Gene Symbol: para
Description: paralytic
Alias: CG9907, DmNa[[V]], DmNa[[v]], DmNa[[v]]1, DmNav1, Dmel\CG9907, Ocd, bas, bss, l(1)14Da, l(1)ESHS48, lincRNA.S9469, olfD, par, sbl, sbl-1, paralytic, CG9907-PA, CG9907-PAA, CG9907-PAB, CG9907-PAC, CG9907-PAD, CG9907-PAE, CG9907-PAF, CG9907-PAG, CG9907-PAH, CG9907-PAI, CG9907-PAJ, CG9907-PAK, CG9907-PAL, CG9907-PAM, CG9907-PAN, CG9907-PAO, CG9907-PAP, CG9907-PAQ, CG9907-PAR, CG9907-PAS, CG9907-PAT, CG9907-PAU, CG9907-PAV, CG9907-PAW, CG9907-PAX, CG9907-PAY, CG9907-PAZ, CG9907-PB, CG9907-PBA, CG9907-PBB, CG9907-PBC, CG9907-PBD, CG9907-PBE, CG9907-PBF, CG9907-PBG, CG9907-PBH, CG9907-PC, CG9907-PD, CG9907-PE, CG9907-PF, CG9907-PG, CG9907-PH, CG9907-PI, CG9907-PJ, CG9907-PK, CG9907-PL, CG9907-PM, CG9907-PN, CG9907-PO, CG9907-PP, CG9907-PQ, CG9907-PR, CG9907-PS, CG9907-PT, CG9907-PU, CG9907-PV, CG9907-PW, CG9907-PX, CG9907-PY, CG9907-PZ, Out cold, Out-cold, bang senseless, bang sensitive, bang-senseless, bangsenseless, para-PA, para-PAA, para-PAB, para-PAC, para-PAD, para-PAE, para-PAF, para-PAG, para-PAH, para-PAI, para-PAJ, para-PAK, para-PAL, para-PAM, para-PAN, para-PAO, para-PAP, para-PAQ, para-PAR, para-PAS, para-PAT, para-PAU, para-PAV, para-PAW, para-PAX, para-PAY, para-PAZ, para-PB, para-PBA, para-PBB, para-PBC, para-PBD, para-PBE, para-PBF, para-PBG, para-PBH, para-PC, para-PD, para-PE, para-PF, para-PG, para-PH, para-PI, para-PJ, para-PK, para-PL, para-PM, para-PN, para-PO, para-PP, para-PQ, para-PR, para-PS, para-PT, para-PU, para-PV, para-PW, para-PX, para-PY, para-PZ, paralyzed, smell-blind, smellblind
Species: fruit fly
Products:     para

Top Publications

  1. Jackson F, Wilson S, Hall L. The tip-E mutation of Drosophila decreases saxitoxin binding and interacts with other mutations affecting nerve membrane excitability. J Neurogenet. 1986;3:1-17 pubmed
    A recessive temperature-sensitive paralytic mutation, tip-E, is associated with reduced binding of [3H]saxitoxin to voltage-sensitive sodium channels in membranes from adult Drosophila heads...
  2. Dubin A, Liles M, Seligman F, Le T, Tolli J, Harris G. Involvement of genes encoding a K+ channel (ether a go-go) and a Na+ channel (smellblind) in Drosophila olfaction. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998;855:212-22 pubmed
    ..nucleotide-modulated K+ channel subunit encoded by the ether a go-go (eag) gene and a voltage-gated Na+ channel, smellblind (sbl), encoded by the paralytic (para) locus in odorant responsiveness and cell excitability in Drosophila ..
  3. Shichor I, Zlotkin E, Ilan N, Chikashvili D, Stuhmer W, Gordon D, et al. Domain 2 of Drosophila para voltage-gated sodium channel confers insect properties to a rat brain channel. J Neurosci. 2002;22:4364-71 pubmed
    ..composed of rat brain NaCh alpha-subunit (rBIIA) in which domain-2 (D2) was replaced by that of Drosophila Para (paralytic temperature-sensitive)...
  4. Hodges D, Lee D, Preston C, Boswell K, Hall L, O Dowd D. tipE regulates Na+-dependent repetitive firing in Drosophila neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2002;19:402-16 pubmed
    The tipE gene, originally identified by a temperature-sensitive paralytic mutation in Drosophila, encodes a transmembrane protein that dramatically influences sodium channel expression in Xenopus oocytes...
  5. Martin R, Pittendrigh B, Liu J, Reenan R, ffrench Constant R, Hanck D. Point mutations in domain III of a Drosophila neuronal Na channel confer resistance to allethrin. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2000;30:1051-9 pubmed
    ..In insecticidal bioassays the para(74) and para(DN7) fly lines showed greater than 4-fold resistance to allethrin relative to the allethrin sensitive ..
  6. Reenan R, Hanrahan C, Ganetzky B. The mle(napts) RNA helicase mutation in drosophila results in a splicing catastrophe of the para Na+ channel transcript in a region of RNA editing. Neuron. 2000;25:139-49 pubmed
    ..mutation causes temperature-dependent blockade of action potentials resulting from decreased abundance of para-encoded Na+ channels...
  7. Pavlidis P, Tanouye M. Seizures and failures in the giant fiber pathway of Drosophila bang-sensitive paralytic mutants. J Neurosci. 1995;15:5810-9 pubmed
    Drosophila bang-sensitive paralytic mutants suffer from hyperactivity and paralysis following a mechanical shock; after recovery from paralysis, they cannot be paralyzed for a refractory period lasting up to 1 hr...
  8. Ganetzky B. Neurogenetic analysis of Drosophila mutations affecting sodium channels: synergistic effects on viability and nerve conduction in double mutants involving tip-E. J Neurogenet. 1986;3:19-31 pubmed
    In previous work it was shown that parats (paralyzed, temperature-sensitive, 1-53.9) and napts (no action potential, temperature-sensitive, 2-56...
  9. Sigrist S, Reiff D, Thiel P, Steinert J, Schuster C. Experience-dependent strengthening of Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. J Neurosci. 2003;23:6546-56 pubmed
    ..Such temporal mapping of experience-dependent adaptations at developing wild-type and mutant NMJs will provide detailed insights into the dynamic control of glutamatergic signal transmission. ..

More Information


  1. Ataman B, Ashley J, Gorczyca M, Ramachandran P, Fouquet W, Sigrist S, et al. Rapid activity-dependent modifications in synaptic structure and function require bidirectional Wnt signaling. Neuron. 2008;57:705-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that activation of the postsynaptic Wg pathway is required for the assembly of the postsynaptic apparatus, while activation of the presynaptic Wg pathway regulates cytoskeletal dynamics. ..
  2. Jarecki J, Keshishian H. Role of neural activity during synaptogenesis in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 1995;15:8177-90 pubmed
    ..Our experiments suggest that neural activity may function during development by preventing inappropriate connections and thereby maintaining the precise connectivity achieved during nerve outgrowth and target selection. ..
  3. Kulkarni N, Yamamoto A, Robinson K, Mackay T, Anholt R. The DSC1 channel, encoded by the smi60E locus, contributes to odor-guided behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2002;161:1507-16 pubmed
    ..The dsc1 gene encodes an ion channel of unknown function homologous to the paralytic (para) sodium channel, which mediates neuronal excitability...
  4. Palladino M, Hadley T, Ganetzky B. Temperature-sensitive paralytic mutants are enriched for those causing neurodegeneration in Drosophila. Genetics. 2002;161:1197-208 pubmed
    ..secondary histological screen to examine a collection of mutants originally isolated on the basis of conditional paralytic phenotypes...
  5. Lin W, Wright D, Muraro N, Baines R. Alternative splicing in the voltage-gated sodium channel DmNav regulates activation, inactivation, and persistent current. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:1994-2006 pubmed publisher
    ..and biophysical characterization of alternative splice variants of the sole voltage-gated Na+ gene (DmNav, paralytic), in late-stage embryos of Drosophila melanogaster...
  6. Siddiqi O, Benzer S. Neurophysiological defects in temperature-sensitive paralytic mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976;73:3253-7 pubmed
    A new temperature-sensitive paralytic mutant of Drosophila, comatose, is compared behaviorally and physiologically with the previously known types, para and shi...
  7. Kuebler D, Zhang H, Ren X, Tanouye M. Genetic suppression of seizure susceptibility in Drosophila. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86:1211-25 pubmed
    ..We have found that mutants affecting Na+ channels, mle(napts) and para, K+ channels, Sh, and electrical synapses, shak-B(2), can suppress seizures in the BS mutants...
  8. Palladino M, Keegan L, O Connell M, Reenan R. A-to-I pre-mRNA editing in Drosophila is primarily involved in adult nervous system function and integrity. Cell. 2000;102:437-49 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, dADAR mutants are not short-lived. Thus, A-to-I editing of pre-mRNAs in Drosophila acts predominantly through nervous system targets to affect adult nervous system function, integrity, and behavior. ..
  9. Song J, Tanouye M. Seizure suppression by shakB2, a gap junction mutation in Drosophila. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95:627-35 pubmed
    ..These results show the use of Drosophila as a model system for studying the kinds of genetic interactions responsible for seizure susceptibility, bringing us closer to unraveling the complexity of seizure disorders in humans. ..
  10. Derst C, Walther C, Veh R, Wicher D, Heinemann S. Four novel sequences in Drosophila melanogaster homologous to the auxiliary Para sodium channel subunit TipE. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;339:939-48 pubmed publisher
    TipE is an auxiliary subunit of the Drosophila Para sodium channel...
  11. Wu C, Ganetzky B. Genetic alteration of nerve membrane excitability in temperature-sensitive paralytic mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Nature. 1980;286:814-6 pubmed
  12. Littleton J, Barnard R, Titus S, Slind J, Chapman E, Ganetzky B. SNARE-complex disassembly by NSF follows synaptic-vesicle fusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:12233-8 pubmed
    ..Genetic-interaction studies with para demonstrate that blocking evoked fusion delays the accumulation of assembled SNARE complexes and behavioral ..
  13. Gordon D, Ilan N, Zilberberg N, Gilles N, Urbach D, Cohen L, et al. An 'Old World' scorpion beta-toxin that recognizes both insect and mammalian sodium channels. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:2663-70 pubmed
    ..Analysis of Lqhbeta1 effects on rat brain and Drosophila Para NaChs expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed a shift in the voltage-dependence of activation to more negative ..
  14. Littleton J, Chapman E, Kreber R, Garment M, Carlson S, Ganetzky B. Temperature-sensitive paralytic mutations demonstrate that synaptic exocytosis requires SNARE complex assembly and disassembly. Neuron. 1998;21:401-13 pubmed
    ..However, this hypothesis remains to be tested in vivo. We have isolated a Drosophila temperature-sensitive paralytic mutation in syntaxin that rapidly blocks synaptic transmission at nonpermissive temperatures...
  15. Loughney K, Kreber R, Ganetzky B. Molecular analysis of the para locus, a sodium channel gene in Drosophila. Cell. 1989;58:1143-54 pubmed
    Previous behavioral, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and genetic studies of mutations of the para locus in Drosophila melanogaster suggested that these mutations alter the structure or function of sodium channels...
  16. Parker L, Padilla M, Du Y, Dong K, Tanouye M. Drosophila as a model for epilepsy: bss is a gain-of-function mutation in the para sodium channel gene that leads to seizures. Genetics. 2011;187:523-34 pubmed publisher
    We report the identification of bang senseless (bss), a Drosophila melanogaster mutant exhibiting seizure-like behaviors, as an allele of the paralytic (para) voltage-gated Na(+) (Na(V)) channel gene...
  17. Pavlidis P, Ramaswami M, Tanouye M. The Drosophila easily shocked gene: a mutation in a phospholipid synthetic pathway causes seizure, neuronal failure, and paralysis. Cell. 1994;79:23-33 pubmed
    We have characterized easily shocked (eas), a Drosophila "band-sensitive" paralytic mutant...
  18. Lee J, Wu C. Electroconvulsive seizure behavior in Drosophila: analysis of the physiological repertoire underlying a stereotyped action pattern in bang-sensitive mutants. J Neurosci. 2002;22:11065-79 pubmed
  19. Soderlund D, Knipple D. The molecular biology of knockdown resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;33:563-77 pubmed
    ..Results of these studies identify voltage-sensitive sodium channel genes orthologous to the para gene of Drosophila melanogaster as the site of multiple knockdown resistance mutations and define the molecular ..
  20. Hekmat Scafe D, Lundy M, Ranga R, Tanouye M. Mutations in the K+/Cl- cotransporter gene kazachoc (kcc) increase seizure susceptibility in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2006;26:8943-54 pubmed
    ..The kcc mutants provide an excellent model system in which to investigate how modulation of GABAergic signaling influences neuronal excitability and epileptogenesis. ..
  21. Kuebler D, Tanouye M. Modifications of seizure susceptibility in Drosophila. J Neurophysiol. 2000;83:998-1009 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the utility of Drosophila as a model system for studying human seizure disorders and provide insights into the possible mechanisms by which seizure susceptibility is modified...
  22. Cohen L, Gilles N, Karbat I, Ilan N, Gordon D, Gurevitz M. Direct evidence that receptor site-4 of sodium channel gating modifiers is not dipped in the phospholipid bilayer of neuronal membranes. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:20673-9 pubmed
  23. Zlotkin E. The insect voltage-gated sodium channel as target of insecticides. Annu Rev Entomol. 1999;44:429-55 pubmed
    ..are pharmacologically distinguishable, as revealed by the responsiveness of the heterologously expressed Drosophila para clone to channel modifiers and blockers and the occurrence of the insect-selective sodium channel neurotoxins ..
  24. Tolar L, Pallanck L. NSF function in neurotransmitter release involves rearrangement of the SNARE complex downstream of synaptic vesicle docking. J Neurosci. 1998;18:10250-6 pubmed
  25. Warmke J, Reenan R, Wang P, Qian S, Arena J, Wang J, et al. Functional expression of Drosophila para sodium channels. Modulation by the membrane protein TipE and toxin pharmacology. J Gen Physiol. 1997;110:119-33 pubmed
    The Drosophila para sodium channel alpha subunit was expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and in combination with tipE, a putative Drosophila sodium channel accessory subunit...
  26. Suzuki D, Grigliatti T, Williamson R. Temperature-sensitive mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. VII. A mutation (para-ts) causing reversible adult paralysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971;68:890-3 pubmed
    A temperature-sensitive mutation, para(ts), in Drosophila melanogaster causes an immediate, but reversible, paralysis of adult flies when they are shifted from 22 degrees C to 29 degrees C...
  27. O Dowd D, Gee J, Smith M. Sodium current density correlates with expression of specific alternatively spliced sodium channel mRNAs in single neurons. J Neurosci. 1995;15:4005-12 pubmed
    ..examined the role of alternative splicing within the first cytoplasmic loop of the Drosophila sodium channel gene para in regulating sodium current expression, using single-cell RT-PCR...
  28. Feng G, Deak P, Chopra M, Hall L. Cloning and functional analysis of TipE, a novel membrane protein that enhances Drosophila para sodium channel function. Cell. 1995;82:1001-11 pubmed
    ..Here we report that tipE, a gene defined by a temperature-sensitive paralytic mutation in Drosophila, encodes a novel integral membrane protein that dramatically stimulates functional ..
  29. Olson R, Liu Z, Nomura Y, Song W, Dong K. Molecular and functional characterization of voltage-gated sodium channel variants from Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;38:604-10 pubmed publisher
    Extensive alternative splicing and RNA editing have been documented for the transcript of DmNa(V) (formerly para), the sole sodium channel gene in Drosophila melanogaster...
  30. Ramaswami M, Tanouye M. Two sodium-channel genes in Drosophila: implications for channel diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:2079-82 pubmed
    ..The other transcription unit maps to position 14C/D, on the X chromosome, close to the paralyzed (para) gene. Mutations in para affect membrane excitability in Drosophila neurons [Ganetzky, B. & Wu, C.F...
  31. Thackeray J, Ganetzky B. Developmentally regulated alternative splicing generates a complex array of Drosophila para sodium channel isoforms. J Neurosci. 1994;14:2569-78 pubmed
    The para locus encodes the predominant class of sodium channels expressed in Drosophila neurons. Previous sequence analysis of para cDNAs indicated the occurrence of alternative splicing at several sites within the open reading frame...
  32. Budnik V, Zhong Y, Wu C. Morphological plasticity of motor axons in Drosophila mutants with altered excitability. J Neurosci. 1990;10:3754-68 pubmed
    ..and Duplication of para+ (Dp para+); and (2) mutants with reduced excitability, no action potential (napts) and paralytic (parats 1)...
  33. Hong C, Ganetzky B. Spatial and temporal expression patterns of two sodium channel genes in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 1994;14:5160-9 pubmed
    Genetic and molecular studies have identified two different sodium channel genes in Drosophila, para and DSC1. The functional contributions of the para-encoded channel have been inferred from analysis of mutant phenotypes...
  34. Cohen L, Moran Y, Sharon A, Segal D, Gordon D, Gurevitz M. Drosomycin, an innate immunity peptide of Drosophila melanogaster, interacts with the fly voltage-gated sodium channel. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:23558-63 pubmed publisher
    ..As for drosomycin, we discuss the intriguing possibility that it has additional functions in the fly, as implied by its tight interaction with DmNa(v)1. ..
  35. Sondergaard L, Nielsen N, Smillie R. The effect of the Out-cold-ts mutation on temperature induced changes in the Arrhenius activation energy of succinate-cytochrome c reductase activity in Drosophila. FEBS Lett. 1975;51:126-9 pubmed
  36. Tseng Crank J, Pollock J, Hayashi I, Tanouye M. Expression of ion channel genes in Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 1991;7:229-39 pubmed
    ..The genes examined were the Drosophila Na+ channel genes, paralytic (para) and Drosophila Sodium Channel (DSC), and the K+ channel gene, Shaker( Sh)...
  37. Song J, Parker L, Hormozi L, Tanouye M. DNA topoisomerase I inhibitors ameliorate seizure-like behaviors and paralysis in a Drosophila model of epilepsy. Neuroscience. 2008;156:722-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that Top1 inhibitors may have the potential to be developed into effective anti-epileptic drugs, especially for brain tumor patients presenting with epilepsy. ..
  38. Chaston J, Dobson A, Newell P, Douglas A. Host Genetic Control of the Microbiota Mediates the Drosophila Nutritional Phenotype. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016;82:671-9 pubmed publisher
  39. Greenspan R. Flies, genes, learning, and memory. Neuron. 1995;15:747-50 pubmed
  40. Rieckhof G, Yoshihara M, Guan Z, Littleton J. Presynaptic N-type calcium channels regulate synaptic growth. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:41099-108 pubmed
    ..Linking presynaptic voltage-gated calcium entry to downstream calcium-sensitive synaptic growth regulators provides an efficient activity-dependent mechanism for modifying synaptic strength. ..
  41. Sun L, Gilligan J, Staber C, Schutte R, Nguyen V, O Dowd D, et al. A knock-in model of human epilepsy in Drosophila reveals a novel cellular mechanism associated with heat-induced seizure. J Neurosci. 2012;32:14145-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that knock-in of a GEFS+ SCN1A mutation (K1270T) into the Drosophila sodium channel gene, para, causes a semidominant temperature-induced seizure phenotype...
  42. Fergestad T, Sale H, Bostwick B, Schaffer A, Ho L, Robertson G, et al. A Drosophila behavioral mutant, down and out (dao), is defective in an essential regulator of Erg potassium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5617-21 pubmed publisher
    ..over-expression of wild-type Dao confers dominant temperature-sensitive paralysis with kinetics reminiscent of paralytic sodium-channel mutants...
  43. Fuyama Y, Ueyama M. Ovulation and the suppression of mating in Drosophila melanogaster females: behavioral basis. Behav Genet. 1997;27:483-8 pubmed
    ..Courtship behavior by mutant males defective in olfaction or learning suggested that females are capable of repelling males by emitting a volatile pheromone(s) with an inhibitory effect on male courtship. ..
  44. Schnur E, Turkov M, Kahn R, Gordon D, Gurevitz M, Anglister J. NMR analysis of interaction of LqhalphaIT scorpion toxin with a peptide corresponding to the D4/S3-S4 loop of insect para voltage-gated sodium channel. Biochemistry. 2008;47:911-21 pubmed
    ..In this study, the binding site for peptides corresponding to the D4/S3-S4 loop of the para insect Nav was mapped on the highly insecticidal alpha-neurotoxin, LqhalphaIT, from the scorpion Leiurus ..
  45. Rikhy R, Kamat S, Ramagiri S, Sriram V, Krishnan K. Mutations in dynamin-related protein result in gross changes in mitochondrial morphology and affect synaptic vesicle recycling at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Genes Brain Behav. 2007;6:42-53 pubmed
    ..These data, in addition to depletion of vesicles observed in electron microscopic sections of photoreceptor synapses at restrictive temperatures, suggest a block in synaptic vesicle recycling due to reduced mitochondrial function. ..
  46. Krishnan K, Chakravarty S, Rao S, Raghuram V, Ramaswami M. Alleviation of the temperature-sensitive paralytic phenotype of shibire(ts) mutants in Drosophila by sub-anesthetic concentrations of carbon dioxide. J Neurogenet. 1996;10:221-38 pubmed here that sub-anesthetic concentrations of carbon dioxide specifically suppress the temperature-sensitive paralytic phenotype of Drosophila shibire(ts) mutants that have a conditional block in synaptic vesicle recycling...
  47. Montana E, Littleton J. Characterization of a hypercontraction-induced myopathy in Drosophila caused by mutations in Mhc. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:1045-54 pubmed
    ..Characterization of these new Mhc alleles suggests that hypercontraction occurs via a mechanism, which is molecularly distinct from mutants identified previously in troponin I and troponin T. ..
  48. Zhou D, Udpa N, Gersten M, Visk D, Bashir A, Xue J, et al. Experimental selection of hypoxia-tolerant Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2349-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Unique analytical tools and genetic and bioinformatic strategies allowed us to discover that Notch activation plays a major role in this hypoxia tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster. ..
  49. Decoville M, Giacomello E, Leng M, Locker D. DSP1, an HMG-like protein, is involved in the regulation of homeotic genes. Genetics. 2001;157:237-44 pubmed
    ..We propose that DSP1 protein is a chromatin remodeling factor, acting as a trx-G or a Pc-G protein depending on the considered function. ..
  50. Saras A, Tanouye M. Mutations of the Calcium Channel Gene cacophony Suppress Seizures in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005784 pubmed publisher
    b>Bang sensitive (BS) Drosophila mutants display characteristic seizure-like phenotypes resembling, in some aspects, those of human seizure disorders such as epilepsy...
  51. Wang L, Nomura Y, Du Y, Dong K. Differential effects of TipE and a TipE-homologous protein on modulation of gating properties of sodium channels from Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67551 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the differential effects of TipE and TEH1 on the gating of insect sodium channels and suggest that TEH1 may play a broader role than TipE in regulating sodium channel function and neuronal excitability in vivo. ..
  52. Sandstrom D. Isoflurane reduces excitability of Drosophila larval motoneurons by activating a hyperpolarizing leak conductance. Anesthesiology. 2008;108:434-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the Para voltage-gated Na channel enhance anesthetic sensitivity of adult flies...
  53. Cook R, Deal M, Deal J, Garton R, Brown C, Ward M, et al. A new resource for characterizing X-linked genes in Drosophila melanogaster: systematic coverage and subdivision of the X chromosome with nested, Y-linked duplications. Genetics. 2010;186:1095-109 pubmed publisher
    ..These duplication chromosomes will be valuable resources for rescuing and mapping X-linked mutations and identifying dosage-dependent modifiers of mutant phenotypes. ..
  54. Fergestad T, Olson L, Patel K, Miller R, Palladino M, Ganetzky B. Neuropathology in Drosophila mutants with increased seizure susceptibility. Genetics. 2008;178:947-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results emphasize the importance of proper cellular metabolism in maintaining both the activity and viability of neurons. ..
  55. Trotta N, Rodesch C, Fergestad T, Broadie K. Cellular bases of activity-dependent paralysis in Drosophila stress-sensitive mutants. J Neurobiol. 2004;60:328-47 pubmed
  56. Hiesinger P, Zhai R, Zhou Y, Koh T, Mehta S, Schulze K, et al. Activity-independent prespecification of synaptic partners in the visual map of Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1835-43 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest cell-autonomous control of synapse numbers as part of a developmental program of activity-independent steps that lead to a "hard-wired" visual map in the fly brain. ..
  57. Fergestad T, Bostwick B, Ganetzky B. Metabolic disruption in Drosophila bang-sensitive seizure mutants. Genetics. 2006;173:1357-64 pubmed
    ..Our data implicate cellular metabolism in regulating seizure susceptibility and suggest that differential sensitivity of neuronal subtypes to metabolic changes underlies distinct types of seizure activity. ..
  58. Stewart A, Tsubouchi A, Rolls M, Tracey W, Sherwood N. Katanin p60-like1 promotes microtubule growth and terminal dendrite stability in the larval class IV sensory neurons of Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2012;32:11631-42 pubmed publisher
  59. Ffrench Constant R, Daborn P, Le Goff G. The genetics and genomics of insecticide resistance. Trends Genet. 2004;20:163-70 pubmed
    ..These studies enable us to address three fundamental questions in the evolution of resistance. How many genes are involved? How many mutations are there within these genes? How often do these mutations arise in natural populations? ..
  60. Sakai K, Okamoto H, Hotta Y. Pharmacological characterization of sodium channels in the primary culture of individual Drosophila embryos: neurons of a mutant deficient in a putative sodium channel gene. Cell Differ Dev. 1989;26:107-18 pubmed
    ..Therefore, sodium channel genes other than 60E must be functional at this developmental stage. We also examined para(ts1) and nap(ts) mutants and found that they were also sensitive to the neurotoxins...
  61. Franchini L, Ganko E, McDonald J. Retrotransposon-gene associations are widespread among D. melanogaster populations. Mol Biol Evol. 2004;21:1323-31 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis of an association allele present in all populations indicates that selection is a significant factor in the spread and/or maintenance of at least some of retroelement-gene associations in D. melanogaster. ..
  62. Gailey D, Lacaillade R, Hall J. Chemosensory elements of courtship in normal and mutant, olfaction-deficient Drosophila melanogaster. Behav Genet. 1986;16:375-405 pubmed
  63. Islam R, Nakamura M, Scott H, Repnikova E, Carnahan M, Pandey D, et al. The role of Drosophila cytidine monophosphate-sialic acid synthetase in the nervous system. J Neurosci. 2013;33:12306-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic interactions between CSAS, DSiaT, and voltage-gated channel genes paralytic and seizure were consistent with the hypothesis that CSAS and DSiaT function within the same pathway regulating ..
  64. K├╝ppers B, Sanchez Soriano N, Letzkus J, Technau G, Prokop A. In developing Drosophila neurones the production of gamma-amino butyric acid is tightly regulated downstream of glutamate decarboxylase translation and can be influenced by calcium. J Neurochem. 2003;84:939-51 pubmed
  65. Wang P, Saraswati S, Guan Z, Watkins C, Wurtman R, Littleton J. A Drosophila temperature-sensitive seizure mutant in phosphoglycerate kinase disrupts ATP generation and alters synaptic function. J Neurosci. 2004;24:4518-29 pubmed
    A novel paralytic mutant, nubian, was identified in a behavioral screen for conditional temperature-sensitive seizure mutants in Drosophila melanogaster...
  66. Elkins T, Ganetzky B. Conduction in the giant nerve fiber pathway in temperature-sensitive paralytic mutants of Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 1990;6:207-19 pubmed neurons of the cervical giant nerve fiber (CGF) pathway in Drosophila adults carrying temperature-sensitive paralytic mutations that affect sodium channels, we recorded dorsal longitudinal muscle (DLM) responses evoked by ..
  67. Falk D, Halladay D. The characterization of chromosome breaks in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Molecular analysis of gamma-ray-induced deficiencies in the 14F-15A region. Mutat Res. 1986;163:145-55 pubmed
    In the previous paper of this series, a total of 446 mutations of the para gene were isolated following gamma- or X-irradiation. Of these, 180 were shown to be chromosome deficiencies...
  68. Li J, Waterhouse R, Zdobnov E. A remarkably stable TipE gene cluster: evolution of insect Para sodium channel auxiliary subunits. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:337 pubmed publisher
    ..3L, and a fifth family member on chromosome 3R, are important for the optional expression and functionality of the Para NaV channel but appear quite distinct from auxiliary subunits in vertebrates...
  69. Ferrus A, Canal I. The behaving brain of a fly. Trends Neurosci. 1994;17:479-86 pubmed
  70. Seugnet L, Suzuki Y, Vine L, Gottschalk L, Shaw P. D1 receptor activation in the mushroom bodies rescues sleep-loss-induced learning impairments in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1110-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the underlying molecular mechanisms triggered by extended waking and restored by sleep are unknown. Moreover, the neuronal circuits that depend on sleep for optimal learning remain unidentified...
  71. Anholt R, Mackay T. Dissecting the Genetic Architecture of Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Opin Behav Sci. 2015;2:1-7 pubmed
    ..Combining these approaches with emerging technologies, such as genome editing, is likely to yield a comprehensive understanding of the neurogenetic underpinnings that orchestrate the manifestation of behaviors. ..
  72. White B, Osterwalder T, Yoon K, Joiner W, Whim M, Kaczmarek L, et al. Targeted attenuation of electrical activity in Drosophila using a genetically modified K(+) channel. Neuron. 2001;31:699-711 pubmed
    ..By permitting the incremental reduction of electrical activity, the EKO technique can be used to address a wide range of questions regarding neuronal function. ..