park

Summary

Gene Symbol: park
Description: parkin
Alias: AAN12155.1, CG10523, Dmel\CG10523, Dpark, PARKIN, Park, Parkin, SD01679, dParkin, dpk, parkin, CG10523-PB, CG10523-PC, D-parkin, dparkin, park-PB, park-PC
Species: fruit fly
Products:     park

Top Publications

  1. Venderova K, Kabbach G, Abdel Messih E, Zhang Y, Parks R, Imai Y, et al. Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 interacts with Parkin, DJ-1 and PINK-1 in a Drosophila melanogaster model of Parkinson's disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:4390-404 pubmed publisher
    ..transgenic flies, various indices of the eye and dopaminergic survival were modified in a complex fashion by a concomitant expression of PINK1, DJ-1 or Parkin. This evidence suggests a genetic interaction between these PD-relevant genes.
  2. Imai Y, Kanao T, Sawada T, Kobayashi Y, Moriwaki Y, Ishida Y, et al. The loss of PGAM5 suppresses the mitochondrial degeneration caused by inactivation of PINK1 in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001229 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, ectopic expression of dPGAM5 exacerbated the dPINK1 and Drosophila parkin (dParkin) phenotypes...
  3. Park J, Lee G, Chung J. The PINK1-Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:518-23 pubmed publisher
    The two Parkinson's disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria...
  4. Rana A, Rera M, Walker D. Parkin overexpression during aging reduces proteotoxicity, alters mitochondrial dynamics, and extends lifespan. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:8638-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss-of-function mutations in parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions to promote the ubiquitin-proteasome system of protein degradation and also ..
  5. Deng H, Dodson M, Huang H, Guo M. The Parkinson's disease genes pink1 and parkin promote mitochondrial fission and/or inhibit fusion in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:14503-8 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (pink1) or parkin cause autosomal-recessive and some sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease. pink1 acts upstream of parkin in a common genetic pathway to regulate mitochondrial integrity in Drosophila...
  6. Greene J, Whitworth A, Kuo I, Andrews L, Feany M, Pallanck L. Mitochondrial pathology and apoptotic muscle degeneration in Drosophila parkin mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:4078-83 pubmed
    ..Recently, loss-of-function mutations in the parkin gene, which encodes a ubiquitin-protein ligase, were found to underlie a familial form of PD known as autosomal ..
  7. Kim N, Tresse E, Kolaitis R, Molliex A, Thomas R, Alami N, et al. VCP is essential for mitochondrial quality control by PINK1/Parkin and this function is impaired by VCP mutations. Neuron. 2013;78:65-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed a Drosophila model of VCP mutation-dependent degeneration. The phenotype is reminiscent of PINK1 and parkin mutants, including a pronounced mitochondrial defect...
  8. Ziviani E, Tao R, Whitworth A. Drosophila parkin requires PINK1 for mitochondrial translocation and ubiquitinates mitofusin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5018-23 pubmed publisher
    Loss of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin causes early onset Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology...
  9. Costa A, Loh S, Martins L. Drosophila Trap1 protects against mitochondrial dysfunction in a PINK1/parkin model of Parkinson's disease. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e467 pubmed publisher
    ..we characterise Drosophila Trap1 null mutants and describe the genetic analysis of Trap1 function with Pink1 and parkin. We show that loss of Trap1 results in a decrease in mitochondrial function and increased sensitivity to stress, ..

More Information

Publications70

  1. Wang X, Winter D, Ashrafi G, Schlehe J, Wong Y, Selkoe D, et al. PINK1 and Parkin target Miro for phosphorylation and degradation to arrest mitochondrial motility. Cell. 2011;147:893-906 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that two Parkinson's disease proteins, the Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 and ubiquitin ligase Parkin, participate in this regulation by arresting mitochondrial movement...
  2. Cox R, Spradling A. Clueless, a conserved Drosophila gene required for mitochondrial subcellular localization, interacts genetically with parkin. Dis Model Mech. 2009;2:490-9 pubmed publisher
    Parkinson's disease has been linked to altered mitochondrial function. Mutations in parkin (park), the Drosophila ortholog of a human gene that is responsible for many familial cases of Parkinson's disease, shorten life span, abolish ..
  3. Saini N, Schaffner W. Zinc supplement greatly improves the condition of parkin mutant Drosophila. Biol Chem. 2010;391:513-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the gene encoding Parkin, a ubiquitin ligase, are responsible for a familial form of PD...
  4. Whitworth A, Theodore D, Greene J, Benes H, Wes P, Pallanck L. Increased glutathione S-transferase activity rescues dopaminergic neuron loss in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:8024-9 pubmed
    Loss-of-function mutations of the parkin gene are a major cause of early-onset parkinsonism. To explore the mechanism by which loss of parkin function results in neurodegeneration, we are using a genetic approach in Drosophila...
  5. Zhang L, Karsten P, Hamm S, Pogson J, Müller Rischart A, Exner N, et al. TRAP1 rescues PINK1 loss-of-function phenotypes. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:2829-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated the potential of TRAP1 to rescue dysfunction induced by either PINK1 or Parkin deficiency in vivo and in vitro...
  6. Shiba Fukushima K, Inoshita T, Hattori N, Imai Y. PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin boosts Parkin activity in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004391 pubmed publisher
    Two genes linked to early onset Parkinson's disease, PINK1 and Parkin, encode a protein kinase and a ubiquitin-ligase, respectively. Both enzymes have been suggested to support mitochondrial quality control...
  7. Pimenta de Castro I, Costa A, Lam D, Tufi R, Fedele V, Moisoi N, et al. Genetic analysis of mitochondrial protein misfolding in Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:1308-16 pubmed publisher
    ..results in the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent autophagy and phenocopies of pink1 and parkin mutants...
  8. Hao L, Giasson B, Bonini N. DJ-1 is critical for mitochondrial function and rescues PINK1 loss of function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9747-52 pubmed publisher
    Mutations or deletions in PARKIN/PARK2, PINK1/PARK6, and DJ-1/PARK7 lead to autosomal recessive parkinsonism. In Drosophila, deletions in parkin and pink1 result in swollen and dysfunctional mitochondria in energy-demanding tissues...
  9. Song S, Jang S, Park J, Bang S, Choi S, Kwon K, et al. Characterization of PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) mutations associated with Parkinson disease in mammalian cells and Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:5660-72 pubmed publisher
    ..However, PINK1 mutations in the kinase domain failed to translocate Parkin to mitochondria and to induce mitochondrial aggregation...
  10. Wu Z, Sawada T, Shiba K, Liu S, Kanao T, Takahashi R, et al. Tricornered/NDR kinase signaling mediates PINK1-directed mitochondrial quality control and tissue maintenance. Genes Dev. 2013;27:157-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Parkinson's disease-associated PINK1 and Parkin actively participate in MQC. However, the signaling events involved are largely unknown...
  11. Pesah Y, Pham T, Burgess H, Middlebrooks B, Verstreken P, Zhou Y, et al. Drosophila parkin mutants have decreased mass and cell size and increased sensitivity to oxygen radical stress. Development. 2004;131:2183-94 pubmed
    Mutations in the gene parkin in humans (PARK2) are responsible for a large number of familial cases of autosomal-recessive Parkinson disease...
  12. Tufi R, Gandhi S, de Castro I, Lehmann S, Angelova P, Dinsdale D, et al. Enhancing nucleotide metabolism protects against mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration in a PINK1 model of Parkinson's disease. Nat Cell Biol. 2014;16:157-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that targeting strategies enhancing nucleotide synthesis pathways may reverse mitochondrial dysfunction and rescue neurodegeneration in PD and, potentially, other diseases linked to mitochondrial impairment. ..
  13. Saini N, Georgiev O, Schaffner W. The parkin mutant phenotype in the fly is largely rescued by metal-responsive transcription factor (MTF-1). Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2151-61 pubmed publisher
    The gene for Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is mutated in some familial forms of Parkinson's disease, a severe neurodegenerative disorder...
  14. Saini N, Oelhafen S, Hua H, Georgiev O, Schaffner W, Bueler H. Extended lifespan of Drosophila parkin mutants through sequestration of redox-active metals and enhancement of anti-oxidative pathways. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;40:82-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the parkin gene lead to autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism (AR-JP)...
  15. Poole A, Thomas R, Yu S, Vincow E, Pallanck L. The mitochondrial fusion-promoting factor mitofusin is a substrate of the PINK1/parkin pathway. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10054 pubmed publisher
    Loss-of-function mutations in the PINK1 or parkin genes result in recessive heritable forms of parkinsonism...
  16. Whitworth A, Lee J, Ho V, Flick R, Chowdhury R, McQuibban G. Rhomboid-7 and HtrA2/Omi act in a common pathway with the Parkinson's disease factors Pink1 and Parkin. Dis Model Mech. 2008;1:168-74; discussion 173 pubmed publisher
    ..pathological cause, particularly with the identification of mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase (pink1), parkin and htrA2 (also known as omi) genes that are linked to PD...
  17. Bae Y, Park K, Kang S. Genomic organization and expression of parkin in Drosophila melanogaster. Exp Mol Med. 2003;35:393-402 pubmed
    ..melanogaster homolog of human parkin. The 2,122 bp parkin gene sequence contains six exons that form a 1,449 bp transcript encoding a protein of 482 ..
  18. Yang Y, Gehrke S, Imai Y, Huang Z, Ouyang Y, Wang J, et al. Mitochondrial pathology and muscle and dopaminergic neuron degeneration caused by inactivation of Drosophila Pink1 is rescued by Parkin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10793-8 pubmed
    ..The muscle and dopaminergic phenotypes associated with dPink1 inactivation show similarity to that seen in parkin mutant flies and could be suppressed by the overexpression of Parkin but not DJ-1...
  19. Riparbelli M, Callaini G. The Drosophila parkin homologue is required for normal mitochondrial dynamics during spermiogenesis. Dev Biol. 2007;303:108-20 pubmed
    Drosophila parkin, the ortholog of the human parkin gene, responsible for a familiar form of autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism, has been shown previously to be involved in Drosophila male fertility...
  20. Tain L, Chowdhury R, Tao R, Plun Favreau H, Moisoi N, Martins L, et al. Drosophila HtrA2 is dispensable for apoptosis but acts downstream of PINK1 independently from Parkin. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:1118-25 pubmed publisher
    ..in Drosophila have provided valuable insight into the function of other PD-linked genes, in particular PINK1 and parkin, and their role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity...
  21. Chen Y, Dorn G. PINK1-phosphorylated mitofusin 2 is a Parkin receptor for culling damaged mitochondria. Science. 2013;340:471-5 pubmed publisher
    ..putative kinase protein 1; PTEN is phosphatase and tensin homolog) and the cytosolic ubiquitin ligase Parkin. The nature of the PINK-Parkin interaction and the identity of key factors directing Parkin to damaged ..
  22. Kim Y, Park J, Kim S, Song S, Kwon S, Lee S, et al. PINK1 controls mitochondrial localization of Parkin through direct phosphorylation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:975-80 pubmed publisher
    PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin, encoded by their respective genes associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), are linked in a common pathway involved in the protection of mitochondrial integrity and function...
  23. Poole A, Thomas R, Andrews L, McBride H, Whitworth A, Pallanck L. The PINK1/Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial morphology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1638-43 pubmed publisher
    Loss-of-function mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) or parkin genes, which encode a mitochondrially localized serine/threonine kinase and a ubiquitin-protein ligase, respectively, result in recessive familial forms of ..
  24. Koh H, Kim H, Kim M, Park J, Lee H, Chung J. Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) and Forkhead box O (FOXO) complement mitochondrial dysfunction and dopaminergic neuron loss in Drosophila PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) null mutant. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:12750-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, another Parkinson disease-linked gene, parkin, functions downstream of PINK1 in protecting mitochondria and dopaminergic (DA) neuron...
  25. Fernandes C, Rao Y. Genome-wide screen for modifiers of Parkinson's disease genes in Drosophila. Mol Brain. 2011;4:17 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in parkin and PTEN-induced kinase 1 (Pink1) lead to autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). parkin and Pink1 encode a ubiquitin-protein ligase and a mitochondrially localized serine/threonine kinase, respectively...
  26. Lutz A, Exner N, Fett M, Schlehe J, Kloos K, Lämmermann K, et al. Loss of parkin or PINK1 function increases Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:22938-51 pubmed publisher
    Loss-of-function mutations in the parkin gene (PARK2) and PINK1 gene (PARK6) are associated with autosomal recessive parkinsonism...
  27. Yun J, Cao J, Dodson M, Clark I, Kapahi P, Chowdhury R, et al. Loss-of-function analysis suggests that Omi/HtrA2 is not an essential component of the PINK1/PARKIN pathway in vivo. J Neurosci. 2008;28:14500-10 pubmed publisher
    ..as well as other, have previously shown that the Drosophila homologs of the familial PD genes, PINK1 (PARK6) and PARKIN (PARK2), function in a common genetic pathway to regulate mitochondrial integrity and dynamics...
  28. Cha G, Kim S, Park J, Lee E, Kim M, Lee S, et al. Parkin negatively regulates JNK pathway in the dopaminergic neurons of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:10345-50 pubmed
    b>Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, has been found to be responsible for autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism characterized primarily by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons with subsequent defects in movements...
  29. Park J, Lee S, Lee S, Kim Y, Song S, Kim S, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction in Drosophila PINK1 mutants is complemented by parkin. Nature. 2006;441:1157-61 pubmed
    ..Notably, we also found that PINK1 mutants share marked phenotypic similarities with parkin mutants...
  30. Wang C, Lu R, Ouyang X, Ho M, Chia W, Yu F, et al. Drosophila overexpressing parkin R275W mutant exhibits dopaminergic neuron degeneration and mitochondrial abnormalities. J Neurosci. 2007;27:8563-70 pubmed
    Mutations in the parkin gene are a predominant cause of familial parkinsonism...
  31. Yang Y, Nishimura I, Imai Y, Takahashi R, Lu B. Parkin suppresses dopaminergic neuron-selective neurotoxicity induced by Pael-R in Drosophila. Neuron. 2003;37:911-24 pubmed
    b>Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that degrades proteins with aberrant conformations, is associated with autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism (AR-JP). The molecular basis of selective neuronal death in AR-JP is unknown...
  32. Liu S, Lu B. Reduction of protein translation and activation of autophagy protect against PINK1 pathogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001237 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in PINK1 and Parkin cause familial, early onset Parkinson's disease...
  33. Burchell V, Nelson D, Sanchez Martinez A, Delgado Camprubi M, Ivatt R, Pogson J, et al. The Parkinson's disease-linked proteins Fbxo7 and Parkin interact to mediate mitophagy. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:1257-65 pubmed publisher
    Compelling evidence indicates that two autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease genes, PINK1 (PARK6) and Parkin (PARK2), cooperate to mediate the autophagic clearance of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy)...
  34. Yang Y, Ouyang Y, Yang L, Beal M, McQuibban A, Vogel H, et al. Pink1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics through interaction with the fission/fusion machinery. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7070-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a cell biological role for Pink1 and establish mitochondrial fission/fusion as a paradigm for PD research. Compounds that modulate mitochondrial fission/fusion could have therapeutic value in PD intervention. ..
  35. Vincow E, Merrihew G, Thomas R, Shulman N, Beyer R, MacCoss M, et al. The PINK1-Parkin pathway promotes both mitophagy and selective respiratory chain turnover in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:6400-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, in vitro studies of the PD-related proteins Parkin and PINK1 have found that these factors act in a common pathway to promote the selective autophagic degradation of ..
  36. Esposito G, Vos M, Vilain S, Swerts J, De Sousa Valadas J, Van Meensel S, et al. Aconitase causes iron toxicity in Drosophila pink1 mutants. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003478 pubmed publisher
    ..leads to defects in mitochondrial function, and genetic data suggest that another PD-related gene product, Parkin, acts with pink1 to regulate the clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria (mitophagy)...
  37. Vos M, Esposito G, Edirisinghe J, Vilain S, Haddad D, Slabbaert J, et al. Vitamin K2 is a mitochondrial electron carrier that rescues pink1 deficiency. Science. 2012;336:1306-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction was rescued by vitamin K(2) that serves as a mitochondrial electron carrier, helping to maintain normal ATP production. ..
  38. Vilain S, Esposito G, Haddad D, Schaap O, Dobreva M, Vos M, et al. The yeast complex I equivalent NADH dehydrogenase rescues pink1 mutants. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002456 pubmed publisher
    ..in Parkinson's disease, and loss of Pink1 function affects mitochondrial morphology via a pathway involving Parkin and components of the mitochondrial remodeling machinery...
  39. Klein P, Müller Rischart A, Motori E, Schönbauer C, Schnorrer F, Winklhofer K, et al. Ret rescues mitochondrial morphology and muscle degeneration of Drosophila Pink1 mutants. EMBO J. 2014;33:341-55 pubmed publisher
    Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated Pink1 and Parkin proteins are believed to function in a common pathway controlling mitochondrial clearance and trafficking...
  40. Burman J, Yu S, Poole A, Decal R, Pallanck L. Analysis of neural subtypes reveals selective mitochondrial dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons from parkin mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:10438-43 pubmed publisher
    Studies of the familial Parkinson disease-related proteins PINK1 and Parkin have demonstrated that these factors promote the fragmentation and turnover of mitochondria following treatment of cultured cells with mitochondrial depolarizing ..
  41. Liu S, Sawada T, Lee S, Yu W, Silverio G, Alapatt P, et al. Parkinson's disease-associated kinase PINK1 regulates Miro protein level and axonal transport of mitochondria. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002537 pubmed publisher
    ..dMiro protein level was increased in dPINK1 mutant but decreased in dPINK1 or dParkin overexpression conditions...
  42. Zhong L, Tan Y, Zhou A, Yu Q, Zhou J. RING finger ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase Nrdp1/FLRF regulates parkin stability and activity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9425-30 pubmed
    b>Parkin is a ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase. It has been suggested that loss of function in parkin causes accumulation and aggregation of its substrates, leading to death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease...
  43. Clark I, Dodson M, Jiang C, Cao J, Huh J, Seol J, et al. Drosophila pink1 is required for mitochondrial function and interacts genetically with parkin. Nature. 2006;441:1162-6 pubmed
    ..familial forms of Parkinson's disease have been identified, including PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1; PARK6) and parkin (PARK2), which are also associated with sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease...
  44. Tain L, Mortiboys H, Tao R, Ziviani E, Bandmann O, Whitworth A. Rapamycin activation of 4E-BP prevents parkinsonian dopaminergic neuron loss. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1129-35 pubmed publisher
    ..To discover potential therapeutic pathways, we identified factors that genetically interact with Drosophila park and Pink1...
  45. Fortini M, Skupski M, Boguski M, Hariharan I. A survey of human disease gene counterparts in the Drosophila genome. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:F23-30 pubmed
  46. Celardo I, Costa A, Lehmann S, Jones C, Wood N, Mencacci N, et al. Mitofusin-mediated ER stress triggers neurodegeneration in pink1/parkin models of Parkinson's disease. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2271 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in PINK1 and PARKIN cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD), thought to be due to mitochondrial toxicity...
  47. Vincent A, Briggs L, Chatwin G, Emery E, Tomlins R, Oswald M, et al. parkin-induced defects in neurophysiology and locomotion are generated by metabolic dysfunction and not oxidative stress. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:1760-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that the larva of the Drosophila parkin mutant faithfully models the locomotory and metabolic defects of PD and is an excellent system for investigating ..
  48. Tsai P, Course M, Lovas J, Hsieh C, Babic M, Zinsmaier K, et al. PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Miro inhibits synaptic growth and protects dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6962 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study established an in vivo platform to define functional consequences of PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of its substrates. ..
  49. Huang Z, Ren S, Jiang Y, Wang T. PINK1 and Parkin cooperatively protect neurons against constitutively active TRP channel-induced retinal degeneration in Drosophila. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2179 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, increasing autophagy flux prevented cell death in Trp(P365) mutant flies, and this depended on the PINK1/Parkin pathway. In addition, the retinal degeneration process was also suppressed by the coexpression of PINK1 and Parkin...
  50. Chen Y, Deng J, Wang P, Yang M, Chen X, Zhu L, et al. PINK1 and Parkin are genetic modifiers for FUS-induced neurodegeneration. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:5059-5068 pubmed publisher
    ..Down-regulating expression of either Pink1 or Parkin genes ameliorated FUS-induced neurodegeneration phenotypes...
  51. Cornelissen T, Haddad D, Wauters F, Van Humbeeck C, Mandemakers W, Koentjoro B, et al. The deubiquitinase USP15 antagonizes Parkin-mediated mitochondrial ubiquitination and mitophagy. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:5227-42 pubmed publisher
    Loss-of-function mutations in PARK2, the gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin, are the most frequent cause of recessive Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  52. Horowitz J, Vernace V, Myers J, Stachowiak M, Hanlon D, Fraley G, et al. Immunodetection of Parkin protein in vertebrate and invertebrate brains: a comparative study using specific antibodies. J Chem Neuroanat. 2001;21:75-93 pubmed
    b>Parkin is an intracellular protein that plays a significant role in the etiopathogenesis of autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism...
  53. Muñoz Soriano V, Paricio N. Overexpression of Septin 4, the Drosophila homologue of human CDCrel-1, is toxic for dopaminergic neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:3150-8 pubmed
    b>parkin loss-of-function mutations are linked to autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism. Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that promotes degradation of specific target proteins by the proteasome...
  54. Politi Y, Gal L, Kalifa Y, Ravid L, Elazar Z, Arama E. Paternal mitochondrial destruction after fertilization is mediated by a common endocytic and autophagic pathway in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2014;29:305-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that the ubiquitin ligase Parkin is not involved in PMD, implying a divergence from the autophagic pathway of damaged mitochondria.
  55. Kim K, Yim J. Glutathione S-transferase omega suppresses the defective phenotypes caused by PINK1 loss-of-function in Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;437:615-9 pubmed publisher
    ..is a phase II detoxification enzyme that conjugates targets to glutathione, and has recently been implicated in parkin-associated PD...
  56. Senyilmaz D, Virtue S, Xu X, Tan C, Griffin J, Miller A, et al. Regulation of mitochondrial morphology and function by stearoylation of TFR1. Nature. 2015;525:124-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the mitochondrial dysfunction caused by genetic defects such as loss of the Parkinson's disease genes Pink or Parkin in Drosophila...
  57. Malik B, Godena V, Whitworth A. VPS35 pathogenic mutations confer no dominant toxicity but partial loss of function in Drosophila and genetically interact with parkin. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:6106-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This process is also promoted by two other PD-lined genes parkin (PARK2) and PINK1 (PARK6)...
  58. Hwang S, Kim D, Choi G, An S, Hong Y, Suh Y, et al. Parkin suppresses c-Jun N-terminal kinase-induced cell death via transcriptional regulation in Drosophila. Mol Cells. 2010;29:575-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Parkin is the most prevalent genetic factor in the onset of autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP), and mutations in parkin has been reported to cause motor defects, which result from dopamine deficiency caused by dopaminergic ..
  59. Xun Z, Kaufman T, Clemmer D. Stable isotope labeling and label-free proteomics of Drosophila parkin null mutants. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:4500-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss-of-function mutations in parkin which encodes an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase contribute to a predominant cause of a familial form of PD termed ..
  60. Zhuang N, Li L, Chen S, Wang T. PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of PINK1 and Parkin is essential for mitochondrial quality control. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2501 pubmed publisher
    ..The Parkinson's disease genes pink1 and parkin, which encode a mitochondrially targeted protein kinase, and an E3 ubiquitin ligase, respectively, participate in ..
  61. Julienne H, Buhl E, Leslie D, Hodge J. Drosophila PINK1 and parkin loss-of-function mutants display a range of non-motor Parkinson's disease phenotypes. Neurobiol Dis. 2017;104:15-23 pubmed publisher
    ..memory performance and circadian rhythms in flies with loss-of-function mutations in two PD genes: PINK1 and parkin. We found learning and memory abnormalities in both mutant genotypes, as well as a weakening of circadian rhythms ..