS oscillations in the Drosophila circadian clock. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001367 pubmed publisher
    ..This work thus shows that CUL-3 is a new component of the Drosophila clock, which plays an important role in the control of TIM oscillations. ..
  55. Luo W, Chen W, Yue Z, Chen D, Sowcik M, Sehgal A, et al. Old flies have a robust central oscillator but weaker behavioral rhythms that can be improved by genetic and environmental manipulations. Aging Cell. 2012;11:428-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that a robust molecular timekeeping mechanism persists in the central pacemaker of aged flies, and reducing PKA can strengthen behavioral rhythms. ..
  56. Isaac R, Johnson E, Audsley N, Shirras A. Metabolic inactivation of the circadian transmitter, pigment dispersing factor (PDF), by neprilysin-like peptidases in Drosophila. J Exp Biol. 2007;210:4465-70 pubmed
    Recent studies have firmly established pigment dispersing factor (PDF), a C-terminally amidated octodecapeptide, as a key neurotransmitter regulating rhythmic circadian locomotory behaviours in adult Drosophila melanogaster...
  57. Smith E, Lin J, Meissner R, Allada R. Dominant-negative CK2alpha induces potent effects on circadian rhythmicity. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e12 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these in vivo data implicate a central role of CK2alpha function in timing PER negative feedback in adult circadian neurons. ..
  58. Blau J, Young M. Cycling vrille expression is required for a functional Drosophila clock. Cell. 1999;99:661-71 pubmed
    ..We also show that dCLOCK and VRI independently regulate levels of a neuropeptide, pigment dispersing factor, which appears to regulate overt behavior.
  59. Lin Y, Stormo G, Taghert P. The neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor coordinates pacemaker interactions in the Drosophila circadian system. J Neurosci. 2004;24:7951-7 pubmed
    In Drosophila, the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is required to maintain behavioral rhythms under constant conditions...
  60. Akten B, Tangredi M, Jauch E, Roberts M, Ng F, Raabe T, et al. Ribosomal s6 kinase cooperates with casein kinase 2 to modulate the Drosophila circadian molecular oscillator. J Neurosci. 2009;29:466-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the two kinases cooperate within clock neurons to fine-tune circadian period, improving the precision of the clock mechanism. ..
  61. Sheeba V, Sharma V, Gu H, Chou Y, O Dowd D, Holmes T. Pigment dispersing factor-dependent and -independent circadian locomotor behavioral rhythms. J Neurosci. 2008;28:217-27 pubmed publisher
    ..pacemaker circuit and locomotor activity rhythms in Drosophila, we perturbed the electrical activity and pigment dispersing factor (PDF) levels of the lateral ventral neurons (LNv) and assayed their combinatorial effect on molecular ..
  62. Renn S, Park J, Rosbash M, Hall J, Taghert P. A pdf neuropeptide gene mutation and ablation of PDF neurons each cause severe abnormalities of behavioral circadian rhythms in Drosophila. Cell. 1999;99:791-802 pubmed
    ..Here, we define two critical features of that mechanism in Drosophila. We first describe animals mutant for the pdf neuropeptide gene, which is expressed by most of the candidate pacemakers (LNv neurons)...
  63. Park J, Hall J. Isolation and chronobiological analysis of a neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor gene in Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Rhythms. 1998;13:219-28 pubmed
    ..The substance is called pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), based on one of the roles it plays in crustaceans (the arthropods in which this factor was initially discovered)...
  64. Zhang L, Chung B, Lear B, Kilman V, Liu Y, Mahesh G, et al. DN1(p) circadian neurons coordinate acute light and PDF inputs to produce robust daily behavior in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2010;20:591-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The fruit fly Drosophila exhibits clock-driven activity increases that anticipate dawn and dusk and free-running rhythms under constant conditions. Flies also respond to the onset of light and dark with acute increases in activity...
  65. Picot M, Cusumano P, Klarsfeld A, Ueda R, Rouyer F. Light activates output from evening neurons and inhibits output from morning neurons in the Drosophila circadian clock. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e315 pubmed
    ..Lateral neurons (LNs) that express the pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) drive morning activity, whereas PDF-negative LNs are required for the evening activity...
  66. Ling J, Dubruille R, Emery P. KAYAK-? modulates circadian transcriptional feedback loops in Drosophila pacemaker neurons. J Neurosci. 2012;32:16959-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The strongest effects are on CLK and the neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR, which are both under VRI and PDP1 control...
  67. Hyun S, Lee Y, Hong S, Bang S, Paik D, Kang J, et al. Drosophila GPCR Han is a receptor for the circadian clock neuropeptide PDF. Neuron. 2005;48:267-78 pubmed
    The pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a neuropeptide controlling circadian behavioral rhythms in Drosophila, but its receptor is not yet known...
  68. Grima B, Chélot E, Xia R, Rouyer F. Morning and evening peaks of activity rely on different clock neurons of the Drosophila brain. Nature. 2004;431:869-73 pubmed
    ..Period (PER) protein, including the ventral lateral neurons (LN(v)s), which express the Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) neuropeptide, and the PDF-negative dorsal lateral neurons (LN(d)s)...
  69. Zhou X, Yuan C, Guo A. Drosophila olfactory response rhythms require clock genes but not pigment dispersing factor or lateral neurons. J Biol Rhythms. 2005;20:237-44 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the circadian rhythms in olfactory behavior in Drosophila are driven by pacemakers that do not control the rest-activity cycle and are likely in the antennae. ..
  70. Wülbeck C, Grieshaber E, Helfrich Forster C. Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) has different effects on Drosophila's circadian clocks in the accessory medulla and in the dorsal brain. J Biol Rhythms. 2008;23:409-24 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a key transmitter in the circadian clock of Drosophila melanogaster. Here we studied the rhythmic behavior of neural mutants with modified arborizations of the large PDF neurons...
  71. Fujii S, Amrein H. Ventral lateral and DN1 clock neurons mediate distinct properties of male sex drive rhythm in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10590-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we provide evidence that DN1s exert their roles in MSDR and SLR via distinct signaling pathways. ..
  72. Miyasako Y, Umezaki Y, Tomioka K. Separate sets of cerebral clock neurons are responsible for light and temperature entrainment of Drosophila circadian locomotor rhythms. J Biol Rhythms. 2007;22:115-26 pubmed
    ..In pdf(01) mutant flies that lack the neuropeptide PDF in the ventral groups of LNs, the onset of the evening peak was ..
  73. Houl J, Yu W, Dudek S, Hardin P. Drosophila CLOCK is constitutively expressed in circadian oscillator and non-oscillator cells. J Biol Rhythms. 2006;21:93-103 pubmed
  74. Chen K, Peschel N, Zavodska R, Sehadova H, Stanewsky R. QUASIMODO, a Novel GPI-anchored zona pellucida protein involved in light input to the Drosophila circadian clock. Curr Biol. 2011;21:719-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Even in the additional absence of visual photoreception, partial molecular and behavioral light synchronization persists. Therefore, other important clock-related photoreceptive and synchronization mechanisms must exist...
  75. Górska Andrzejak J, Salvaterra P, Meinertzhagen I, Krzeptowski W, Görlich A, Pyza E. Cyclical expression of Na+/K+-ATPase in the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster. J Insect Physiol. 2009;55:459-68 pubmed publisher
    ..express the clock gene per, and which closely contact the terminals of clock neurons immunoreactive to pigment dispersing factor. GFP fluorescence exhibited circadian oscillation in whole heads from Nrv2-GAL4+UAS-S65T-GFP flies, ..
  76. Ko H, Kim E, CHIU J, Vanselow J, Kramer A, Edery I. A hierarchical phosphorylation cascade that regulates the timing of PERIOD nuclear entry reveals novel roles for proline-directed kinases and GSK-3beta/SGG in circadian clocks. J Neurosci. 2010;30:12664-75 pubmed publisher
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    ..Finally, we present molecular and anatomical evidence for unrecognized phenotypic diversity within each of four established classes of clock neurons. ..
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    ..The differing profiles of TIM and PER nuclear accumulation suggest that PER and TIM have distinct functions in the nuclei of vLNs. ..
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    ..the four viable Drosophila mutations of the central clock that lead to arrhythmic locomotor behavior and for the pdf mutant that lacks pigment-dispersing factor, an output neuropeptide...
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    ..Somata of Crz-neurons in the pars lateralis are located in the vicinity of terminals emanating from PDF-containing pacemaking neurons, indicating a functional connection between the two peptidergic nervous systems...
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    ..The Hofbauer-Buchner eyelet therefore does not appear to account for the previously described norpA-independent light input to the adult clock. This supports the existence of yet uncharacterized photoreceptive structures in Drosophila. ..
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    ..We focused on the unknown function of the 10 PDF-containing large ventral lateral neurons (l-LNvs) of the Drosophila circadian brain network and show here that ..
  84. Stoleru D, Nawathean P, Fernández M, Menet J, Ceriani M, Rosbash M. The Drosophila circadian network is a seasonal timer. Cell. 2007;129:207-19 pubmed
    ..Together with the different entraining properties of the two clock centers, the results suggest that the functional organization of the network underlies the behavioral adjustment to variations in daylength and season. ..
  85. Siegmund T, Korge G. Innervation of the ring gland of Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 2001;431:481-91 pubmed
    ..Most of the neurons presented here have not been described before. The enhancer trap lines labeling them will be valuable tools for the analysis of neuronal as well as genetic regulation in insect development. ..
  86. Picot M, Klarsfeld A, Chélot E, Malpel S, Rouyer F. A role for blind DN2 clock neurons in temperature entrainment of the Drosophila larval brain. J Neurosci. 2009;29:8312-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We first showed that the phasing of the DN2s in LD depends on the pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) neuropeptide in four lateral neurons (LNs), and on the PDF receptor in the DN2s...
  87. Cyran S, Buchsbaum A, Reddy K, Lin M, Glossop N, Hardin P, et al. vrille, Pdp1, and dClock form a second feedback loop in the Drosophila circadian clock. Cell. 2003;112:329-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, VRI and PDP1, together with dClock itself, comprise a second feedback loop in the Drosophila clock that gives rhythmic expression of dClock, and probably of other genes, to generate accurate circadian rhythms...
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    beta-pigment-dispersing hormone (beta-PDH) isolated from the fiddler crab (Rao et al., '85) is a member of an octadecapeptide family of neuropeptides common to arthropods...