Gene Symbol: Patj
Description: patj
Alias: BcDNA:LD22238, CG12021, D-Patj, DLT, DPATJ, DPatj, Dlt, Dmel\CG12021, Dpatj, PATJ, PaTJ, PatJ, Patj/Dlt, dPATJ, dPatj, dlt, dlt:discs lost, dpatj, patj, patj, CG12021-PA, CG12021-PB, CG12021-PC, Patj-PA, Patj-PB, Patj-PC, discs lost, discslost
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Blankenship J, Fuller M, Zallen J. The Drosophila homolog of the Exo84 exocyst subunit promotes apical epithelial identity. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3099-110 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that epithelial polarity in the Drosophila embryo is actively maintained by exocyst-dependent apical localization of the Crumbs transmembrane protein. ..
  2. Richard M, Grawe F, Knust E. DPATJ plays a role in retinal morphogenesis and protects against light-dependent degeneration of photoreceptor cells in the Drosophila eye. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:895-907 pubmed
    ..Crb organizes a complex composed of several PDZ domain-containing proteins, including DPATJ (formerly known as Discs lost)...
  3. Letizia A, Ricardo S, Moussian B, Martin N, Llimargas M. A functional role of the extracellular domain of Crumbs in cell architecture and apicobasal polarity. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:2157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms of apicobasal polarity and the cellular mechanisms of tissue architecture. ..
  4. Lecuit T, Samanta R, Wieschaus E. slam encodes a developmental regulator of polarized membrane growth during cleavage of the Drosophila embryo. Dev Cell. 2002;2:425-36 pubmed
    ..Slam colocalizes with the junctional proteins Arm/beta-catenin, the PDZ domain-containing protein Dlt, and Myosin and is also required for their proper membrane localization...
  5. Klebes A, Knust E. A conserved motif in Crumbs is required for E-cadherin localisation and zonula adherens formation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2000;10:76-85 pubmed
    ..Both are necessary for rescue of the crumbs phenotype. The EERLI motif interacts with Discs Lost, a cytoplasmic protein containing PDZ domains...
  6. Knust E, Bossinger O. Composition and formation of intercellular junctions in epithelial cells. Science. 2002;298:1955-9 pubmed
    ..Comparisons between fly, worm, and vertebrate epithelia reveal marked similarities with respect to the molecules used, and pronounced differences in the organization of the junctions themselves. ..
  7. Deng W, Schneider M, Frock R, Castillejo Lopez C, Gaman E, Baumgartner S, et al. Dystroglycan is required for polarizing the epithelial cells and the oocyte in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:173-84 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the primary function of Dystroglycan in oogenesis is to organize cellular polarity; and this study sets the stage for analyzing the Dystroglycan complex by using the power of Drosophila molecular genetics. ..
  8. Tanentzapf G, Smith C, McGlade J, Tepass U. Apical, lateral, and basal polarization cues contribute to the development of the follicular epithelium during Drosophila oogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:891-904 pubmed
    ..Contact to the germline is required for the accumulation of Crb in follicle cells. Discs Lost (Dlt), a cytoplasmic PDZ domain protein that was shown to interact with the cytoplasmic tail of Crb, overlaps ..
  9. Nam S, Mukhopadhyay B, Choi K. Antagonistic functions of Par-1 kinase and protein phosphatase 2A are required for localization of Bazooka and photoreceptor morphogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2007;306:624-35 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Par-1 gain-of-function phenotypes are strongly enhanced by reduced PP2A function. Thus, we propose that antagonism between PP2A and Par-1 plays a key role in Baz localization at AJ in photoreceptor morphogenesis. ..

More Information


  1. Lee A, Treisman J. Excessive Myosin activity in mbs mutants causes photoreceptor movement out of the Drosophila eye disc epithelium. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:3285-95 pubmed
    ..We suggest that excessive myosin activity in photoreceptor neurons may pull the cell bodies toward the growth cones in a process resembling normal cell migration. ..
  2. Bhat M, Izaddoost S, Lu Y, Cho K, Choi K, Bellen H. Discs Lost, a novel multi-PDZ domain protein, establishes and maintains epithelial polarity. Cell. 1999;96:833-45 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe a novel Drosophila protein, Discs Lost (DLT), that plays a crucial role in the polarization of embryonic epithelia during cellular blastoderm formation...
  3. Szafranski P, Goode S. Basolateral junctions are sufficient to suppress epithelial invasion during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:364-73 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that spatiotemporal patterns of basolateral junction activity directly suppress epithelial invasion by organizing the cooperative activity of distinct polarity and motility pathways. ..
  4. Chen C, Gajewski K, Hamaratoglu F, Bossuyt W, Sansores Garcia L, Tao C, et al. The apical-basal cell polarity determinant Crumbs regulates Hippo signaling in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15810-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data show that Crb regulates growth through Hippo signaling, and thus identify Crb as a previously undescribed upstream input into the Hippo pathway. ..
  5. Li Z, Wang L, Hays T, Cai Y. Dynein-mediated apical localization of crumbs transcripts is required for Crumbs activity in epithelial polarity. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:31-8 pubmed publisher
  6. Genova J, Fehon R. Neuroglian, Gliotactin, and the Na+/K+ ATPase are essential for septate junction function in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:979-89 pubmed
    ..These findings have implications not only for invertebrate epithelia and barrier functions, but also for understanding of neuron-glial interactions in the mammalian nervous system. ..
  7. Huang J, Zhou W, Dong W, Watson A, Hong Y. From the Cover: Directed, efficient, and versatile modifications of the Drosophila genome by genomic engineering. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8284-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have successfully applied the genomic engineering scheme on 6 different genes and have generated at their loci more than 70 unique alleles. ..
  8. Tepass U. Adherens junctions: new insight into assembly, modulation and function. Bioessays. 2002;24:690-5 pubmed
    ..4 Finally, the asymmetric distribution of adherens junction material regulates spindle orientation during asymmetric cell division in the sensory organ lineage. ..
  9. Benton R, St Johnston D. Drosophila PAR-1 and 14-3-3 inhibit Bazooka/PAR-3 to establish complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. Cell. 2003;115:691-704 pubmed
    ..Thus, antagonism of Bazooka by PAR-1/14-3-3 may represent a general mechanism for establishing complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. ..
  10. Chen T, Chen G, Funkhouser L, Nam S. Membrane domain modulation by Spectrins in Drosophila photoreceptor morphogenesis. Genesis. 2009;47:744-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Spectrins are required for controlling photoreceptor morphogenesis through the modulations of cell membrane domains. ..
  11. Bilder D, Perrimon N. Localization of apical epithelial determinants by the basolateral PDZ protein Scribble. Nature. 2000;403:676-80 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the lateral domain of epithelia, particularly the septate junction, functions in restricting apical membrane identity and correctly placing adherens junctions. ..
  12. Margolis B, Borg J. Apicobasal polarity complexes. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:5157-9 pubmed
  13. Lecuit T, Wieschaus E. Polarized insertion of new membrane from a cytoplasmic reservoir during cleavage of the Drosophila embryo. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:849-60 pubmed
    ..We thus identify a tightly regulated scheme of polarized membrane insertion during cellularization. We propose that such a mechanism could participate in the progressive emergence of apical-basal polarity. ..
  14. Médina E, Williams J, Klipfell E, Zarnescu D, Thomas G, Le Bivic A. Crumbs interacts with moesin and beta(Heavy)-spectrin in the apical membrane skeleton of Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:941-51 pubmed
    ..Crumbs, Discs lost, betaHeavy-spectrin, and DMoesin are all coimmunoprecipitated from embryos, confirming the existence of a ..
  15. Lemmers C, Médina E, Delgrossi M, Michel D, Arsanto J, Le Bivic A. hINADl/PATJ, a homolog of discs lost, interacts with crumbs and localizes to tight junctions in human epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:25408-15 pubmed
    ..It is known that dCrumbs interacts with Discs lost (Dlt), a protein with four PDZ (PSD95/Discs Large/ZO-1) domains (2), and Stardust (Sdt), a protein of the MAGUK (..
  16. Richardson E, Pichaud F. Crumbs is required to achieve proper organ size control during Drosophila head development. Development. 2010;137:641-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our work reveals a novel function for Crb in limiting ligand-dependent transactivation of the N receptor at the epithelial cell membrane. ..
  17. Sokac A, Wieschaus E. Local actin-dependent endocytosis is zygotically controlled to initiate Drosophila cellularization. Dev Cell. 2008;14:775-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that developmentally regulated endocytosis can coordinate actin/PM remodeling to directly drive furrow dynamics during morphogenesis. ..
  18. Nam S, Choi K. Domain-specific early and late function of Dpatj in Drosophila photoreceptor cells. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1501-7 pubmed
    The formation and maintenance of cell polarity is essential for epithelial morphogenesis. Dpatj (Drosophila homolog of mammalian Patj) is a multi-PDZ domain protein that localizes to the apical cell membrane and forms a protein complex ..
  19. Zhou W, Hong Y. Drosophila Patj plays a supporting role in apical-basal polarity but is essential for viability. Development. 2012;139:2891-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we generated molecularly defined null mutants of Drosophila Patj (dPatj)...
  20. Hong Y, Ackerman L, Jan L, Jan Y. Distinct roles of Bazooka and Stardust in the specification of Drosophila photoreceptor membrane architecture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:12712-7 pubmed
  21. Paul S, Ternet M, Salvaterra P, Beitel G. The Na+/K+ ATPase is required for septate junction function and epithelial tube-size control in the Drosophila tracheal system. Development. 2003;130:4963-74 pubmed
  22. Bachmann A, Schneider M, Theilenberg E, Grawe F, Knust E. Drosophila Stardust is a partner of Crumbs in the control of epithelial cell polarity. Nature. 2001;414:638-43 pubmed
    ..of the SAC is the transmembrane protein Crumbs, the cytoplasmic domain of which recruits the PDZ-protein Discs Lost into the complex...
  23. Ma D, Yang C, McNeill H, Simon M, Axelrod J. Fidelity in planar cell polarity signalling. Nature. 2003;421:543-7 pubmed
    ..Subsequent action of the Frizzled feedback loop is sufficient to align all the cells cooperatively. This economical system is therefore highly robust, and produces virtually error-free arrays. ..
  24. Bulgakova N, Kempkens O, Knust E. Multiple domains of Stardust differentially mediate localisation of the Crumbs-Stardust complex during photoreceptor development in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:2018-26 pubmed publisher
    ..including the two ECR domains and a divergent N-terminal L27 domain that binds the multi-PDZ domain protein PATJ in vitro, is necessary for targeting the protein to the apical pole of the cell...
  25. Bilder D, Schober M, Perrimon N. Integrated activity of PDZ protein complexes regulates epithelial polarity. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:53-8 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest a model in which the maturation of epithelial cell polarity is driven by integration of the sequential activities of PDZ-based protein complexes. ..
  26. Whited J, Cassell A, Brouillette M, Garrity P. Dynactin is required to maintain nuclear position within postmitotic Drosophila photoreceptor neurons. Development. 2004;131:4677-86 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the maintenance of photoreceptor nuclear position depends on a balance of plus-end and minus-end directed microtubule motor function. ..
  27. Knust E. Control of epithelial cell shape and polarity. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000;10:471-5 pubmed
    ..Recent data have provided new insights into the molecular nature of these cues and the mechanisms by which they may be translated into a polarised phenotype. ..
  28. Laprise P, Beronja S, Silva Gagliardi N, Pellikka M, Jensen A, McGlade C, et al. The FERM protein Yurt is a negative regulatory component of the Crumbs complex that controls epithelial polarity and apical membrane size. Dev Cell. 2006;11:363-74 pubmed
    ..We propose that Yurt is part of an evolutionary conserved negative-feedback mechanism that restricts Crb complex activity in promoting apical membrane formation. ..
  29. Lee S, Kolodziej P. The plakin Short Stop and the RhoA GTPase are required for E-cadherin-dependent apical surface remodeling during tracheal tube fusion. Development. 2002;129:1509-20 pubmed
    ..In these fusion cells, the apical surface determinant Discs Lost (Dlt) is subsequently deposited and new lumen forms along the track...
  30. Gumbiner B. Regulation of cadherin adhesive activity. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:399-404 pubmed
  31. Berger S, Bulgakova N, Grawe F, Johnson K, Knust E. Unraveling the genetic complexity of Drosophila stardust during photoreceptor morphogenesis and prevention of light-induced degeneration. Genetics. 2007;176:2189-200 pubmed
    ..guanylate kinase (MAGUK), recruits the transmembrane protein Crumbs and the cytoplasmic proteins DPATJ and DLin-7 into an apically localized protein scaffold...
  32. Izaddoost S, Nam S, Bhat M, Bellen H, Choi K. Drosophila Crumbs is a positional cue in photoreceptor adherens junctions and rhabdomeres. Nature. 2002;416:178-83 pubmed
    ..The intracellular domain of CRB1 behaves similarly to its Drosophila counterpart when overexpressed in the fly eye. Our studies may provide clues for mechanisms of photoreceptor degeneration in RP12 and LCA. ..
  33. Walther R, Pichaud F. Crumbs/DaPKC-dependent apical exclusion of Bazooka promotes photoreceptor polarity remodeling. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1065-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This depends on the intertwined function of Bazooka (Baz), Par6-DaPKC, and the Crumbs (Crb)-Stardust (Sdt)-PATJ complex...
  34. Médina E, Lemmers C, Lane Guermonprez L, Le Bivic A. Role of the Crumbs complex in the regulation of junction formation in Drosophila and mammalian epithelial cells. Biol Cell. 2002;94:305-13 pubmed
    ..mammals and that it interacts by its cytoplasmic domain with two cortical modular proteins, Stardust (Sdt) and Discs lost (Dlt) that are also essential for the correct assembly of the ZA...
  35. Richard M, Muschalik N, Grawe F, Ozüyaman S, Knust E. A role for the extracellular domain of Crumbs in morphogenesis of Drosophila photoreceptor cells. Eur J Cell Biol. 2009;88:765-77 pubmed publisher
    ..They are in line with previous observations, which showed that mutations in the extracellular domain of human CRB1 are associated with retinitis pigmentosa 12 and Leber congenital amaurosis, two severe forms of retinal dystrophy. ..
  36. BACHMANN A, Grawe F, Johnson K, Knust E. Drosophila Lin-7 is a component of the Crumbs complex in epithelia and photoreceptor cells and prevents light-induced retinal degeneration. Eur J Cell Biol. 2008;87:123-36 pubmed publisher
    ..protein Crumbs, the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) Stardust and the scaffolding protein DPATJ. The composition of the complex and some of its functions are conserved in mammalian epithelial and photoreceptor ..
  37. Morais de Sá E, Mirouse V, St Johnston D. aPKC phosphorylation of Bazooka defines the apical/lateral border in Drosophila epithelial cells. Cell. 2010;141:509-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Although Baz acts as an aPKC targeting and specificity factor in nonepithelial cells, our results reveal that it performs a complementary function in positioning the adherens junction in epithelia. ..
  38. Sotillos S, Diaz Meco M, Caminero E, Moscat J, Campuzano S. DaPKC-dependent phosphorylation of Crumbs is required for epithelial cell polarity in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:549-57 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, this complex colocalizes with the Crumbs-Stardust (Sdt)-Pals1-associated TJ protein (Patj) complex. Genetic and molecular analyses suggest a functional relationship between them...
  39. Schneider M, Khalil A, Poulton J, Castillejo Lopez C, Egger Adam D, Wodarz A, et al. Perlecan and Dystroglycan act at the basal side of the Drosophila follicular epithelium to maintain epithelial organization. Development. 2006;133:3805-15 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the interaction of Pcan and Dg at the basal side of the epithelium promotes basal membrane differentiation and is required for maintenance of cell polarity in the FCE. ..
  40. Hong Y, Stronach B, Perrimon N, Jan L, Jan Y. Drosophila Stardust interacts with Crumbs to control polarity of epithelia but not neuroblasts. Nature. 2001;414:634-8 pubmed
    ..However, for the subset of ectodermal cells that delaminate and form neuroblasts, their polarity requires the function of Bazooka, but not of Stardust or Crumbs. ..
  41. Pellikka M, Tanentzapf G, Pinto M, Smith C, McGlade C, Ready D, et al. Crumbs, the Drosophila homologue of human CRB1/RP12, is essential for photoreceptor morphogenesis. Nature. 2002;416:143-9 pubmed
    ..Defects in such scaffolds may contribute to human CRB1-related retinal dystrophies. ..
  42. Lecuit T. Junctions and vesicular trafficking during Drosophila cellularization. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:3427-33 pubmed
    ..The novel proteins Nullo and Slam, which are specifically induced during cellularization, represent developmental regulators of membrane growth during cellularization. ..
  43. Pielage J, Stork T, Bunse I, Kl mbt C. The Drosophila cell survival gene discs lost encodes a cytoplasmic Codanin-1-like protein, not a homolog of tight junction PDZ protein Patj. Dev Cell. 2003;5:841-51 pubmed
    The Drosophila gene discs lost (dlt) has been reported to encode a homolog of the vertebrate tight junction PDZ protein Patj, and was thought to play a role in cell polarity...
  44. Nam S, Choi K. Interaction of Par-6 and Crumbs complexes is essential for photoreceptor morphogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:4363-72 pubmed
    ..We show that the Crb complex consisting of Crb, Stardust (Sdt) and Discs-lost (Dlt) colocalizes with another protein complex containing Par-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) in the rhabdomere ..
  45. Djiane A, Yogev S, Mlodzik M. The apical determinants aPKC and dPatj regulate Frizzled-dependent planar cell polarity in the Drosophila eye. Cell. 2005;121:621-631 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that dPatj binds the cytoplasmic tail of Fz1 and propose that it recruits aPKC, which in turn phosphorylates and inhibits Fz1...
  46. Felix M, Chayengia M, Ghosh R, Sharma A, Prasad M. Pak3 regulates apical-basal polarity in migrating border cells during Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 2015;142:3692-703 pubmed publisher
  47. Schottenfeld Roames J, Rosa J, Ghabrial A. Seamless tube shape is constrained by endocytosis-dependent regulation of active Moesin. Curr Biol. 2014;24:1756-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that early endocytosis maintains normal steady-state levels of Crumbs, which recruits apical phosphorylated (active) Moe, which in turn regulates seamless tube shape through modulation of cortical actin filaments. ..
  48. Strickland L, Burgess D. Pathways for membrane trafficking during cytokinesis. Trends Cell Biol. 2004;14:115-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, new work reveals that vesicles derived from the Rab11 recycling endosome (RE) promote actin remodeling at the furrow. ..
  49. Pocha S, Shevchenko A, Knust E. Crumbs regulates rhodopsin transport by interacting with and stabilizing myosin V. J Cell Biol. 2011;195:827-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide, for the first time, a molecular mechanism for the light-dependent degeneration of PRCs observed in crb mutant retinas. ..
  50. Hutterer A, Betschinger J, Petronczki M, Knoblich J. Sequential roles of Cdc42, Par-6, aPKC, and Lgl in the establishment of epithelial polarity during Drosophila embryogenesis. Dev Cell. 2004;6:845-54 pubmed
    ..On the basolateral side, Lgl is active and excludes Par-6 from the cell cortex, suggesting that complementary cortical domains are maintained by mutual inhibition of aPKC and Lgl on opposite sides of an epithelial cell. ..
  51. Egger B, Boone J, Stevens N, Brand A, Doe C. Regulation of spindle orientation and neural stem cell fate in the Drosophila optic lobe. Neural Dev. 2007;2:1 pubmed
  52. Murthy M, Teodoro R, Miller T, Schwarz T. Sec5, a member of the exocyst complex, mediates Drosophila embryo cellularization. Development. 2010;137:2773-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the exocyst is necessary for, and is likely to direct, the polarized addition of new membrane during this form of cytokinesis. ..
  53. Morante J, Vallejo D, Desplan C, Dominguez M. Conserved miR-8/miR-200 defines a glial niche that controls neuroepithelial expansion and neuroblast transition. Dev Cell. 2013;27:174-187 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results establish glial-derived cues as key regulatory elements in the control of neuroepithelial cell proliferation and the neuroblast transition...
  54. Schlichting K, Dahmann C. Hedgehog and Dpp signaling induce cadherin Cad86C expression in the morphogenetic furrow during Drosophila eye development. Mech Dev. 2008;125:712-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Hedgehog and Dpp signaling promote the shortening of cells within the morphogenetic furrow. Induction of Cad86C expression might be one mechanism through which Hedgehog and Dpp promote these cell shape changes. ..
  55. Pichaud F, Desplan C. Cell biology: a new view of photoreceptors. Nature. 2002;416:139-40 pubmed
  56. Rashbass P, Skaer H. Cell polarity: Nailing Crumbs to the scaffold. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R234-6 pubmed
    ..The isolation of a human Crumbs homologue required for normal vision revives questions about the role of Crumbs in cell-cell interactions. ..
  57. Röper K, Brown N. Maintaining epithelial integrity: a function for gigantic spectraplakin isoforms in adherens junctions. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:1305-15 pubmed
    ..leads to double layering and accumulation of actin and ZO-1 in between, and a reduction of Armadillo and Discs lost within, mutant cells, indicative of a disruption of adherens junction integrity...
  58. Letizia A, Sotillos S, Campuzano S, Llimargas M. Regulated Crb accumulation controls apical constriction and invagination in Drosophila tracheal cells. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:240-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This hypothesis is supported by the phenotype of lethal giant larvae (lgl); crb double mutants. These results unveil a link between Crb and the organisation of the actin cytoskeleton during morphogenesis. ..
  59. Sen A, Nagy Zsvér Vadas Z, Krahn M. Drosophila PATJ supports adherens junction stability by modulating Myosin light chain activity. J Cell Biol. 2012;199:685-98 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report that the conserved PDZ (PSD95, Discs large, ZO-1) domain-containing protein PATJ (Pals1-associated tight junction protein) was not per se crucial for the maintenance of apical-basal polarity in ..