Gene Symbol: PCNA
Description: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen
Alias: 53/13, CG9193, DmPCNA, Dmel\CG9193, MUS209, Mus209, PCNA/mus209, Pcna, dPCNA, l(2)02448, l(2)56F, l(2)56Fa, l(2)s1534, mus 209, mus209, pcna, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, CG9193-PA, CG9193-PB, PCNA-PA, PCNA-PB, Proliferating-cell-nuclear-antigen, mutagen-sensitive 209, proliferating-cell nuclear antigen
Species: fruit fly
Products:     PCNA

Top Publications

  1. Renault A, Zhang X, Alphey L, Frenz L, Glover D, Saunders R, et al. giant nuclei is essential in the cell cycle transition from meiosis to mitosis. Development. 2003;130:2997-3005 pubmed
    ..Ovarian death and sterility result from gnu gain of function. gnu function requires the activity of pan gu and plu. ..
  2. Hyun J, Jasper H, Bohmann D. DREF is required for efficient growth and cell cycle progression in Drosophila imaginal discs. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:5590-8 pubmed
    ..These data establish DREF as a global regulator of transcriptional programs that mediate cell proliferation and organ growth during animal development. ..
  3. McKim K, Hayashi Hagihara A. mei-W68 in Drosophila melanogaster encodes a Spo11 homolog: evidence that the mechanism for initiating meiotic recombination is conserved. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2932-42 pubmed
    ..In contrast to spo11, mei-W68 is not required for synaptonemal complex formation and does have a mitotic role. ..
  4. Frolov M, Moon N, Dyson N. dDP is needed for normal cell proliferation. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3027-39 pubmed
    ..Thus, dDP is not essential for developmental control of the G1-to-S transition, but it is required for normal cell proliferation, for optimal DNA synthesis, and for efficient G2/M progression. ..
  5. Duman Scheel M, Weng L, Xin S, Du W. Hedgehog regulates cell growth and proliferation by inducing Cyclin D and Cyclin E. Nature. 2002;417:299-304 pubmed
    ..The discovery of a direct connection between Hh signalling and principal cell-cycle regulators provides insight into the mechanism by which deregulated Hh signalling promotes tumour formation. ..
  6. Yamaguchi M, Hayashi Y, Matsukage A. Essential role of E2F recognition sites in regulation of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene promoter during Drosophila development. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:25159-65 pubmed
    ..We have found sequences similar to the transcription factor E2F recognition site within the Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene promoter. These sequences are located at positions -43 to -36 (site I)...
  7. Du W. Suppression of the rbf null mutants by a de2f1 allele that lacks transactivation domain. Development. 2000;127:367-79 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the expression of an E2F target gene PCNA in eye discs showed that the expression of PCNA is activated by dE2F1 in the second mitotic wave and repressed in ..
  8. Royzman I, Austin R, Bosco G, Bell S, Orr Weaver T. ORC localization in Drosophila follicle cells and the effects of mutations in dE2F and dDP. Genes Dev. 1999;13:827-40 pubmed
    ..The effect of the mutations in the heterodimer subunits suggests that E2F controls not only the onset of S phase but also origin activity within S phase. ..
  9. Ambrus A, Nicolay B, Rasheva V, Suckling R, Frolov M. dE2F2-independent rescue of proliferation in cells lacking an activator dE2F1. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8561-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, mutation of bel relieves the dE2F2-mediated cell cycle arrest in de2f1 mutant cells through a novel Ci155-dependent mechanism without functional inactivation of the dE2F2 repressor. ..

More Information


  1. Takahashi Y, Yamaguchi M, Hirose F, Cotterill S, Kobayashi J, Miyajima S, et al. DNA replication-related elements cooperate to enhance promoter activity of the drosophila DNA polymerase alpha 73-kDa subunit gene. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:14541-7 pubmed
    ..promoter-activating element for the Drosophila DNA polymerase alpha 180-kDa subunit gene and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene...
  2. Park E, MacAlpine D, Orr Weaver T. Drosophila follicle cell amplicons as models for metazoan DNA replication: a cyclinE mutant exhibits increased replication fork elongation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16739-46 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a previously unrecognized role for CyclinE in controlling replication fork movement. ..
  3. Whittaker A, Royzman I, Orr Weaver T. Drosophila double parked: a conserved, essential replication protein that colocalizes with the origin recognition complex and links DNA replication with mitosis and the down-regulation of S phase transcripts. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1765-76 pubmed
    ..This could be either because these events depend on progression of S phase beyond the point blocked in the dup mutants or because DUP is needed directly for these feedback mechanisms. ..
  4. Duronio R, O Farrell P. Developmental control of a G1-S transcriptional program in Drosophila. Development. 1994;120:1503-15 pubmed
    We have defined a coordinate program of transcription of S-phase genes (DNA polymerase alpha, PCNA and the two ribonucleotide reductase subunits) that can be induced by the G1 cyclin, cyclin E...
  5. Frolov M, Stevaux O, Moon N, Dimova D, Kwon E, Morris E, et al. G1 cyclin-dependent kinases are insufficient to reverse dE2F2-mediated repression. Genes Dev. 2003;17:723-8 pubmed
    ..The implication of these results is that cells containing dE2F2 require dE2F1 to either prevent, or reverse, dE2F-mediated repression. ..
  6. Du W, Dyson N. The role of RBF in the introduction of G1 regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis. EMBO J. 1999;18:916-25 pubmed
    ..Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic RBF products show constitutive expression of PCNA and RNR2, two E2F-regulated genes, indicating that RBF is required for their transcriptional repression...
  7. Yamaguchi M, Date T, Matsukage A. Distribution of PCNA in Drosophila embryo during nuclear division cycles. J Cell Sci. 1991;100 ( Pt 4):729-33 pubmed
    An immunocytochemical method using a specific antibody was employed to detect the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in Drosophila embryos during the first 13 nuclear division cycles...
  8. Weng L, Zhu C, Xu J, Du W. Critical role of active repression by E2F and Rb proteins in endoreplication during Drosophila development. EMBO J. 2003;22:3865-75 pubmed
    ..These observations point to an important role for E2F-Rb complexes in the downregulation of cyclin E during the gap phase of endocycling cells in Drosophila development. ..
  9. Ida H, Yoshida H, Nakamura K, Yamaguchi M. Identification of the Drosophila eIF4A gene as a target of the DREF transcription factor. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:4208-20 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the eIF4A gene is under the control of the DREF pathway and DREF is therefore involved in the regulation of protein synthesis. ..
  10. Yamaguchi M, Hayashi Y, Nishimoto Y, Hirose F, Matsukage A. A nucleotide sequence essential for the function of DRE, a common promoter element for Drosophila DNa replication-related genes. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:15808-14 pubmed
    Promoter regions of the Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene and the DNA polymerase alpha 180-kDa catalytic subunit gene contain a common 8 base pair (bp) promoter element, 5'-TATCGATA (DRE, Drosophila DNA replication-..
  11. Hirose F, Yamaguchi M, Handa H, Inomata Y, Matsukage A. Novel 8-base pair sequence (Drosophila DNA replication-related element) and specific binding factor involved in the expression of Drosophila genes for DNA polymerase alpha and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:2092-9 pubmed
    ..DRE)), are required for the high expression of Drosophila genes for DNA polymerase alpha and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (an auxiliary protein for DNA polymerase delta)...
  12. Mozzherin D, Shibutani S, Tan C, Downey K, Fisher P. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen promotes DNA synthesis past template lesions by mammalian DNA polymerase delta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:6126-31 pubmed
    Consistent with previous observations, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) promotes DNA synthesis by calf thymus DNA polymerase delta (pol delta) past several chemically defined template lesions including model abasic sites, 8-oxo-..
  13. Xin S, Weng L, Xu J, Du W. The role of RBF in developmentally regulated cell proliferation in the eye disc and in Cyclin D/Cdk4 induced cellular growth. Development. 2002;129:1345-56 pubmed
  14. Buttitta L, Katzaroff A, Perez C, de la Cruz A, Edgar B. A double-assurance mechanism controls cell cycle exit upon terminal differentiation in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2007;12:631-43 pubmed
    ..In other cell types, however (e.g., wing epithelial cells), unknown mechanisms inhibit E2F and Cyclin/Cdk activity in parallel to enforce permanent cell cycle exit upon terminal differentiation. ..
  15. Warbrick E, Heatherington W, Lane D, Glover D. PCNA binding proteins in Drosophila melanogaster : the analysis of a conserved PCNA binding domain. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:3925-32 pubmed
    The eukaryotic polymerase processivity factor, PCNA, interacts with cell cycle regulatory proteins such as p21(WAF1/Cip1) and Gadd45, as well as with proteins involved in the mechanics of DNA repair and replication...
  16. Ng L, McConnell M, Tan C, Downey K, Fisher P. Interaction of DNA polymerase delta, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and synthetic oligonucleotide template-primers. Analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-band mobility shift assay. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:13571-6 pubmed
    ..developed to study the binding of synthetic oligonucleotides by DNA polymerase delta (pol delta) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)...
  17. Thacker S, Bonnette P, Duronio R. The contribution of E2F-regulated transcription to Drosophila PCNA gene function. Curr Biol. 2003;13:53-8 pubmed
    ..To address these questions, we have characterized the control region of the Drosophila PCNA gene...
  18. Kawamori A, Yamaguchi M. DREF is critical for Drosophila bristle development by regulating endoreplication in shaft cells. Cell Struct Funct. 2011;36:103-19 pubmed
    ..Finally, it could be demonstrated that DREF plays a critical role in regulating pcna transcription in endocycling shaft cells...
  19. Asano M, Wharton R. E2F mediates developmental and cell cycle regulation of ORC1 in Drosophila. EMBO J. 1999;18:2435-48 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we find that overexpression of ORC1 alters the pattern of DNA synthesis in the eye disc and the ovary. Thus, replication origin activity appears to be governed in part by the level of ORC1 in Drosophila. ..
  20. Royzman I, Whittaker A, Orr Weaver T. Mutations in Drosophila DP and E2F distinguish G1-S progression from an associated transcriptional program. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1999-2011 pubmed
    ..Both dDP and dE2F are necessary for viability, and mutations in the genes cause lethality at the late larval/pupal stage. The mutant phenotypes reveal that both genes promote progression of the cell cycle. ..
  21. Duronio R, O Farrell P, Xie J, Brook A, Dyson N. The transcription factor E2F is required for S phase during Drosophila embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1445-55 pubmed
    ..We conclude that in most cells dE2F is essential for a G1-S transcriptional program and for G1-S progression. ..
  22. Bosco G, Du W, Orr Weaver T. DNA replication control through interaction of E2F-RB and the origin recognition complex. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:289-95 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that dE2F1 and Rbf function together at replication origins to limit DNA replication through interactions with DmORC. ..
  23. Frolov M, Huen D, Stevaux O, Dimova D, Balczarek Strang K, Elsdon M, et al. Functional antagonism between E2F family members. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2146-60 pubmed
    ..This study shows how repressor and activator E2Fs are used to pattern transcription and how the net effect of E2F on cell proliferation results from the interplay between two types of E2F complexes that have antagonistic functions. ..
  24. Leclerc V, Tassan J, O Farrell P, Nigg E, Leopold P. Drosophila Cdk8, a kinase partner of cyclin C that interacts with the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. Mol Biol Cell. 1996;7:505-13 pubmed
    ..Based on these observations and sequence similarity to the kinase/cyclin pair Srb10/Srb11 in S. cerevisiae, we suggest that cyclin C and Cdk8 control RNA polymerase II function. ..
  25. McCleland M, Shermoen A, O Farrell P. DNA replication times the cell cycle and contributes to the mid-blastula transition in Drosophila embryos. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:7-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that normal S phase and replication checkpoint activities are important timers of the undisturbed cell cycle before, but not after, the MBT...
  26. Duman Scheel M, Johnston L, Du W. Repression of dMyc expression by Wingless promotes Rbf-induced G1 arrest in the presumptive Drosophila wing margin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:3857-62 pubmed
    ..Although Rbf/E2f pathway components mediate the ability of dMyc to promote G(1) progression, dMyc appears to regulate growth independently of the RBF/E2f pathway. ..
  27. Duronio R, O Farrell P. Developmental control of the G1 to S transition in Drosophila: cyclin Eis a limiting downstream target of E2F. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1456-68 pubmed
  28. Seto H, Hayashi Y, Kwon E, Taguchi O, Yamaguchi M. Antagonistic regulation of the Drosophila PCNA gene promoter by DREF and Cut. Genes Cells. 2006;11:499-512 pubmed
    The gene promoter of Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen (dPCNA) contains several transcriptional regulatory elements, such as upstream regulatory element (URE), DNA replication-related element (DRE, 5'-TATCGATA), and E2F ..
  29. Henderson D, Banga S, Grigliatti T, Boyd J. Mutagen sensitivity and suppression of position-effect variegation result from mutations in mus209, the Drosophila gene encoding PCNA. EMBO J. 1994;13:1450-9 pubmed
    ..Our discovery that mus209 encodes proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which is an indispensable component of the DNA replication apparatus, suggests that ..
  30. Zielke N, Querings S, Rottig C, Lehner C, Sprenger F. The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is required for rereplication control in endoreplication cycles. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1690-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Geminin is only abundant in cells with high CycE-Cdk2 activity, suggesting that APC/C-Fzr activity is periodically inhibited by CycE-Cdk2, to prevent relicensing in S-phase cells. ..
  31. Shibutani S, de la Cruz A, Tran V, Turbyfill W, Reis T, Edgar B, et al. Intrinsic negative cell cycle regulation provided by PIP box- and Cul4Cdt2-mediated destruction of E2f1 during S phase. Dev Cell. 2008;15:890-900 pubmed publisher
    ..E2f1 destruction is mediated by a PCNA-interacting-protein (PIP) motif in E2f1 and the Cul4(Cdt2) E3 ubiquitin ligase and requires the Dp dimerization ..
  32. Ng L, Prelich G, Anderson C, Stillman B, Fisher P. Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Structural and functional homology with its mammalian counterpart. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:11948-54 pubmed
    ..was purified from Drosophila melanogaster embryos using a protocol developed for the purification of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) from human 293 cells...
  33. Yamaguchi M, Nishida Y, Moriuchi T, Hirose F, Hui C, Suzuki Y, et al. Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen (cyclin) gene: structure, expression during development, and specific binding of homeodomain proteins to its 5'-flanking region. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:872-9 pubmed
    The genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila melanogaster proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (cyclin) were isolated and sequenced...
  34. Henderson D, Wiegand U, Norman D, Glover D. Mutual correction of faulty PCNA subunits in temperature-sensitive lethal mus209 mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2000;154:1721-33 pubmed
    b>Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) functions in DNA replication as a processivity factor for polymerases delta and epsilon, and in multiple DNA repair processes...
  35. Kugler S, Nagel A. putzig is required for cell proliferation and regulates notch activity in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3733-40 pubmed
    ..Our findings uncover different modes of operation of pzg during imaginal development of Drosophila, and they provide a novel mechanism of Notch regulation. ..
  36. Petruk S, Sedkov Y, Johnston D, Hodgson J, Black K, Kovermann S, et al. TrxG and PcG proteins but not methylated histones remain associated with DNA through replication. Cell. 2012;150:922-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that histone modification enzymes may re-establish the histone code on newly assembled unmethylated histones and thus may act as epigenetic marks. ..
  37. Ruike T, Takeuchi R, Takata K, Oshige M, Kasai N, Shimanouchi K, et al. Characterization of a second proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA2) from Drosophila melanogaster. FEBS J. 2006;273:5062-73 pubmed
    The eukaryotic DNA polymerase processivity factor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, is an essential component in the DNA replication and repair machinery...
  38. Ma L, Ma J, Xu K. Effect of spaceflight on the circadian rhythm, lifespan and gene expression of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0121600 pubmed publisher
  39. Vincent J, Kolahgar G, Gagliardi M, Piddini E. Steep differences in wingless signaling trigger Myc-independent competitive cell interactions. Dev Cell. 2011;21:366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that Notum could amplify local differences in Wingless signaling, thus serving as an early trigger of Wg signaling-dependent competition. ..
  40. Park J, Werner J, Kim J, Lis J, Kim Y. Mediator, not holoenzyme, is directly recruited to the heat shock promoter by HSF upon heat shock. Mol Cell. 2001;8:9-19 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the activator-Mediator interaction likely underlies the initiation of signal transfer from enhancer-bound activators to the basal transcription machinery. ..
  41. Pflumm M, Botchan M. Orc mutants arrest in metaphase with abnormally condensed chromosomes. Development. 2001;128:1697-707 pubmed
    ..In addition, sister chromatid cohesion was frequently lost. PCNA and MCM4 mutants had similar phenotypes to Orc mutants...
  42. Royzman I, Orr Weaver T. S phase and differential DNA replication during Drosophila oogenesis. Genes Cells. 1998;3:767-76 pubmed
    ..Cyclin E and E2F are needed for this differential DNA replication during Drosophila oogenesis. ..
  43. Duronio R, Brook A, Dyson N, O Farrell P. E2F-induced S phase requires cyclin E. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2505-13 pubmed
    ..Mutation of cyclin E prevented the initiation of S phase after overexpression of dE2F/dDP without affecting induction of target gene expression. Thus, E2F-directed transcription cannot bypass loss of cyclin E in Drosophila embryos. ..
  44. Hayashi Y, Hirose F, Nishimoto Y, Shiraki M, Yamagishi M, Matsukage A, et al. Identification of CFDD (common regulatory factor for DNA replication and DREF genes) and role of its binding site in regulation of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene promoter. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:22848-58 pubmed
    The Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene promoter contains at least three transcriptional regulatory elements, the URE (upstream regulatory element), DRE (DNA replication-related element), and E2F recognition sites...
  45. Davidson I. The genetics of TBP and TBP-related factors. Trends Biochem Sci. 2003;28:391-8 pubmed
  46. Wang K, Shi Z, Zhang M, Cheng D. Structure of PCNA from Drosophila melanogaster. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2013;69:387-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays essential roles in DNA replication, DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation and chromatin metabolism. The PCNA from Drosophila melanogaster (DmPCNA) was purified and crystallized...
  47. Takata K, Ishikawa G, Hirose F, Sakaguchi K. Drosophila damage-specific DNA-binding protein 1 (D-DDB1) is controlled by the DRE/DREF system. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:3795-808 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that D-DDB1 not only contributes to the DNA repair system, but also has a role in cell proliferation and development. ..
  48. Yamaguchi M, Nishimoto Y, Hirose F, Matsukage A. Distribution of PCNA during postblastoderm cell division cycles in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo: effect of a string- mutation. Cell Struct Funct. 1995;20:47-57 pubmed
    We used immunocytochemical methods and a specific antibody to identify proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in Drosophila embryos during the postblastoderm cell division cycles...
  49. Peng J, Karpen G. Heterochromatic genome stability requires regulators of histone H3 K9 methylation. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000435 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar effects of lower magnitude were observed in animals that lack the RNA interference pathway component Dcr2. These results suggest that the H3K9 methylation and RNAi pathways ensure heterochromatin stability. ..
  50. Wilanowski T, Tuckfield A, Cerruti L, O Connell S, Saint R, Parekh V, et al. A highly conserved novel family of mammalian developmental transcription factors related to Drosophila grainyhead. Mech Dev. 2002;114:37-50 pubmed
    ..This sequence and functional conservation indicates that the new mammalian members of this family play important developmental roles. ..
  51. Hsieh T, Nicolay B, Frolov M, Moon N. Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 regulates dE2F1 expression during development and cooperates with RBF1 to control proliferation and survival. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001071 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide evidence to suggest that dE2F1 is an important cell cycle regulator that translates the growth-promoting signal downstream of the TSC/Rheb/Tor/S6k pathway. ..
  52. Lee H, Ragusano L, Martinez A, Gill J, Dimova D. A dual role for the dREAM/MMB complex in the regulation of differentiation-specific E2F/RB target genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:2110-20 pubmed publisher
    ..First, it is required for the stability of the repressive dE2F2/RBF complexes at their promoters during S phase. Second, we find that dREAM is indispensable for both transcriptional repression mechanisms employed at these genes. ..
  53. Loppin B, Berger F, Couble P. The Drosophila maternal gene sésame is required for sperm chromatin remodeling at fertilization. Chromosoma. 2001;110:430-40 pubmed
    ..The abnormal chromatin organization of the male pronucleus does not prevent the formation of a male pronuclear envelope, which breaks down and reassembles in synchrony with maternally derived nuclei present in the same cytoplasm. ..
  54. de Buendía P. Search for DNA repair pathways in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1998;407:67-84 pubmed
    ..A possible explanation could be a weaker control of post-replication repair mechanisms in Drosophila than in yeast. It is expected that this research could help for a better understanding of repair mechanisms in complex organisms. ..
  55. Yamaguchi M, Nishida Y, Matsukage A. Role of homeodomain protein binding region in the expression of Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene: analysis with transgenic flies. Gene Expr. 1995;4:183-93 pubmed
    The regulatory region of Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene consists of a promoter region (-168 to +24 with respect to the transcription initiation site) and an upstream region containing three homeodomain protein ..
  56. Pflumm M. The role of DNA replication in chromosome condensation. Bioessays. 2002;24:411-8 pubmed
    ..Recent phenotypic analysis of Drosophila DNA replication mutants has revitalized this old idea. In this review, the role of DNA replication in chromosome condensation will be examined. ..
  57. Korenjak M, Taylor Harding B, Binné U, Satterlee J, Stevaux O, Aasland R, et al. Native E2F/RBF complexes contain Myb-interacting proteins and repress transcription of developmentally controlled E2F target genes. Cell. 2004;119:181-93 pubmed
    ..These results reveal an extensive evolutionary conservation of specific pRb repressor complexes that physically combine subunits with established roles in the regulation of transcription, DNA replication, and chromatin structure. ..
  58. Smith A, King J, Orr Weaver T. Identification of genomic regions required for DNA replication during Drosophila embryogenesis. Genetics. 1993;135:817-29 pubmed
    ..Additionally, our analysis identified a gene, pimples, that is required for the proper completion of mitosis in the post-blastoderm divisions of the embryo. ..
  59. Hochheimer A, Tjian R. Diversified transcription initiation complexes expand promoter selectivity and tissue-specific gene expression. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1309-20 pubmed
  60. Valadez Graham V, Yoshioka Y, Velazquez O, Kawamori A, Vázquez M, Neumann A, et al. XNP/dATRX interacts with DREF in the chromatin to regulate gene expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:1460-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This work establishes that XNP/dATRX directly contacts the transcriptional activator DREF in the chromatin to regulate gene expression. ..
  61. Otsuki K, Hayashi Y, Kato M, Yoshida H, Yamaguchi M. Characterization of dRFX2, a novel RFX family protein in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:5636-48 pubmed
    ..in the region between URE (upstream regulatory element) and DRE (DNA replication-related element) in the Drosophila PCNA gene promoter. This element plays an important role in promoter activity in living flies...
  62. Acharya P, Negre N, Johnston J, Wei Y, White K, Henry R, et al. Evidence for autoregulation and cell signaling pathway regulation from genome-wide binding of the Drosophila retinoblastoma protein. G3 (Bethesda). 2012;2:1459-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Many of these targeted genes are bound by Rbf1 homologs in human cells, indicating that a conserved role of RB proteins may be to adjust the set point of interlinked signaling networks essential for growth and development. ..
  63. Renault A, Axton J. Identification of plu genes and cis-acting elements of PCNA in the Drosophila genus using conservation of gene order. Gene. 2003;307:77-86 pubmed
    In Drosophila melanogaster, the cell cycle control gene, plutonium (plu), is located between the PCNA and RpS18 genes at position 56F on chromosome arm 2R...
  64. Jaffe A, Jongens T. Structure-specific abnormalities associated with mutations in a DNA replication accessory factor in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2001;230:161-76 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the cutlet gene product acts as an accessory factor for DNA replication and has different requirements for the formation of various adult structures during Drosophila development. ..
  65. Yuan K, Farrell J, O Farrell P. Different cyclin types collaborate to reverse the S-phase checkpoint and permit prompt mitosis. J Cell Biol. 2012;198:973-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that different cyclin types have distinct abilities to reverse the checkpoint but that they collaborate to do so rapidly. ..
  66. Beck S, Falconer E, Catching A, Hodgson J, Brock H. Cell cycle defects in polyhomeotic mutants are caused by abrogation of the DNA damage checkpoint. Dev Biol. 2010;339:320-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that the mitotic defects of ph(p) are caused by defects in the DNA damage response that occurs after DNA replication in S phase, and we propose that PhP has a direct role in DNA damage repair. ..
  67. Whalen A, McConnell M, Fisher P. Developmental regulation of Drosophila DNA topoisomerase II. J Cell Biol. 1991;112:203-13 pubmed
    ..1986. J. Cell Biol. 103:2569-2581; Heck, M. M. S., W. N. Hittelman, and W. C. Earnshaw. 1988. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85:1086-1090) and suggest that in Drosophila, topo II may not be a useful marker for the proliferative state. ..
  68. Sawado T, Hirose F, Takahashi Y, Sasaki T, Shinomiya T, Sakaguchi K, et al. The DNA replication-related element (DRE)/DRE-binding factor system is a transcriptional regulator of the Drosophila E2F gene. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:26042-51 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of DREF in eye imaginal disc cells enhanced the promoter activity of dE2F. The obtained results indicate that the DRE/DREF system activates transcription of the dE2F gene. ..
  69. Smith Bolton R, Worley M, Kanda H, Hariharan I. Regenerative growth in Drosophila imaginal discs is regulated by Wingless and Myc. Dev Cell. 2009;16:797-809 pubmed publisher
    ..This system is conducive to forward genetic screens, enabling an unbiased search for genes that regulate both the extent of and the capacity for regeneration. ..
  70. Ohno K, Hirose F, Inoue Y, Takisawa H, Mimura S, Hashimoto Y, et al. cDNA cloning and expression during development of Drosophila melanogaster MCM3, MCM6 and MCM7. Gene. 1998;217:177-85 pubmed
    ..similar to those of genes for proteins involved in DNA replication, such as DNA polymerase alpha and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, suggesting that expression of DmMCM genes is under the regulatory mechanism which regulates ..