Gene Symbol: Parp
Description: Poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase
Alias: BEST:LD21673, CG17685, CG17696, CG17718, CG40411, D.PARP, Dm.pARTa, Dmel\CG40411, LD21673.3prime, PARP, PARP-1, PARP1, Parp1, dPARP, dmparp, parp, Poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase, (Poly (ADP-ribose) polymeras, CG40411-PB, Parp-PB, Poly(ADP ribose) polymerase 1, Poly(ADP)-Ribose polymerase, Poly(ADP-)Ribose polymerase, Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, poly ADP ribose polymerase, poly ADP-ribose (ADPr) polymerase 1
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Miwa M, Hanai S, Masuda H, Koyama Y, Hayashi T, Yoshida Y, et al. Analysis of biological function of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochimie. 1995;77:466-71 pubmed
    ..The second approach is to get the mutants which have disruption in the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase gene and to analyse the phenotypes of these mutants. The characterization of these mutants will be discussed. ..
  2. Pinnola A, Naumova N, Shah M, Tulin A. Nucleosomal core histones mediate dynamic regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 protein binding to chromatin and induction of its enzymatic activity. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:32511-9 pubmed
    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 protein (PARP1) mediates chromatin loosening and activates the transcription of inducible genes, but the mechanism of PARP1 regulation in chromatin is poorly understood...
  3. Ong C, Van Bortle K, Ramos E, Corces V. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation regulates insulator function and intrachromosomal interactions in Drosophila. Cell. 2013;155:148-59 pubmed publisher
    ..that Drosophila insulator proteins are poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated and that mutation of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (Parp) gene impairs their function...
  4. Kim M, Mauro S, Gévry N, Lis J, Kraus W. NAD+-dependent modulation of chromatin structure and transcription by nucleosome binding properties of PARP-1. Cell. 2004;119:803-14 pubmed
    b>PARP-1 is the most abundantly expressed member of a family of proteins that catalyze the transfer of ADP-ribose units from NAD+ to target proteins...
  5. Ji Y, Tulin A. The roles of PARP1 in gene control and cell differentiation. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2010;20:512-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the chromatin barrier, eukaryotic organisms have evolved the strategy of using poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) to modulate chromatin structure and initiate the steps leading to gene expression control...
  6. Tulin A, Spradling A. Chromatin loosening by poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) at Drosophila puff loci. Science. 2003;299:560-2 pubmed
    ..elevated levels of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose modified proteins and that poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) is required to produce normal-sized puffs and normal amounts of Hsp70 after heat exposure...
  7. Koyama Y, Katagiri S, Hanai S, Uchida K, Miwa M. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase interacts with novel Drosophila ribosomal proteins, L22 and l23a, with unique histone-like amino-terminal extensions. Gene. 1999;226:339-45 pubmed
    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a nuclear enzyme that recognizes and binds to the nicks and ends of DNA, and catalyses successive ADP-ribosylation reactions...
  8. Guerrero P, Maggert K. The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) of Drosophila contributes to the regulation of the ribosomal DNA and nucleolar stability. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16401 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data establish a role for CTCF as a component necessary for proper control of transposable element-laden rDNA transcription and nucleolar stability. ..
  9. Tulin A, Stewart D, Spradling A. The Drosophila heterochromatic gene encoding poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is required to modulate chromatin structure during development. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2108-19 pubmed
    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a major NAD-dependent modifying enzyme that mediates important steps in DNA repair, transcription, and apoptosis, but its role during development is poorly understood...

More Information


  1. Ame J, Spenlehauer C, de Murcia G. The PARP superfamily. Bioessays. 2004;26:882-93 pubmed
    ..a large family of 18 proteins, encoded by different genes and displaying a conserved catalytic domain in which PARP-1 (113 kDa), the founding member, and PARP-2 (62 kDa) are so far the sole enzymes whose catalytic activity has been ..
  2. Kotova E, Jarnik M, Tulin A. Uncoupling of the transactivation and transrepression functions of PARP1 protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:6406-11 pubmed publisher
    Poly(ADP ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is a nuclear protein that regulates chromatin remodeling and transcription as well as DNA repair and genome stability pathways...
  3. Kotova E, Jarnik M, Tulin A. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 is required for protein localization to Cajal body. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000387 pubmed publisher
    Recently, the nuclear protein known as Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase1 (PARP1) was shown to play a key role in regulating transcription of a number of genes and controlling the nuclear sub-organelle nucleolus...
  4. Petesch S, Lis J. Rapid, transcription-independent loss of nucleosomes over a large chromatin domain at Hsp70 loci. Cell. 2008;134:74-84 pubmed publisher
    ..An RNAi screen of 28 transcription and chromatin-related factors reveals that depletion of heat shock factor, GAGA Factor, or Poly(ADP)-Ribose Polymerase or its activity abolishes the loss of nucleosomes upon Hsp70 activation. ..
  5. Tulin A, Naumova N, Menon A, Spradling A. Drosophila poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase mediates chromatin structure and SIR2-dependent silencing. Genetics. 2006;172:363-71 pubmed
    ..Strongly increasing or decreasing PARG levels mimics the effects of Parp mutation, supporting PARG's postulated roles in vivo both in removing ADP-ribose adducts and in facilitating ..
  6. Kim M, Zhang T, Kraus W. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by PARP-1: 'PAR-laying' NAD+ into a nuclear signal. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1951-67 pubmed
    ..on the biochemistry, molecular biology, physiology, and pathophysiology of PARylation, focusing on the activity of PARP-1, the most abundantly expressed member of a family of PARP proteins...
  7. Pirrotta V. Transcription. Puffing with PARP. Science. 2003;299:528-9 pubmed
  8. Tenev T, Zachariou A, Wilson R, Ditzel M, Meier P. IAPs are functionally non-equivalent and regulate effector caspases through distinct mechanisms. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:70-7 pubmed
    ..The importance of IBM-mediated regulation of effector-caspases in vivo is substantiated by the enhanced apoptotic potency of IBM-mutant versions of drICE, DCP-1 and caspase-7. ..
  9. Lotti F, Imlach W, Saieva L, Beck E, Hao L, Li D, et al. An SMN-dependent U12 splicing event essential for motor circuit function. Cell. 2012;151:440-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings directly link defective splicing of critical neuronal genes induced by SMN deficiency to motor circuit dysfunction, establishing a molecular framework for the selective pathology of SMA. ..
  10. Kirsanov K, Kotova E, Makhov P, Golovine K, Lesovaya E, Kolenko V, et al. Minor grove binding ligands disrupt PARP-1 activation pathways. Oncotarget. 2014;5:428-37 pubmed
    b>PARP-1 is a nuclear enzyme regulating transcription, chromatin restructuring, and DNA repair. PARP-1 is activated by interaction with NAD+, DNA, and core histones. Each route of PARP-1 activation leads to somewhat different outcomes...
  11. Uchida K, Hanai S, Ishikawa K, Ozawa Y, Uchida M, Sugimura T, et al. Cloning of cDNA encoding Drosophila poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase: leucine zipper in the auto-modification domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:3481-5 pubmed
    We have isolated cDNA clones for a Drosophila poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP; EC by screening a lambda gt11 cDNA library with a Drosophila partial cDNA fragment...
  12. Shaposhnikov M, Moskalev A, Plyusnina E. Effect of PARP-1 overexpression and pharmacological inhibition of NF-kB on the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. Adv Gerontol. 2011;24:405-19 pubmed
    ..The present work investigates how the overexpression of the PARP-1 gene, which is involved in various mechanisms of DNA repair (base excision repair and DNA double-strand breaks ..
  13. Zemolin A, Cruz L, Paula M, Pereira B, Albuquerque M, Victoria F, et al. Toxicity induced by Prasiola crispa to fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea: evidence for bioinsecticide action. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2014;77:115-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The insecticidal properties of PcE may be related to changes in important antioxidant/detoxifying systems, as well as to changes in insect cardiac function. ..
  14. Lehmann S, Costa A, Celardo I, Loh S, Martins L. Parp mutations protect against mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration in a PARKIN model of Parkinson's disease. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2166 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, by mutating Parp in parkin mutants, we show that this increases levels of NAD(+) and its salvage metabolites...
  15. Uchida M, Hanai S, Uematsu N, Sawamoto K, Okano H, Miwa M, et al. Overexpression of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase disrupts organization of cytoskeletal F-actin and tissue polarity in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:6696-702 pubmed
    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) may play important roles in nuclear events such as cell cycle, cell proliferation, and maintenance of chromosomal stability...
  16. Wojcik C, Yano M, Demartino G. RNA interference of valosin-containing protein (VCP/p97) reveals multiple cellular roles linked to ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent proteolysis. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:281-92 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that VCP plays an important general role in mediating the function of the UPS, probably by interacting with potential proteasome substrates before they are degraded by the proteasome. ..
  17. Ji Y, Thomas C, Tulin N, Lodhi N, Boamah E, Kolenko V, et al. Charon Mediates Immune Deficiency-Driven PARP-1-Dependent Immune Responses in Drosophila. J Immunol. 2016;197:2382-9 pubmed publisher
    ..defense in Drosophila Charon is an ankyrin repeat-containing protein that mediates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1)-dependent transcriptional responses downstream of the innate immune pathway...
  18. Kawamura T, Hanai S, Yokota T, Hayashi T, Poltronieri P, Miwa M, et al. An alternative form of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in Drosophila melanogaster and its ectopic expression in rat-1 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;251:35-40 pubmed
    We here report an alternatively spliced form of PARP lacking exon 5 of the Drosophila PARP gene encoding the auto-modification domain. The alternative form of PARP (PARP II) consists 804 amino acids with a molecular weight of 92.3 kDa...
  19. Poch O, Delarue M. Converting sequence block alignments into structural insights. Methods Enzymol. 1996;266:662-80 pubmed
  20. Sala A, La Rocca G, Burgio G, Kotova E, Di Gesù D, Collesano M, et al. The nucleosome-remodeling ATPase ISWI is regulated by poly-ADP-ribosylation. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e252 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the evolutionary conserved nucleosome-remodeling ATPase ISWI and the poly-ADP-ribose polymerase PARP genetically interact. We present evidence showing that ISWI is target of poly-ADP-ribosylation...
  21. Sawatsubashi S, Maki A, Ito S, Shirode Y, Suzuki E, Zhao Y, et al. Ecdysone receptor-dependent gene regulation mediates histone poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;320:268-72 pubmed
    ..As Drosophila poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (dPARP) has recently been reported to be involved in ecdysone-induced puff formation, we decided to test the possible ..
  22. Tower J. Mitochondrial maintenance failure in aging and role of sexual dimorphism. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2015;576:17-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies in mammals and invertebrates implicate autophagy, apoptosis, AKT, PARP, p53 and FOXO in mediating sex-specific differences in stress resistance and aging...
  23. Valéria Soares de Araújo Pinho F, Felipe da Silva G, Echeverria Macedo G, Raquel Muller K, Kemmerich Martins I, Lausmann Ternes A, et al. Phytochemical Constituents and Toxicity of Duguetia furfuracea Hydroalcoholic Extract in Drosophila melanogaster. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:838101 pubmed publisher
    ..Induction of ERK phosphorylation and PARP cleavage was also observed, indicating occurrence of HEDF-induced cell stress and apoptotic cell death...
  24. Costa A, Pazman C, Sinsimer K, Wong L, McLeod I, Yates J, et al. Rasputin functions as a positive regulator of orb in Drosophila oogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72864 pubmed publisher
    ..Tandem Mass Spectrometry analysis shows that several canonical stress granule proteins are associated with the Orb-Rin complex suggesting that a conserved mRNP complex regulates localized translation during oogenesis in Drosophila. ..
  25. Dimitri P, Corradini N, Rossi F, Vernì F, Cenci G, Belloni G, et al. Vital genes in the heterochromatin of chromosomes 2 and 3 of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica. 2003;117:209-15 pubmed
    ..Repetitive loci, such as Responder and the ABO elements, which are also located in the heterochromatin of chromosome 2, are not discussed here because they have been reviewed in detail elsewhere. ..
  26. Kolahgar G, Suijkerbuijk S, Kucinski I, Poirier E, Mansour S, Simons B, et al. Cell Competition Modifies Adult Stem Cell and Tissue Population Dynamics in a JAK-STAT-Dependent Manner. Dev Cell. 2015;34:297-309 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that winner cell proliferation is fueled by the JAK-STAT ligand Unpaired-3, produced by Minute(-/+) cells in response to chronic JNK stress signaling. ..
  27. Singh M, Mishra M, Sharma A, Shukla A, Mudiam M, Patel D, et al. Genotoxicity and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster exposed to benzene, toluene and xylene: attenuation by quercetin and curcumin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;253:14-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The study further suggests the suitability of D. melanogaster as an alternate animal model for toxicological studies involving benzene, toluene and xylene and its potential in studying the protective role(s) of phytochemicals. ..
  28. Lankenau S, Burkle A, Lankenau D. Detection of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis in Drosophila testes upon gamma-irradiation. Chromosoma. 1999;108:44-51 pubmed
    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity is widespread among eukaryotes. Upon DNA damage PARP binds to DNA strand breaks and transfers ADP-ribose residues from NAD+ to acceptor proteins and to ADP-ribosyl protein adducts...
  29. Sepp K, Hong P, Lizarraga S, Liu J, Mejia L, Walsh C, et al. Identification of neural outgrowth genes using genome-wide RNAi. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000111 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results showed that RNAi phenotypes in primary neural culture can parallel in vivo phenotypes, and the screening technique can be used to identify many new genes that have important functions in the nervous system. ..
  30. Brough R, Wei D, Leulier S, Lord C, Rong Y, Ashworth A. Functional analysis of Drosophila melanogaster BRCA2 in DNA repair. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008;7:10-9 pubmed
    ..that depletion of dmbrca2 in cells is synthetically lethal with deficiency in other DNA repair proteins including dmparp. The conservation of the function of BRCA2 in Drosophila will allow the analysis of this key DNA repair protein in ..
  31. Hanai S, Uchida M, Kobayashi S, Miwa M, Uchida K. Genomic organization of Drosophila poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and distribution of its mRNA during development. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:11881-6 pubmed
    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of proteins catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP; EC modulates several biological activities. However, little is known about the role of PARP in developmental process...
  32. Broemer M, Tenev T, Rigbolt K, Hempel S, Blagoev B, Silke J, et al. Systematic in vivo RNAi analysis identifies IAPs as NEDD8-E3 ligases. Mol Cell. 2010;40:810-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our findings indicate that IAPs not only modulate cellular processes via ubiquitylation but also through attachment of NEDD8, thereby extending the complexity of IAP-mediated signaling. ..
  33. Ishak L, Moretton A, Garreau Balandier I, Lefebvre M, Alziari S, Lachaume P, et al. DNA maintenance following bleomycin-induced strand breaks does not require poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activation in Drosophila S2 cells. DNA Repair (Amst). 2016;48:8-16 pubmed publisher
    Poly-ADP ribosylation (PARylation) is a post translational modification, catalyzed by Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) family. In Drosophila, PARP-I (human PARP-1 ortholog) is considered to be the only enzymatically active isoform...
  34. Boamah E, Kotova E, Garabedian M, Jarnik M, Tulin A. Poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) regulates ribosomal biogenesis in Drosophila nucleoli. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002442 pubmed publisher
    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), a nuclear protein, utilizes NAD to synthesize poly(AD-Pribose) (pADPr), resulting in both automodification and the modification of acceptor proteins...
  35. Zhang D, Wang D, Sun F. Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatin protein HP1b plays important roles in transcriptional activation and development. Chromosoma. 2011;120:97-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this study argues that HP1b counteracts HP1a function both in heterochromatin formation and in the transcriptional regulation of euchromatic genes. ..
  36. Ji Y, Tulin A. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins modulates splicing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:3501-13 pubmed publisher
    ..hnRNPs, Squid/hrp40 and Hrb98DE/hrp38, and that this function is regulated by Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) and Poly(ADP-ribose) Glycohydrolase (PARG) in vivo...
  37. Tuxworth R, Vivancos V, O Hare M, Tear G. Interactions between the juvenile Batten disease gene, CLN3, and the Notch and JNK signalling pathways. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:667-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified previously unknown interactions between CLN3 and the Notch and Jun N-terminal kinase signalling pathways and have uncovered a potential role for the RNA splicing and localization machinery in regulating CLN3 function. ..
  38. Kavi H, Fernandez H, Xie W, Birchler J. RNA silencing in Drosophila. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:5940-9 pubmed
    ..RNA silencing processes in Drosophila are described. ..
  39. Andreyeva E, Kolesnikova T, Demakova O, Mendez Lago M, Pokholkova G, Belyaeva E, et al. High-resolution analysis of Drosophila heterochromatin organization using SuUR Su(var)3-9 double mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12819-24 pubmed
    ..This region is enriched in H3diMetK9 and H4triMetK20 but is devoid of other proteins analyzed. ..
  40. Uchida M, Hanai S, Uematsu N, Sawamoto K, Okano H, Miwa M, et al. Genetic and functional analysis of PARP, a DNA strand break-binding enzyme. Mutat Res. 2001;477:89-96 pubmed
    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a nuclear enzyme activated by binding to a single- or double-strand break of DNA and is one of the death substrates for caspase-3 in apoptosis...
  41. Shaposhnikov M, Latkin D, Plyusnina E, Shilova L, Danilov A, Popov S, et al. The effects of pectins on life span and stress resistance in Drosophila melanogaster. Biogerontology. 2014;15:113-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the expression of proinflammatory PARP-1 gene decreased...
  42. Schulze S, McAllister B, Sinclair D, FitzPatrick K, Marchetti M, Pimpinelli S, et al. Heterochromatic genes in Drosophila: a comparative analysis of two genes. Genetics. 2006;173:1433-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that Dbp80 and RpL15 can function in contrasting chromatin contexts on an evolutionary timescale. The complex history of these genes also provides unique insight into the dynamic nature of genome evolution...
  43. Zobeck K, Buckley M, Zipfel W, Lis J. Recruitment timing and dynamics of transcription factors at the Hsp70 loci in living cells. Mol Cell. 2010;40:965-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase activity is required to maintain the transcription compartment. We propose that PAR polymers locally retain factors in a transcription compartment. ..
  44. Thomas C, Kotova E, Andrake M, Adolf Bryfogle J, Glaser R, Regnard C, et al. Kinase-mediated changes in nucleosome conformation trigger chromatin decondensation via poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Mol Cell. 2014;53:831-42 pubmed publisher that a nuclear tandem kinase, JIL-1, controls gene expression by activating poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1)...
  45. Challa M, Malladi S, Pellock B, Dresnek D, Varadarajan S, Yin Y, et al. Drosophila Omi, a mitochondrial-localized IAP antagonist and proapoptotic serine protease. EMBO J. 2007;26:3144-56 pubmed
    ..In summary, we demonstrate for the first time in flies that mitochondrial permeabilization not only occurs during apoptosis but also results in the release of a bona fide proapoptotic protein. ..
  46. Otto H, Reche P, Bazan F, Dittmar K, Haag F, Koch Nolte F. In silico characterization of the family of PARP-like poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (pARTs). BMC Genomics. 2005;6:139 pubmed
  47. Petesch S, Lis J. Activator-induced spread of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase promotes nucleosome loss at Hsp70. Mol Cell. 2012;45:64-74 pubmed publisher
    ..gene loci are dependent on the transcriptional activator, heat shock factor (HSF), and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)...
  48. Poltronieri P, Yokota T, Koyama Y, Hanai S, Uchida K, Miwa M. PARP cleavage in the apoptotic pathway in S2 cells from Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Cell Biol. 1997;75:445-9 pubmed
    ..Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is known to be cleaved in the early phase of apoptosis in vertebrate systems...
  49. Kotova E, Lodhi N, Jarnik M, Pinnola A, Ji Y, Tulin A. Drosophila histone H2A variant (H2Av) controls poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) activation in chromatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6205-10 pubmed publisher
    ..we identify histone variants that regulate the targeting and enzymatic activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), a chromatin regulator in higher eukaryotes...