Gene Symbol: Pburs
Description: Partner of Bursicon
Alias: Bur beta, Burs beta, Bursbeta, CG15284, Dmel\CG15284, PBURS, burs beta, burs-beta, bursbeta, pads-b, pburs, pup, partner of bursicon, CG15284-PA, Pburs-PA, bursicon, bursicon beta, bursicon beta subunit, bursicon beta-subunit, lethal group A, partner of burs, partner-of-bursicon, pupal
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Luo C, Dewey E, Sudo S, Ewer J, Hsu S, Honegger H, et al. Bursicon, the insect cuticle-hardening hormone, is a heterodimeric cystine knot protein that activates G protein-coupled receptor LGR2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2820-5 pubmed publisher
    ..cystine knot hormone found in insects, consists of two proteins encoded by the genes burs and pburs (partner of burs)...
  2. Mendive F, Van Loy T, Claeysen S, Poels J, Williamson M, Hauser F, et al. Drosophila molting neurohormone bursicon is a heterodimer and the natural agonist of the orphan receptor DLGR2. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:2171-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Bursicon is a neurohumoral agent responsible for tanning and hardening of the cuticle and expansion of the wings during the final phase of insect metamorphosis...
  3. An S, Wang S, Gilbert L, Beerntsen B, Ellersieck M, Song Q. Global identification of bursicon-regulated genes in Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:424 pubmed publisher
    b>Bursicon is a heterodimer neuropeptide responsible for regulating cuticle sclerotization and wing expansion in several insect species...
  4. Kim D, Han M, Lee G, Lee S, Kim Y, Adams M. Rescheduling Behavioral Subunits of a Fixed Action Pattern by Genetic Manipulation of Peptidergic Signaling. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005513 pubmed publisher
    ..kinin (aka drosokinin, leucokinin) neurons regulate pre-ecdysis behavior and CAMB neurons (CCAP, AstCC, MIP, and Bursicon) initiate the switch to ecdysis behavior...
  5. Hwang J, de Bruyne M, Warr C, Burke R. Copper overload and deficiency both adversely affect the central nervous system of Drosophila. Metallomics. 2014;6:2223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that both copper overload and excess have detrimental effects on Drosophila neuronal function, reducing overall fly viability as well as impacting on a specific neuropeptide pathway. ..
  6. Ashburner M, Tsubota S, Woodruff R. The genetics of a small chromosome region of Drosophila melanogaster containing the structural gene for alcohol dehydrogenase. IV: scutoid, an antimorphic mutation. Genetics. 1982;102:401-20 pubmed
    ..The Sco phenotype is thought to result from a position effect at the newly created noc/l(2)br28 junction. ..
  7. Iyengar B, Roote J, Campos A. The tamas gene, identified as a mutation that disrupts larval behavior in Drosophila melanogaster, codes for the mitochondrial DNA polymerase catalytic subunit (DNApol-gamma125). Genetics. 1999;153:1809-24 pubmed
    From a screen of pupal lethal lines of Drosophila melanogaster we identified a mutant strain that displayed a reproducible reduction in the larval response to light...
  8. Veverytsa L, Allan D. Temporally tuned neuronal differentiation supports the functional remodeling of a neuronal network in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E748-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Larval ecdysis replaces the cuticle between larval stages, and pupal ecdysis externalizes and expands the head and appendages to their adult position...
  9. Kim Y, Zitnan D, Galizia C, Cho K, Adams M. A command chemical triggers an innate behavior by sequential activation of multiple peptidergic ensembles. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1395-407 pubmed
    ..FMRFamides, eclosion hormone (EH), crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), myoinhibitory peptides (MIP), and bursicon. Real-time imaging of intracellular calcium dynamics revealed sequential activation of these ensembles after ETH ..

More Information


  1. Lahr E, Dean D, Ewer J. Genetic analysis of ecdysis behavior in Drosophila reveals partially overlapping functions of two unrelated neuropeptides. J Neurosci. 2012;32:6819-29 pubmed publisher
    ..a substantial fraction of flies genetically null for one of the two subunits of bursicon [encoded by the partner of bursicon gene (pburs)] show severe defects in ecdysis, with escaper adults exhibiting the expected failures in wing ..
  2. Veverytsa L, Allan D. Retrograde BMP signaling controls Drosophila behavior through regulation of a peptide hormone battery. Development. 2011;138:3147-57 pubmed publisher
    ..neurons (CCAP-ENs) is required to cell-autonomously upregulate expression of the peptide hormones CCAP, Mip and Bursicon ?...
  3. Gatto C, Broadie K. Fragile X mental retardation protein is required for programmed cell death and clearance of developmentally-transient peptidergic neurons. Dev Biol. 2011;356:291-307 pubmed publisher
    ..tested whether this apoptotic defect is circuit-specific by examining crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and bursicon circuits, which are similarly developmentally-transient and normally eliminated immediately post-eclosion...
  4. Hari P, Deshpande M, Sharma N, Rajadhyaksha N, Ramkumar N, Kimura K, et al. Chip is required for posteclosion behavior in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:9145-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we identified the nature of the deficit to be an absence of Bursicon in the hemolymph of newly eclosed flies, whereas the responsivity to Bursicon in these flies remains normal...
  5. Harwood B, Draper I, Kopin A. Targeted inactivation of the rickets receptor in muscle compromises Drosophila viability. J Exp Biol. 2014;217:4091-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Bursicon is a hormone that modulates wing expansion, cuticle hardening and melanization in Drosophila melanogaster. Bursicon activity is mediated through its cognate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), rickets...
  6. Peabody N, White B. Eclosion gates progression of the adult ecdysis sequence of Drosophila. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:4395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Wing expansion is governed by the hormone bursicon, and stimulation of the bursicon-expressing neurons in newly eclosed flies induces rapid wing expansion...
  7. Natzle J, Kiger J, Green M. Bursicon signaling mutations separate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition from programmed cell death during Drosophila melanogaster wing maturation. Genetics. 2008;180:885-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations establish that the Bursicon/Rickets signaling pathway is necessary for both wing expansion and initiation of the EMT that leads to removal of ..
  8. Ainsley J, Pettus J, Bosenko D, Gerstein C, Zinkevich N, Anderson M, et al. Enhanced locomotion caused by loss of the Drosophila DEG/ENaC protein Pickpocket1. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1557-63 pubmed
  9. Davis T, Trenear J, Ashburner M. The molecular analysis of the el-noc complex of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;126:105-19 pubmed
    ..No l(2)35Ba-nocA+ aberrations have been found. At the molecular level these loci are found to occupy almost the same region, and are probably identical. ..
  10. Woodruff R, Ashburner M. The genetics of a small autosomal region of Drosophila melanogaster containing the structural gene for alcohol dehydrogenase. I. Characterization of deficiencies and mapping of ADH and visible mutations. Genetics. 1979;92:117-32 pubmed
    ..These deficiencies probably include two polytene chromosome bands, 35B2 and 35B3. ..
  11. Zhong L, Hwang R, Tracey W. Pickpocket is a DEG/ENaC protein required for mechanical nociception in Drosophila larvae. Curr Biol. 2010;20:429-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that neurons that detect harsh touch in Drosophila utilize similar mechanosensory molecules. ..
  12. Luan H, Lemon W, Peabody N, Pohl J, Zelensky P, Wang D, et al. Functional dissection of a neuronal network required for cuticle tanning and wing expansion in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2006;26:573-84 pubmed
    ..neurons that expresses crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) has been shown previously to make the hormone bursicon, which is required for cuticle tanning and wing expansion after eclosion...
  13. An S, Dong S, Wang Q, Li S, Gilbert L, Stanley D, et al. Insect neuropeptide bursicon homodimers induce innate immune and stress genes during molting by activating the NF-?B transcription factor Relish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34510 pubmed publisher
    b>Bursicon is a heterodimer neuropeptide composed of two cystine knot proteins, bursicon ? (burs ?) and bursicon ? (burs ?), that elicits cuticle tanning (melanization and sclerotization) through the Drosophila leucine-rich repeats-..
  14. Harwood B, Fortin J, Gao K, Chen C, Beinborn M, Kopin A. Membrane tethered bursicon constructs as heterodimeric modulators of the Drosophila G protein-coupled receptor rickets. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;83:814-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Feasibility of this recombinant approach was explored with a focus on Drosophila bursicon, a heterodimeric cystine-knot protein that activates the G protein-coupled receptor rickets (rk)...
  15. Davis T, Ashburner M, Johnson G, Gubb D, Roote J. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of the genes of the elbow-no-ocelli region of chromosome 2L of Drosophila melanogaster. Hereditas. 1997;126:67-75 pubmed
    ..Homozygous deletion of the complete elbow region results in lethality. Situated between the elbow genes is the pupal gene and a locus which when deleted causes a crippled leg phenotype. This locus may be a control region for elbow...
  16. Ashburner M, Detwiler C, Tsubota S, Woodruff R. The genetics of a small autosomal region of Drosophila melanogaster containing the structural gene for alcohol dehydrogenase. VI. Induced revertants of scutoid. Genetics. 1983;104:405-31 pubmed
    ..However, some revertants of Sco are rather more complex, and their properties suggest an interaction between the pu-noc and l(2)br28-l(2)br37 regions of chromosome arm 2L and also demonstrate the genetic complexity of the el-noc region. ..
  17. Peabody N, Diao F, Luan H, Wang H, Dewey E, Honegger H, et al. Bursicon functions within the Drosophila CNS to modulate wing expansion behavior, hormone secretion, and cell death. J Neurosci. 2008;28:14379-91 pubmed publisher
    ..An example in which the mechanisms have remained enigmatic is the neurohormone bursicon, which, after the final molt, coordinates the plasticization and tanning of the initially folded wings with ..
  18. Grau Y, Carteret C, Simpson P. Mutations and Chromosomal Rearrangements Affecting the Expression of Snail, a Gene Involved in Embryonic Patterning in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1984;108:347-60 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the products of all of these genes function together in the process of specification of pattern in the embryo. ..
  19. Luan H, Diao F, Peabody N, White B. Command and compensation in a neuromodulatory decision network. J Neurosci. 2012;32:880-9 pubmed publisher
  20. Bowser P, Tobe S. Bioinformatic analysis of neuropeptide and receptor expression profiles during midgut metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Peptides. 2006;27:583-9 pubmed
    ..FGLa-type allatostatins, myoinhibiting peptide, ecdysis-triggering hormone, drosokinin and the burs subunit of bursicon, as well as the receptors DAR-2, NPFR1, ALCR-2, Lkr and DH-R...
  21. Diao F, Ironfield H, Luan H, Diao F, Shropshire W, Ewer J, et al. Plug-and-play genetic access to drosophila cell types using exchangeable exon cassettes. Cell Rep. 2015;10:1410-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We also introduce an exchangeable, MiMIC-like Trojan exon construct that can be targeted to coding introns using the Crispr/Cas system. ..
  22. O DONNELL J, Mandel H, Krauss M, Sofer W. Genetic and cytogenetic analysis of the Adh region in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1977;86:553-66 pubmed
    ..If one includes three other loci known to belong there (el, Adh and Sco) a total of 16 complemetation groups have been identified in the region close to Adh. ..