Gene Symbol: Pak
Description: p21-activated kinase
Alias: CG10295, D-Pak, DPAK, DPak, DPak1, DmPAK1, Dmel\CG10295, Dpak, Dpak1, PAK, PAK-1, PAK1, PAK2, PaK, Pak1, dPAK, dPAK1, dPak, dpak, dpak1, l(3)psg4, p65[PAK], pak, pak1, psg4, p21-activated kinase, CG10295-PA, CG10295-PB, CG10295-PC, CG10295-PE, CG10295-PF, CG10295-PG, CG10295-PH, CG10295-PI, CG10295-PJ, P21-activated kinase, P21-activating kinase, PAK kinase, PAK-kinase, Pak-PA, Pak-PB, Pak-PC, Pak-PE, Pak-PF, Pak-PG, Pak-PH, Pak-PI, Pak-PJ, Pak1 kinase, lethal (3) persistent salivary gland 4, p-21 activated kinase, p21 activated kinase, p21- activated kinase, p21-activated serine/threonine kinase, p21-associated kinase
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Baum B. Winging it--actin on the fly. Dev Cell. 2002;2:125-6 pubmed
    ..New insights may be gained from the recent identification of a conserved cofilin phosphatase, Slingshot, which modulates actin dynamics to help control Drosophila wing hair morphogenesis. ..
  2. Harden N, Lee J, Loh H, Ong Y, Tan I, Leung T, et al. A Drosophila homolog of the Rac- and Cdc42-activated serine/threonine kinase PAK is a potential focal adhesion and focal complex protein that colocalizes with dynamic actin structures. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:1896-908 pubmed
    ..We describe here a Drosophila homolog, DPAK, of the serine/threonine kinase PAK, a protein which is a target of the Rho subfamily proteins Rac and Cdc42...
  3. Schmid A, Qin G, Wichmann C, Kittel R, Mertel S, Fouquet W, et al. Non-NMDA-type glutamate receptors are essential for maturation but not for initial assembly of synapses at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. J Neurosci. 2006;26:11267-77 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data suggest that incorporation of non-NMDA-type glutamate receptors and likely their protein-protein interactions with additional PSD components triggers a conversion from an initial to a mature stage of PSD assembly. ..
  4. Bahri S, Choy J, Manser E, Lim L, Yang X. The Drosophila homologue of Arf-GAP GIT1, dGIT, is required for proper muscle morphogenesis and guidance during embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 2009;325:15-23 pubmed publisher
    ..dgit mutant muscles fail to localize the p21-activated kinase, dPak, to their termini...
  5. Parnas D, Haghighi A, Fetter R, Kim S, Goodman C. Regulation of postsynaptic structure and protein localization by the Rho-type guanine nucleotide exchange factor dPix. Neuron. 2001;32:415-24 pubmed
    ..Many, but not all, dpix defects are mediated through dPak, a member of the family of Cdc42/Rac1-activated kinases...
  6. Bahri S, Wang S, Conder R, Choy J, Vlachos S, Dong K, et al. The leading edge during dorsal closure as a model for epithelial plasticity: Pak is required for recruitment of the Scribble complex and septate junction formation. Development. 2010;137:2023-32 pubmed publisher
    ..complex, controls polarized cell migration through recruitment of Rac, Cdc42 and the serine/threonine kinase Pak, an effector for Rac and Cdc42, to the LE...
  7. Rasse T, Fouquet W, Schmid A, Kittel R, Mertel S, Sigrist C, et al. Glutamate receptor dynamics organizing synapse formation in vivo. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:898-905 pubmed
    ..In comparison, other postsynaptic proteins tested (PSD-95, NCAM and PAK homologs) exchanged faster and with no apparent preference for growing synapses...
  8. Wagh D, Rasse T, Asan E, Hofbauer A, Schwenkert I, Dürrbeck H, et al. Bruchpilot, a protein with homology to ELKS/CAST, is required for structural integrity and function of synaptic active zones in Drosophila. Neuron. 2006;49:833-44 pubmed
    ..We propose that BRP is critical for intact AZ structure and normal-evoked neurotransmitter release at chemical synapses of Drosophila. ..
  9. Albin S, Davis G. Coordinating structural and functional synapse development: postsynaptic p21-activated kinase independently specifies glutamate receptor abundance and postsynaptic morphology. J Neurosci. 2004;24:6871-9 pubmed
    ..A second genetically separable function of Pak kinase signaling controls muscle membrane specialization through the regulation of synaptic Discs-large...

More Information


  1. Coyle I, Koh Y, Lee W, Slind J, Fergestad T, Littleton J, et al. Nervous wreck, an SH3 adaptor protein that interacts with Wsp, regulates synaptic growth in Drosophila. Neuron. 2004;41:521-34 pubmed
    ..We propose that Nwk controls synapse morphology by regulating actin dynamics downstream of growth signals in presynaptic terminals. ..
  2. Rohrbough J, Rushton E, Woodruff E, Fergestad T, Vigneswaran K, Broadie K. Presynaptic establishment of the synaptic cleft extracellular matrix is required for post-synaptic differentiation. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2607-28 pubmed
    ..upstream of GluR localization are also grossly reduced or mislocalized in mtg mutants, including the dPix-dPak-Dock cascade and the Dlg/PSD-95 scaffold...
  3. Sone M, Suzuki E, Hoshino M, Hou D, Kuromi H, Fukata M, et al. Synaptic development is controlled in the periactive zones of Drosophila synapses. Development. 2000;127:4157-68 pubmed
    ..We propose that neurotransmission and synaptic growth are primarily regulated in segregated subcellular spaces, active zones and periactive zones, respectively. ..
  4. Mentzel B, Raabe T. Phylogenetic and structural analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster p21-activated kinase DmPAK3. Gene. 2005;349:25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The genome of Drosophila melanogaster encodes three different PAK proteins: DmPAK1, DmMBT (DmPAK2) and DmPAK3...
  5. Conder R, Yu H, Ricos M, Hing H, Chia W, Lim L, et al. dPak is required for integrity of the leading edge cytoskeleton during Drosophila dorsal closure but does not signal through the JNK cascade. Dev Biol. 2004;276:378-90 pubmed
    ..Group I Pak kinase activity in the amnioserosa is required for correct morphogenesis of the epidermis, and may be a component of ..
  6. Ng J, Luo L. Rho GTPases regulate axon growth through convergent and divergent signaling pathways. Neuron. 2004;44:779-93 pubmed
    ..Genetic data provide evidence that Rho or Rac/Cdc42, via effector kinases Rok or Pak, respectively, activate LIM kinase to inhibit axon growth...
  7. Abreu Blanco M, Verboon J, Parkhurst S. Coordination of Rho family GTPase activities to orchestrate cytoskeleton responses during cell wound repair. Curr Biol. 2014;24:144-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The cell wound repair response is an example of how specific pathways can be activated locally in response to the cell's needs. ..
  8. Pielage J, Fetter R, Davis G. A postsynaptic spectrin scaffold defines active zone size, spacing, and efficacy at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Cell Biol. 2006;175:491-503 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which a postsynaptic Spectrin-actin lattice acts as an organizing scaffold upon which pre- and postsynaptic development are arranged. ..
  9. Hing H, Xiao J, Harden N, Lim L, Zipursky S. Pak functions downstream of Dock to regulate photoreceptor axon guidance in Drosophila. Cell. 1999;97:853-63 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila p21-activated kinase (Pak) is required in a Dock pathway regulating R cell axon guidance and targeting...
  10. Conder R, Yu H, Zahedi B, Harden N. The serine/threonine kinase dPak is required for polarized assembly of F-actin bundles and apical-basal polarity in the Drosophila follicular epithelium. Dev Biol. 2007;305:470-82 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the gene encoding a Drosophila Pak family serine/threonine kinase, dPak, disrupt the follicular epithelium that covers developing egg chambers during oogenesis...
  11. Kohsaka H, Takasu E, Nose A. In vivo induction of postsynaptic molecular assembly by the cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin2. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:1289-300 pubmed
    ..We propose that Fas2 mediates trans-synaptic adhesion, which contributes to postsynaptic molecular assembly at the onset of synaptogenesis. ..
  12. Lee G, Schwarz T. Filamin, a synaptic organizer in Drosophila, determines glutamate receptor composition and membrane growth. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..FLN90 is required in the muscle for localization of the kinase dPak and, downstream of dPak, for localization of the GTPase Ral and the exocyst complex to this region...
  13. Sterne G, Kim J, Ye B. Dysregulated Dscam levels act through Abelson tyrosine kinase to enlarge presynaptic arbors. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..This study offers Abl as a potential therapeutic target for treating brain disorders associated with dysregulated Dscam expression. ..
  14. Pielage J, Powell K, Kalman D, Engel J. RNAi screen reveals an Abl kinase-dependent host cell pathway involved in Pseudomonas aeruginosa internalization. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000031 pubmed publisher
  15. Grice S, Liu J, Webber C. Synergistic interactions between Drosophila orthologues of genes spanned by de novo human CNVs support multiple-hit models of autism. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1004998 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study illustrates mechanisms through which synergistic effects resulting from large structural variation can contribute to human disease. ..
  16. Pawson T, Nash P. Protein-protein interactions define specificity in signal transduction. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1027-47 pubmed
  17. Crawford J, Su Z, Varlamova O, Bresnick A, Kiehart D. Role of myosin-II phosphorylation in V12Cdc42-mediated disruption of Drosophila cellularization. Eur J Cell Biol. 2001;80:240-4 pubmed
    ..Dev. Biol., 204, 151-164 (1998)). The p21-activated kinase (PAK) family of Ser/Thr kinases are effectors of GTP-bound forms of the small GTPases, Cdc42 and Rac...
  18. Castellani V, Rougon G. Control of semaphorin signaling. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2002;12:532-41 pubmed
  19. Vlachos S, Jangam S, Conder R, Chou M, Nystul T, Harden N. A Pak-regulated cell intercalation event leading to a novel radial cell polarity is involved in positioning of the follicle stem cell niche in the Drosophila ovary. Development. 2015;142:82-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Ovaries in flies mutant for the serine/threonine kinase Pak exhibit a novel phenotype, in which two side-by-side cysts are encapsulated at a time, generating paired egg ..
  20. Rivlin P, St Clair R, Vilinsky I, Deitcher D. Morphology and molecular organization of the adult neuromuscular junction of Drosophila. J Comp Neurol. 2004;468:596-613 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these results demonstrate that there are major differences in the molecular organization of the adult and larval NMJs. ..
  21. Noselli S. JNK signaling and morphogenesis in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 1998;14:33-8 pubmed
  22. Stoker A. Receptor tyrosine phosphatases in axon growth and guidance. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2001;11:95-102 pubmed
    ..Vertebrate RPTPs are now implicated in controlling axon outgrowth, and preliminary evidence suggests that they too may influence axon guidance. ..
  23. Chihara T, Kato K, Taniguchi M, Ng J, Hayashi S. Rac promotes epithelial cell rearrangement during tracheal tubulogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:1419-28 pubmed
    ..Together with its role in cell motility, Rac regulates plasticity of cell adhesion and thus ensures smooth remodeling of epithelial sheets into tubules. ..
  24. Flores Benitez D, Knust E. Crumbs is an essential regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics and cell-cell adhesion during dorsal closure in Drosophila. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Data presented here point to a critical role of Crumbs in regulating actomyosin dynamics, cell junctions and morphogenesis. ..
  25. Ihry R, Bashirullah A. Genetic control of specificity to steroid-triggered responses in Drosophila. Genetics. 2014;196:767-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Many of these newly identified regulators of ecdysone signaling, including brwd3, med12, med24, pak, and psg2, represent novel components of the ecdysone-triggered transcriptional hierarchy...
  26. Chen W, Yazicioglu M, Cobb M. Characterization of OSR1, a member of the mammalian Ste20p/germinal center kinase subfamily. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:11129-36 pubmed
    ..A two-hybrid screen implicated another Ste20p family member, the p21-activated protein kinase PAK1, as an OSR1 target. OSR1 phosphorylated threonine 84 in the N-terminal regulatory domain of PAK1...
  27. Miller J, Yates B, Al Ramahi I, Berman A, Sanhueza M, Kim E, et al. A genome-scale RNA-interference screen identifies RRAS signaling as a pathologic feature of Huntington's disease. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003042 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that pharmacological inhibition of RRAS signaling may confer therapeutic benefit in Huntington's disease. ..
  28. Mosca T, Schwarz T. The nuclear import of Frizzled2-C by Importins-beta11 and alpha2 promotes postsynaptic development. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:935-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Wnt-activated growth of the postsynaptic membrane is mediated by the synapse-to-nucleus translocation and active nuclear import of Fz2-C via a selective Importin-beta11/alpha2 pathway. ..
  29. Abe T, Yamazaki D, Murakami S, Hiroi M, Nitta Y, Maeyama Y, et al. The NAV2 homolog Sickie regulates F-actin-mediated axonal growth in Drosophila mushroom body neurons via the non-canonical Rac-Cofilin pathway. Development. 2014;141:4716-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Rac signals through the canonical Rac-Pak-LIMK pathway to suppress Cofilin-dependent axonal growth and through a Pak-independent non-canonical pathway to ..
  30. Perkins L, Holderbaum L, Tao R, Hu Y, Sopko R, McCall K, et al. The Transgenic RNAi Project at Harvard Medical School: Resources and Validation. Genetics. 2015;201:843-52 pubmed publisher, and stocks are available from three stock centers, the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center (United States), National Institute of Genetics (Japan), and TsingHua Fly Center (China). ..
  31. Harden N, Ricos M, Ong Y, Chia W, Lim L. Participation of small GTPases in dorsal closure of the Drosophila embryo: distinct roles for Rho subfamily proteins in epithelial morphogenesis. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 3):273-84 pubmed
    ..Down regulation of the leading edge cytoskeleton may be controlled by the serine/threonine kinase DPAK, a potential Drac1/Dcdc42 effector...
  32. Kumar V, Fricke R, Bhar D, Reddy Alla S, Krishnan K, Bogdan S, et al. Syndapin promotes formation of a postsynaptic membrane system in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2254-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Syndapin can expand the SSR in the absence of dPAK and Dlg, two known regulators of SSR development...
  33. Kim Y, Bao H, Bonanno L, Zhang B, Serpe M. Drosophila Neto is essential for clustering glutamate receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Genes Dev. 2012;26:974-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies reveal that Drosophila Neto is a novel, essential component of the iGluR complexes and is required for iGluR clustering, organization of PSDs, and synapse functionality. ..
  34. Ang L, Chen W, Yao Y, Ozawa R, Tao E, Yonekura J, et al. Lim kinase regulates the development of olfactory and neuromuscular synapses. Dev Biol. 2006;293:178-90 pubmed
    ..In the antennal lobe, loss of Limk abolishes the ability of p21-activated kinase (Pak) to alter glomerular development...
  35. Emoto K, He Y, Ye B, Grueber W, Adler P, Jan L, et al. Control of dendritic branching and tiling by the Tricornered-kinase/Furry signaling pathway in Drosophila sensory neurons. Cell. 2004;119:245-56 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Trc/Fry signaling pathway plays a key role in patterning dendritic fields by promoting avoidance between homologous dendrites as well as by limiting dendritic branching. ..
  36. Hallem E, Carlson J. The odor coding system of Drosophila. Trends Genet. 2004;20:453-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, functional, anatomical and developmental studies are rapidly being integrated to form a unified picture of odor coding in this model olfactory system. ..
  37. Luo L. Trio quartet in D. (melanogaster). Neuron. 2000;26:1-2 pubmed
  38. Ricos M, Harden N, Sem K, Lim L, Chia W. Dcdc42 acts in TGF-beta signaling during Drosophila morphogenesis: distinct roles for the Drac1/JNK and Dcdc42/TGF-beta cascades in cytoskeletal regulation. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 8):1225-35 pubmed
    ..Signaling in the transforming-growth-factor-beta-like pathway is mediated by Dcdc42, and acts during the closure process to control the mechanics of the migration process, most likely via its putative effector kinase DPAK.
  39. Sotillos S, Campuzano S. DRacGAP, a novel Drosophila gene, inhibits EGFR/Ras signalling in the developing imaginal wing disc. Development. 2000;127:5427-38 pubmed
    ..Hence, control of DRacGAP expression by the EGFR/Ras pathway is a previously undescribed feedback mechanism modulating the intensity and/or duration of its signalling during Drosophila development. ..
  40. Baer M, Bilstein A, Leptin M. A clonal genetic screen for mutants causing defects in larval tracheal morphogenesis in Drosophila. Genetics. 2007;176:2279-91 pubmed
    ..In particular we found a range of defects in terminal cells, including failure in lumen formation and reduced or extensive branching. Other mutations affect cell growth, cell shape, and cell migration. ..
  41. Li J, Ashley J, Budnik V, Bhat M. Crucial role of Drosophila neurexin in proper active zone apposition to postsynaptic densities, synaptic growth, and synaptic transmission. Neuron. 2007;55:741-55 pubmed
    ..Together, our results provide compelling evidence for an in vivo role of neurexins in the modulation of synaptic architecture and adhesive interactions between pre- and postsynaptic compartments. ..
  42. Sopko R, Foos M, Vinayagam A, Zhai B, Binari R, Hu Y, et al. Combining genetic perturbations and proteomics to examine kinase-phosphatase networks in Drosophila embryos. Dev Cell. 2014;31:114-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we show how correlative phosphorylation at the site level can indicate function, as exemplified by Sterile20-like kinase-dependent regulation of Stat92E. ..
  43. Graf E, Daniels R, Burgess R, Schwarz T, DiAntonio A. Rab3 dynamically controls protein composition at active zones. Neuron. 2009;64:663-77 pubmed publisher
    ..While previous studies of Rab3 have focused on its role in the synaptic vesicle cycle, these findings demonstrate an additional and unexpected function for Rab3 in the localization of presynaptic proteins to active zones. ..
  44. Rushton E, Rohrbough J, Broadie K. Presynaptic secretion of mind-the-gap organizes the synaptic extracellular matrix-integrin interface and postsynaptic environments. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:554-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that MTG pioneers a novel protein family involved in ECM-dependent synaptic differentiation. ..
  45. Robinson D, Cooley L. Genetic analysis of the actin cytoskeleton in the Drosophila ovary. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1997;13:147-70 pubmed
    ..We discuss many of the recent genetic and cell biological studies that have led to insights into how the actin cytoskeleton is assembled and regulated during the morphogenesis of the Drosophila egg. ..
  46. Patel B, Van Vactor D. Axon guidance: the cytoplasmic tail. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2002;14:221-9 pubmed
    ..Recent studies demonstrate a critical role for the cytoplasmic tails of guidance receptors in signalling and also reveal the potential for a great deal of crosstalk between the various receptor-signalling pathways. ..
  47. Tayler T, Garrity P. Axon targeting in the Drosophila visual system. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2003;13:90-5 pubmed
    ..A role for the visual system glia in orienting photoreceptor axon outgrowth and target selection has also been uncovered. ..
  48. Kamiyama D, McGorty R, Kamiyama R, Kim M, Chiba A, Huang B. Specification of Dendritogenesis Site in Drosophila aCC Motoneuron by Membrane Enrichment of Pak1 through Dscam1. Dev Cell. 2015;35:93-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, through a combination of mutation, RNAi, and imaging experiments, we found that a Dscam-Dock-Pak1 hierarchical interaction defines the stereotypical dendrite growth site in the Drosophila aCC motoneuron...
  49. Hornstein I, Mortin M, Katzav S. DroVav, the Drosophila melanogaster homologue of the mammalian Vav proteins, serves as a signal transducer protein in the Rac and DER pathways. Oncogene. 2003;22:6774-84 pubmed
    ..These results establish the role of DroVav as a signal transducer that participates in receptor tyrosine kinase pathways and functions as a GEF for the small RhoGTPase, DRac. ..
  50. Kim M, Kamiyama D, Kolodziej P, Hing H, Chiba A. Isolation of Rho GTPase effector pathways during axon development. Dev Biol. 2003;262:282-93 pubmed
    ..with the addition of an effector-loop mutation to Rac1 that disrupts its ability to bind to p21-activated kinase (Pak) and other Cdc42/Rac1 interactive-binding (CRIB)-motif effector proteins...
  51. Zheng Y, Wang W, Liu B, Deng H, Uster E, Pan D. Identification of Happyhour/MAP4K as Alternative Hpo/Mst-like Kinases in the Hippo Kinase Cascade. Dev Cell. 2015;34:642-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These Hpo/Mst-like kinases provide an expanded view of the Hippo kinase cascade in development and physiology. ..
  52. Kim Y, Igiesuorobo O, Ramos C, Bao H, Zhang B, Serpe M. Prodomain removal enables neto to stabilize glutamate receptors at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1004988 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Neto prodomain must be removed to enable iGluRs synaptic stabilization and proper postsynaptic differentiation. ..
  53. Wan H, DiAntonio A, Fetter R, Bergstrom K, Strauss R, Goodman C. Highwire regulates synaptic growth in Drosophila. Neuron. 2000;26:313-29 pubmed
    ..Within presynaptic terminals, HIW is localized to the periactive zone surrounding active zones; Fasciclin II (Fas II), which also controls synaptic growth, is found at the same location. ..
  54. Lamprecht R. The actin cytoskeleton in memory formation. Prog Neurobiol. 2014;117:1-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The actin cytoskeleton may therefore mediate between synaptic transmission during learning and long-term cellular alterations mandatory for memory formation...
  55. Sun M, Xing G, Yuan L, Gan G, Knight D, With S, et al. Neuroligin 2 is required for synapse development and function at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci. 2011;31:687-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data show that, although dnl2 is not absolutely required for synaptogenesis, it is required postsynaptically for synapse maturation and function. ..
  56. Dent L, Poon C, Zhang X, Degoutin J, Tipping M, Veraksa A, et al. The GTPase regulatory proteins Pix and Git control tissue growth via the Hippo pathway. Curr Biol. 2015;25:124-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Prominent among these were PAK-interacting exchange factor (known as Pix or RtGEF) and G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein (Git)...
  57. Pirone D, Carter D, Burbelo P. Evolutionary expansion of CRIB-containing Cdc42 effector proteins. Trends Genet. 2001;17:370-3 pubmed
    ..These evolutionary changes correlate with the development of the more complex signaling pathways present in higher organisms. ..
  58. Shcherbata H, Yatsenko A, Patterson L, Sood V, Nudel U, Yaffe D, et al. Dissecting muscle and neuronal disorders in a Drosophila model of muscular dystrophy. EMBO J. 2007;26:481-93 pubmed
    ..Importantly, we now report that Dg interacts with insulin receptor and Nck/Dock SH2/SH3-adaptor molecule in photoreceptor path-finding. This is the first demonstration of a genetic interaction between Dg and InR. ..
  59. Weitzman J. Quick guide. Jnk. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R290 pubmed
  60. Vlachos S, Harden N. Genetic evidence for antagonism between Pak protein kinase and Rho1 small GTPase signaling in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton during Drosophila oogenesis. Genetics. 2011;187:501-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in a number of genes, including that encoding the p21-activated kinase Pak, have been shown to disrupt organization of the basal F-actin and in turn affect egg chamber elongation...
  61. Haack T, Bergstralh D, St Johnston D. Damage to the Drosophila follicle cell epithelium produces "false clones" with apparent polarity phenotypes. Biol Open. 2013;2:1313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We suspect that several other reports of mutants that disrupt follicle cell polarity may also be based on the phenotype of damage-induced false clones, and recommend the use of positively marked clones to avoid this potential artefact. ..
  62. Sapiro A, Ihry R, Buhr D, Konieczko K, Ives S, Engstrom A, et al. Rapid recombination mapping for high-throughput genetic screens in Drosophila. G3 (Bethesda). 2013;3:2313-9 pubmed publisher
    ..By facilitating the rapid identification of mutated genes, our mapping strategy removes a primary obstacle to the widespread use of powerful chemical mutagenesis screens to understand fundamental biological phenomena. ..
  63. Duchek P, Somogyi K, Jekely G, Beccari S, Rørth P. Guidance of cell migration by the Drosophila PDGF/VEGF receptor. Cell. 2001;107:17-26 pubmed
    ..Intriguingly, the guidance function of PVR is largely redundant with that of EGFR. We present evidence implicating Rac and the Rac activator Mbc/DOCK180/CED-5 as mediators of the guidance signal. ..
  64. Goberdhan D, Wilson C. JNK, cytoskeletal regulator and stress response kinase? A Drosophila perspective. Bioessays. 1998;20:1009-19 pubmed
    ..Here, we review this work and discuss how future experiments in Drosophila should reveal the cell type-specific mechanisms by which JNKs perform their diverse functions. ..
  65. Sem K, Zahedi B, Tan I, Deak M, Lim L, Harden N. ACK family tyrosine kinase activity is a component of Dcdc42 signaling during dorsal closure in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:3685-97 pubmed
    ..Expression of wild-type and kinase-dead DACK transgenes in embryos, and in the developing wing and eye, reveals that ACK family tyrosine kinase activity is involved in a range of developmental events similar to that of Dcdc42. ..
  66. Fan X, Labrador J, Hing H, Bashaw G. Slit stimulation recruits Dock and Pak to the roundabout receptor and increases Rac activity to regulate axon repulsion at the CNS midline. Neuron. 2003;40:113-27 pubmed
    ..we present evidence that the SH3-SH2 adaptor protein Dreadlocks (Dock), the p21-activated serine-threonine kinase (Pak), and the Rac1/Rac2/Mtl small GTPases can function during Robo repulsion...
  67. Dickson B. Development. Wiring the brain with insulin. Science. 2003;300:440-1 pubmed
  68. Baek S, Cho H, Kwon Y, Lee J, Kim M, Lee H, et al. Requirement for Pak3 in Rac1-induced organization of actin and myosin during Drosophila larval wound healing. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:772-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Pak3, but not Pak1, is a downstream target protein for Rac1 in wound closure of the Drosophila larval epidermis...
  69. Lee D, Seo J, Ganetzky B, Koh Y. DeltaFY mutation in human torsin A [corrected] induces locomotor disability and abberant synaptic structures in Drosophila. Mol Cells. 2009;27:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the DeltaFY mutation in HtorA may be responsible for behavioral and anatomical aberrations in gDrosophila. ..
  70. Hu H, Marton T, Goodman C. Plexin B mediates axon guidance in Drosophila by simultaneously inhibiting active Rac and enhancing RhoA signaling. Neuron. 2001;32:39-51 pubmed
    ..Biochemical evidence indicates that PlexB sequesters Rac(GTP) from its downstream effector PAK. These results suggest a model whereby PlexB mediates repulsion by coordinately regulating two small GTPases in ..
  71. Geisbrecht E, Montell D. A role for Drosophila IAP1-mediated caspase inhibition in Rac-dependent cell migration. Cell. 2004;118:111-25 pubmed
    ..These results indicate an apoptosis-independent role for DIAP1-mediated Dronc inhibition in Rac-mediated cell motility. ..
  72. Hickson G, Echard A, O Farrell P. Rho-kinase controls cell shape changes during cytokinesis. Curr Biol. 2006;16:359-70 pubmed
    ..We show that cortical changes underlying cell elongation are more sensitive to depletion of Rok and myosin II, in comparison to other regulators of cytokinesis, and suggest that a distinct regulatory pathway promotes cell elongation. ..
  73. Delpire E. The mammalian family of sterile 20p-like protein kinases. Pflugers Arch. 2009;458:953-67 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of molecular details involved in the activation of the kinases are discussed including autophosphorylation, substrate recognition, autoinhibition, dimerization, and substrate binding. ..
  74. Mack N, Georgiou M. The interdependence of the Rho GTPases and apicobasal cell polarity. Small Gtpases. 2014;5:10 pubmed publisher
    ..Regarding this latter theme, we provide further discussion of the potential plasticity of the cell polarity machinery and as a result the possible implications for human disease. ..
  75. Bateman J, Van Vactor D. The Trio family of guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors: regulators of axon guidance. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:1973-80 pubmed
    ..Future studies of these mechanisms promise to yield insights not only into neural development but also into the ongoing function and remodeling of the adult nervous system. ..