par-6

Summary

Gene Symbol: par-6
Description: par-6
Alias: CG5884, DPar-6, DPar6, Dm-Par-6, Dm-Par6, DmPAR-6, DmPar-6, DmPar6, Dmel\CG5884, Dmpar6, PAR-6, PAR6, Par, Par-6, Par6, dPAR-6, dPar-6, dmPar-6, par, par6, par-6, CG5884-PA, CG5884-PB, Par-6, par-6-PA, par-6-PB
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Doerflinger H, Vogt N, Torres I, Mirouse V, Koch I, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C, et al. Bazooka is required for polarisation of the Drosophila anterior-posterior axis. Development. 2010;137:1765-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Oocyte polarity has been proposed to depend on the same PAR proteins that generate AP polarity in C...
  2. Kempkens O, Médina E, Fernandez Ballester G, Ozüyaman S, Le Bivic A, Serrano L, et al. Computer modelling in combination with in vitro studies reveals similar binding affinities of Drosophila Crumbs for the PDZ domains of Stardust and DmPar-6. Eur J Cell Biol. 2006;85:753-67 pubmed
    ..The data presented here are discussed with respect to possible dynamic interactions between these proteins. ..
  3. David D, Wang Q, Feng J, Harris T. Bazooka inhibits aPKC to limit antagonism of actomyosin networks during amnioserosa apical constriction. Development. 2013;140:4719-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that a known inhibitor of apicomedial actomyosin networks in Drosophila amnioserosa cells, the Par-6-aPKC complex, is recruited to the apicomedial domain by actomyosin networks during dorsal closure of the embryo...
  4. Georgiou M, Baum B. Polarity proteins and Rho GTPases cooperate to spatially organise epithelial actin-based protrusions. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:1089-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Bazooka/Par3 acts upstream of the RacGEF Sif/TIAM1 to limit filopodia to the basal domain, whereas Cdc42, aPKC and Par6 are required for normal protrusion morphology and dynamics...
  5. Kim S, Gailite I, Moussian B, Luschnig S, Goette M, Fricke K, et al. Kinase-activity-independent functions of atypical protein kinase C in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3759-71 pubmed publisher
    Polarity of many cell types is controlled by a protein complex consisting of Bazooka/PAR-3 (Baz), PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)...
  6. Campbell K, Knust E, Skaer H. Crumbs stabilises epithelial polarity during tissue remodelling. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:2604-12 pubmed publisher
  7. Atwood S, Prehoda K. aPKC phosphorylates Miranda to polarize fate determinants during neuroblast asymmetric cell division. Curr Biol. 2009;19:723-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather than mediating Miranda cortical displacement, Lgl instead promotes aPKC asymmetry by regulating its activity. The role of myosin II in neuroblast polarization, if any, is unknown. ..
  8. Atwood S, Chabu C, Penkert R, Doe C, Prehoda K. Cdc42 acts downstream of Bazooka to regulate neuroblast polarity through Par-6 aPKC. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3200-6 pubmed
    Cdc42 recruits Par-6-aPKC to establish cell polarity from worms to mammals...
  9. Wodarz A. Establishing cell polarity in development. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:E39-44 pubmed
    ..The past year revealed that homologs of the C. elegans par (partitioning defective) genes are also essential for establishing polarity in Drosophila and vertebrate cells...

More Information

Publications64

  1. Betschinger J, Knoblich J. Dare to be different: asymmetric cell division in Drosophila, C. elegans and vertebrates. Curr Biol. 2004;14:R674-85 pubmed
    ..Here, we outline the steps and factors that are involved in this process in Drosophila and C. elegans and discuss their potential conservation in vertebrates. ..
  2. Ahringer J. Control of cell polarity and mitotic spindle positioning in animal cells. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2003;15:73-81 pubmed
    ..Microtubules and conserved PAR proteins are essential mediators of cell polarity, and mitotic spindle positioning depends on heterotrimeric G ..
  3. Sotillos S, Diaz Meco M, Caminero E, Moscat J, Campuzano S. DaPKC-dependent phosphorylation of Crumbs is required for epithelial cell polarity in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:549-57 pubmed
    ..epithelial cells, the establishment of apicobasal polarity requires the apically localized, membrane-associated Par-3-Par-6-aPKC protein complex...
  4. Izumi Y, Ohta N, Itoh Furuya A, Fuse N, Matsuzaki F. Differential functions of G protein and Baz-aPKC signaling pathways in Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric division. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:729-38 pubmed
    ..However, the other apical components, Bazooka-atypical PKC-Par6-Inscuteable, still remain polarized and responsible for asymmetric Miranda localization, suggesting their dominant ..
  5. Harris T, Peifer M. The positioning and segregation of apical cues during epithelial polarity establishment in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:813-23 pubmed
    ..to an apical domain below its typical binding partners atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and partitioning defective (PAR)-6 as the Drosophila epithelium first forms...
  6. Baas A, Smit L, Clevers H. LKB1 tumor suppressor protein: PARtaker in cell polarity. Trends Cell Biol. 2004;14:312-9 pubmed
    ..In this article, we summarize the findings regarding LKB1 over the past six years. In addition, we discuss LKB1 in polarity in the context of both the other PAR proteins and its tumor suppressive activities.
  7. Pocha S, Wassmer T, Niehage C, Hoflack B, Knust E. Retromer controls epithelial cell polarity by trafficking the apical determinant Crumbs. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of crb by preventing apical localization of key polarity molecules, such as atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and Par6 in the follicular epithelium, an effect that can be rescued by overexpression of Crb...
  8. Ohno S. Intercellular junctions and cellular polarity: the PAR-aPKC complex, a conserved core cassette playing fundamental roles in cell polarity. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2001;13:641-8 pubmed
    Two PDZ-domain-containing adapter-like proteins, PAR-3 and PAR-6, and a protein kinase, atypical protein kinase C (PKC), cooperate together to establish cell polarity in a variety of biological contexts...
  9. Doe C. Cell polarity: the PARty expands. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:E7-9 pubmed
    ..This common cell-polarity mechanism is used in cell-specific ways, as highlighted by the recent finding that at least two different types of asymmetric division are observed in Drosophila neural precursors. ..
  10. Rolls M, Albertson R, Shih H, Lee C, Doe C. Drosophila aPKC regulates cell polarity and cell proliferation in neuroblasts and epithelia. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:1089-98 pubmed
    ..In many organisms, cell polarity is regulated by the atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), Bazooka (Baz/Par3), and Par6 proteins...
  11. Margolis B, Borg J. Apicobasal polarity complexes. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:5157-9 pubmed
  12. Nam S, Choi K. Interaction of Par-6 and Crumbs complexes is essential for photoreceptor morphogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:4363-72 pubmed
    ..complex consisting of Crb, Stardust (Sdt) and Discs-lost (Dlt) colocalizes with another protein complex containing Par-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) in the rhabdomere stalk of photoreceptors...
  13. Zhou W, Hong Y. Drosophila Patj plays a supporting role in apical-basal polarity but is essential for viability. Development. 2012;139:2891-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our results confirm that dPatj possesses an as yet unidentified function that is essential for pupal development. ..
  14. Chabu C, Doe C. Dap160/intersectin binds and activates aPKC to regulate cell polarity and cell cycle progression. Development. 2008;135:2739-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Dap160 positively regulates aPKC activity and localization to promote neuroblast cell polarity and cell cycle progression. ..
  15. Petronczki M, Knoblich J. DmPAR-6 directs epithelial polarity and asymmetric cell division of neuroblasts in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:43-9 pubmed
  16. Harris T, Peifer M. aPKC controls microtubule organization to balance adherens junction symmetry and planar polarity during development. Dev Cell. 2007;12:727-38 pubmed
    ..aPKC apparently regulates this balance. Without aPKC, abnormally strong microtubule interactions break AJ symmetry and epithelial structure is lost. ..
  17. Wang Y, Riechmann V. The role of the actomyosin cytoskeleton in coordination of tissue growth during Drosophila oogenesis. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1349-55 pubmed
    ..Myosin is activated at the apical cortex by localized Rho kinase and inhibited at the basolateral cortex by PP1beta9C. In addition, our data indicate that active myosin is apically anchored by the Baz/Par-6/aPKC complex.
  18. Betschinger J, Eisenhaber F, Knoblich J. Phosphorylation-induced autoinhibition regulates the cytoskeletal protein Lethal (2) giant larvae. Curr Biol. 2005;15:276-82 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that unphosphorylated, active Lgl exists in an open conformation that interacts with the cytoskeleton while phosphorylation changes the protein to an autoinhibited state. ..
  19. Huynh J, Petronczki M, Knoblich J, St Johnston D. Bazooka and PAR-6 are required with PAR-1 for the maintenance of oocyte fate in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2001;11:901-6 pubmed
    ..elegans is defined by the asymmetric division of the one-cell zygote, and this is controlled by the PAR proteins, including PAR-3 and PAR-6, which form a complex at the anterior of the cell, and PAR-1, which localizes ..
  20. Wirtz Peitz F, Nishimura T, Knoblich J. Linking cell cycle to asymmetric division: Aurora-A phosphorylates the Par complex to regulate Numb localization. Cell. 2008;135:161-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Aurora-A phosphorylates Par-6, a regulatory subunit of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)...
  21. Hong Y, Stronach B, Perrimon N, Jan L, Jan Y. Drosophila Stardust interacts with Crumbs to control polarity of epithelia but not neuroblasts. Nature. 2001;414:634-8 pubmed
    ..However, for the subset of ectodermal cells that delaminate and form neuroblasts, their polarity requires the function of Bazooka, but not of Stardust or Crumbs. ..
  22. Harris K, Tepass U. Cdc42 and Par proteins stabilize dynamic adherens junctions in the Drosophila neuroectoderm through regulation of apical endocytosis. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:1129-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The Par complex acts as an effector for Cdc42 in controlling the endocytosis of apical proteins...
  23. David D, Tishkina A, Harris T. The PAR complex regulates pulsed actomyosin contractions during amnioserosa apical constriction in Drosophila. Development. 2010;137:1645-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We have analyzed the relationship between myosin and the polarity regulators Par-6, aPKC and Bazooka (Par-3) (the PAR complex) during amnioserosa apical constriction at Drosophila dorsal closure...
  24. Franz A, Riechmann V. Stepwise polarisation of the Drosophila follicular epithelium. Dev Biol. 2010;338:136-47 pubmed publisher
    ..starts with the formation of adherens junctions, whose positioning is controlled by combined activities of Par-3, beta-catenin, and Discs large...
  25. Hung T, Kemphues K. PAR-6 is a conserved PDZ domain-containing protein that colocalizes with PAR-3 in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Development. 1999;126:127-35 pubmed
    The par genes are required to establish polarity in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Mutations in two of these genes, par-3 and par-6, exhibit similar phenotypes...
  26. Wei S, Escudero L, Yu F, Chang L, Chen L, Ho Y, et al. Echinoid is a component of adherens junctions that cooperates with DE-Cadherin to mediate cell adhesion. Dev Cell. 2005;8:493-504 pubmed
    ..a DE-Cadherin interacting protein) each possess a C-terminal PDZ domain binding motif that binds to Bazooka/PAR-3; these motifs redundantly position Bazooka to adherens junctions...
  27. Morais de Sá E, Mirouse V, St Johnston D. aPKC phosphorylation of Bazooka defines the apical/lateral border in Drosophila epithelial cells. Cell. 2010;141:509-23 pubmed publisher
    Bazooka (PAR-3), PAR-6, and aPKC form a complex that plays a key role in the polarization of many cell types. In epithelial cells, however, Bazooka localizes below PAR-6 and aPKC at the apical/lateral junction...
  28. Knust E, Bossinger O. Composition and formation of intercellular junctions in epithelial cells. Science. 2002;298:1955-9 pubmed
    ..Comparisons between fly, worm, and vertebrate epithelia reveal marked similarities with respect to the molecules used, and pronounced differences in the organization of the junctions themselves. ..
  29. Bachmann A, Schneider M, Theilenberg E, Grawe F, Knust E. Drosophila Stardust is a partner of Crumbs in the control of epithelial cell polarity. Nature. 2001;414:638-43 pubmed
    ..The Stardust proteins represent versatile candidates as structural and possibly regulatory constituents of the SAC, a crucial element in the control of epithelial cell polarity. ..
  30. Bonaccorsi S, Mottier V, Giansanti M, Bolkan B, Williams B, Goldberg M, et al. The Drosophila Lkb1 kinase is required for spindle formation and asymmetric neuroblast division. Development. 2007;134:2183-93 pubmed
    We have isolated lethal mutations in the Drosophila lkb1 gene (dlkb1), the homolog of C. elegans par-4 and human LKB1 (STK11), which is mutated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome...
  31. Lee C, Robinson K, Doe C. Lgl, Pins and aPKC regulate neuroblast self-renewal versus differentiation. Nature. 2006;439:594-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that cortical aPKC kinase activity is a potent inducer of neuroblast self-renewal. ..
  32. Fletcher G, Lucas E, Brain R, Tournier A, Thompson B. Positive feedback and mutual antagonism combine to polarize Crumbs in the Drosophila follicle cell epithelium. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1116-22 pubmed publisher
    ..ovarian follicle cell epithelium, apical membranes are specified by Crumbs (Crb), Stardust (Sdt), and the aPKC-Par6-cdc42 complex...
  33. Pellettieri J, Seydoux G. Anterior-posterior polarity in C. elegans and Drosophila--PARallels and differences. Science. 2002;298:1946-50 pubmed
    The eggs of Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila bear little similarity to each other, yet both depend on the par genes for control of anterior-posterior polarity...
  34. Doe C, Bowerman B. Asymmetric cell division: fly neuroblast meets worm zygote. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2001;13:68-75 pubmed
    ..Mammalian epithelia also use this complex to regulate apical/basal polarity. Recent results have allowed us to compare the mechanisms regulating asymmetric cell division in Drosophila neuroblasts and the C. elegans zygote. ..
  35. Warner S, Longmore G. Distinct functions for Rho1 in maintaining adherens junctions and apical tension in remodeling epithelia. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:1111-25 pubmed publisher
    ..to maintain AJs; instead, Rho1 maintains AJs by inhibiting Drosophila epithelial cadherin endocytosis in a Cdc42/Par6-dependent manner...
  36. Berger S, Bulgakova N, Grawe F, Johnson K, Knust E. Unraveling the genetic complexity of Drosophila stardust during photoreceptor morphogenesis and prevention of light-induced degeneration. Genetics. 2007;176:2189-200 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Stardust-based protein scaffolds are dynamic, which is not only mediated by multiple interaction partners, but in addition by various forms of the Stardust protein itself. ..
  37. Betschinger J, Mechtler K, Knoblich J. The Par complex directs asymmetric cell division by phosphorylating the cytoskeletal protein Lgl. Nature. 2003;422:326-30 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila neuroblasts, the Par protein complex localizes apically and directs localization of the cell fate determinants Prospero and Numb and the ..
  38. Speicher S, Fischer A, Knoblich J, Carmena A. The PDZ protein Canoe regulates the asymmetric division of Drosophila neuroblasts and muscle progenitors. Curr Biol. 2008;18:831-7 pubmed publisher
  39. Siegrist S, Doe C. Microtubule-induced Pins/Galphai cortical polarity in Drosophila neuroblasts. Cell. 2005;123:1323-35 pubmed
    ..The microtubule/Khc-73/Dlg pathway acts in parallel to the well-characterized Inscuteable/Par pathway, but each provides unique spatial and temporal information: The Inscuteable/Par pathway initiates at ..
  40. Walther R, Pichaud F. Crumbs/DaPKC-dependent apical exclusion of Bazooka promotes photoreceptor polarity remodeling. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1065-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This depends on the intertwined function of Bazooka (Baz), Par6-DaPKC, and the Crumbs (Crb)-Stardust (Sdt)-PATJ complex...
  41. Bergstralh D, Haack T, St Johnston D. Epithelial polarity and spindle orientation: intersecting pathways. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013;368:20130291 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we examine several factors implicated in both processes, namely Canoe, Bazooka, aPKC and Discs large, and consider the implications of this work on how the spindle is oriented during epithelial cell divisions. ..
  42. Horne Badovinac S, Bilder D. Dynein regulates epithelial polarity and the apical localization of stardust A mRNA. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we introduce a unique mechanism in which alternative splicing of a coding exon is used to control mRNA localization during development. ..
  43. Blankenship J, Backovic S, Sanny J, Weitz O, Zallen J. Multicellular rosette formation links planar cell polarity to tissue morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2006;11:459-70 pubmed
    ..We propose that the generation of higher-order rosette structures links local cell interactions to global tissue reorganization during morphogenesis. ..
  44. Warner S, Longmore G. Cdc42 antagonizes Rho1 activity at adherens junctions to limit epithelial cell apical tension. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:119-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Cdc42 localizes Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) to AJs, where this complex limits Rho1 activity and thus actomyosin contractility, ..
  45. Nam S, Choi K. Domain-specific early and late function of Dpatj in Drosophila photoreceptor cells. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1501-7 pubmed
    ..Our study provides evidence that Dpatj has domain-specific early and late functions in regulating the localization and stability of the Crb-Sdt complex in photoreceptor cells. ..
  46. Hutterer A, Betschinger J, Petronczki M, Knoblich J. Sequential roles of Cdc42, Par-6, aPKC, and Lgl in the establishment of epithelial polarity during Drosophila embryogenesis. Dev Cell. 2004;6:845-54 pubmed
    ..We show here that polarity is established shortly after cellularization when Par-6 and the atypical protein kinase C concentrate on the apical side of the newly formed cells...
  47. Chia W, Yang X. Asymmetric division of Drosophila neural progenitors. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2002;12:459-64 pubmed
    ..Recent findings also suggest possible mechanisms by which the processes of cell-cycle progression, neuronal lineage development and asymmetric divisions may be integrated. ..
  48. Georgiou M, Marinari E, Burden J, Baum B. Cdc42, Par6, and aPKC regulate Arp2/3-mediated endocytosis to control local adherens junction stability. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1631-8 pubmed publisher
    ..actin cytoskeletal regulators in the developing Drosophila notum, we have identified a critical role for Cdc42-aPKC-Par6 in the maintenance of AJ organization...
  49. Penkert R, DiVittorio H, Prehoda K. Internal recognition through PDZ domain plasticity in the Par-6-Pals1 complex. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004;11:1122-7 pubmed
    ..The PDZ domain from the cell polarity protein Par-6 binds C-terminal ligands and an internal sequence from the protein Pals1/Stardust...
  50. Djiane A, Yogev S, Mlodzik M. The apical determinants aPKC and dPatj regulate Frizzled-dependent planar cell polarity in the Drosophila eye. Cell. 2005;121:621-631 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model whereby the dPatj/aPKC complex regulates PCP by inhibiting Fz1 in cells where it should not be active. ..
  51. Krahn M, Egger Adam D, Wodarz A. PP2A antagonizes phosphorylation of Bazooka by PAR-1 to control apical-basal polarity in dividing embryonic neuroblasts. Dev Cell. 2009;16:901-8 pubmed publisher
    Bazooka/Par-3 (Baz) is a key regulator of cell polarity in epithelial cells and neuroblasts (NBs)...
  52. Leibfried A, Fricke R, Morgan M, Bogdan S, Bellaiche Y. Drosophila Cip4 and WASp define a branch of the Cdc42-Par6-aPKC pathway regulating E-cadherin endocytosis. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1639-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Cdc42, Par6, or aPKC loss of function is accompanied by the accumulation of apical E-Cad intracellular punctate structures and ..
  53. Wang Q, Hurd T, Margolis B. Tight junction protein Par6 interacts with an evolutionarily conserved region in the amino terminus of PALS1/stardust. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:30715-21 pubmed
    ..Two evolutionarily conserved multiprotein complexes, Crumbs-PALS1 (Stardust)-PATJ and Cdc42-Par6-Par3-atypical protein kinase C, have been implicated in the assembly of tight junctions and in polarization of ..
  54. Benton R, St Johnston D. Drosophila PAR-1 and 14-3-3 inhibit Bazooka/PAR-3 to establish complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. Cell. 2003;115:691-704 pubmed
    b>PAR-1 kinases are required for polarity in diverse cell types, such as epithelial cells, where they localize laterally...
  55. Bulgakova N, Kempkens O, Knust E. Multiple domains of Stardust differentially mediate localisation of the Crumbs-Stardust complex during photoreceptor development in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:2018-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the importance of the different Sdt domains and point to a more intricate regulation of the Crb-Sdt complex in adult photoreceptor cells. ..