Gene Symbol: ord
Description: orientation disruptor
Alias: CG3134, Dmel\CG3134, ORD, Ord, orientation disruptor, CG3134-PA, CG3134-PB, ord-PA, ord-PB, orientation disrupter
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Bickel S, Orr Weaver T, Balicky E. The sister-chromatid cohesion protein ORD is required for chiasma maintenance in Drosophila oocytes. Curr Biol. 2002;12:925-9 pubmed
    ..Using FISH to monitor cohesion directly, we confirm that oocytes lacking ORD activity exhibit cohesion defects, consistent with previous genetic results...
  2. Mason J. Orientation disruptor (ord): a recombination-defective and disjunction-defective meiotic mutant in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1976;84:545-72 pubmed
    The effects of a semidominant autosomal meiotic mutant, orientation disruptor (symbol: ord), located at 2-103.5 on the genetic map and in region 59B-D of the salivary map, have been examined genetically and cytologically...
  3. Tanneti N, Landy K, Joyce E, McKim K. A pathway for synapsis initiation during zygotene in Drosophila oocytes. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1852-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The centromeric and first euchromatic SC initiation sites depend on the cohesion protein ORD. In "late zygotene" oocytes, SC initiates at many more sites that depend on the Kleisin-like protein C(2)..
  4. Khetani R, Bickel S. Regulation of meiotic cohesion and chromosome core morphogenesis during pachytene in Drosophila oocytes. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3123-37 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, null mutations in the ord gene abolish meiotic cohesion, although how ORD protein promotes cohesion has remained elusive...
  5. Page S, Khetani R, Lake C, Nielsen R, Jeffress J, Warren W, et al. Corona is required for higher-order assembly of transverse filaments into full-length synaptonemal complex in Drosophila oocytes. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000194 pubmed publisher
  6. Balicky E, Endres M, Lai C, Bickel S. Meiotic cohesion requires accumulation of ORD on chromosomes before condensation. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:3890-900 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, null mutations in the orientation disruptor (ord) gene lead to meiotic nondisjunction in males and females because cohesion is absent by the time that ..
  7. Page S, Hawley R. Chromosome choreography: the meiotic ballet. Science. 2003;301:785-9 pubmed
    ..Failures to properly accomplish this elegant chromosome dance result in aneuploidy, a major cause of miscarriage and birth defects in human beings. ..
  8. Bickel S, Wyman D, Orr Weaver T. Mutational analysis of the Drosophila sister-chromatid cohesion protein ORD and its role in the maintenance of centromeric cohesion. Genetics. 1997;146:1319-31 pubmed
    The ord gene is required for proper segregation of all chromosomes in both male and female Drosophila meiosis. Here we describe the isolation of a null ord allele and examine the consequences of ablating ord function...
  9. Carpenter A. Chiasma function. Cell. 1994;77:957-62 pubmed

More Information


  1. Goldstein L. Mechanisms of chromosome orientation revealed by two meiotic mutants in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1980;78:79-111 pubmed
    Two disjunction defective meiotic mutants, ord and mei-S332, each of which disrupts meiosis in both male and female Drosophila melanogaster, were analyzed cytologically and genetically in the male germ-line...
  2. Gause M, Webber H, Misulovin Z, Haller G, Rollins R, Eissenberg J, et al. Functional links between Drosophila Nipped-B and cohesin in somatic and meiotic cells. Chromosoma. 2008;117:51-66 pubmed
    ..These results support the idea that direct regulation of cohesin function underlies the diverse functions of Nipped-B and its orthologs...
  3. Subramanian V, Bickel S. Heterochromatin-mediated association of achiasmate homologs declines with age when cohesion is compromised. Genetics. 2009;181:1207-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that a weak mutation in the meiotic cohesion protein ORD coupled with a reduction in centromere-proximal heterochromatin causes achiasmate chromosomes to missegregate with ..
  4. Yan R, Thomas S, Tsai J, Yamada Y, McKee B. SOLO: a meiotic protein required for centromere cohesion, coorientation, and SMC1 localization in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 2010;188:335-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The solo mutant phenotypes and the localization patterns of SOLO and SMC1 indicate that they function together to maintain sister chromatid cohesion in Drosophila meiosis...
  5. Miyazaki W, Orr Weaver T. Sister-chromatid misbehavior in Drosophila ord mutants. Genetics. 1992;132:1047-61 pubmed
    In Drosophila males and females mutant for the ord gene, sister chromatids prematurely disjoin in meiosis...
  6. Bickel S, Wyman D, Miyazaki W, Moore D, Orr Weaver T. Identification of ORD, a Drosophila protein essential for sister chromatid cohesion. EMBO J. 1996;15:1451-9 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the Drosophila ord gene result in premature sister chromatid separation in meiosis, indicating that the product of this gene is ..
  7. Webber H, Howard L, Bickel S. The cohesion protein ORD is required for homologue bias during meiotic recombination. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:819-29 pubmed
    ..Null mutations in orientation disruptor (ord) ablate arm and centromeric cohesion during Drosophila meiosis and severely reduce homologous ..
  8. Takeo S, Lake C, Morais de Sá E, Sunkel C, Hawley R. Synaptonemal complex-dependent centromeric clustering and the initiation of synapsis in Drosophila oocytes. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1845-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support a view in which the SC-mediated clustering at the centromeres is the initiating event for meiotic synapsis...
  9. van Heemst D, Heyting C. Sister chromatid cohesion and recombination in meiosis. Chromosoma. 2000;109:10-26 pubmed
    ..In meiosis, cohesion and recombination are modified in such a way that reciprocal exchange and reductional segregation of homologous chromosomes are ensured. ..
  10. Hawley R. Human meiosis: model organisms address the maternal age effect. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R305-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the demonstration of a meiotic aneugen in mice provides important clues to the higher frequencies of nondisjunction observed in older women...
  11. Balicky E, Young L, Orr Weaver T, Bickel S. A proposed role for the Polycomb group protein dRING in meiotic sister-chromatid cohesion. Chromosoma. 2004;112:231-9 pubmed
    b>ORD protein is required for accurate chromosome segregation during male and female meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster...
  12. Radford S, Hoang T, GÅ‚uszek A, Ohkura H, McKim K. Lateral and End-On Kinetochore Attachments Are Coordinated to Achieve Bi-orientation in Drosophila Oocytes. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005605 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that, in oocytes, kinetochore-dependent and -independent chromosome-microtubule attachments work together to promote the accurate segregation of chromosomes. ..
  13. Lin H, Church K. Meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster, III. The effect of orientation disruptor (ord) on gonial mitotic and the meiotic divisions in males. Genetics. 1982;102:751-70 pubmed
    b>Orientation disruptor (ord), a meiotic mutant that is recombination defective in females and disjunction defective in males and females, has been analyzed using serial section electron and light microscopy...
  14. Joyce E, McKim K. Chromosome axis defects induce a checkpoint-mediated delay and interchromosomal effect on crossing over during Drosophila meiosis. PLoS Genet. 2010;6: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a model in which the pachytene checkpoint monitors the structure of chromosome axes and may function to promote an optimal number of crossovers. ..
  15. Hawley R. Meiosis as an "M" thing: twenty-five years of meiotic mutants in Drosophila. Genetics. 1993;135:613-8 pubmed
  16. Resnick T, Dej K, Xiang Y, Hawley R, Ahn C, Orr Weaver T. Mutations in the chromosomal passenger complex and the condensin complex differentially affect synaptonemal complex disassembly and metaphase I configuration in Drosophila female meiosis. Genetics. 2009;181:875-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that incenp interacts genetically with ord, suggesting an important functional relationship between them in meiotic chromosome dynamics...
  17. Kurdzo E, Dawson D. Centromere pairing--tethering partner chromosomes in meiosis I. FEBS J. 2015;282:2458-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that centromere pairing is a conserved phenomenon raises the possibility that it may play a role in promoting the segregation fidelity of non-exchange chromosome pairs in humans. ..
  18. Choo K. Domain organization at the centromere and neocentromere. Dev Cell. 2001;1:165-77 pubmed
    ..Studies in different organisms point to a model of conserved pattern of organization for these domains. ..
  19. Yan R, McKee B. The cohesion protein SOLO associates with SMC1 and is required for synapsis, recombination, homolog bias and cohesion and pairing of centromeres in Drosophila Meiosis. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003637 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that SOLO is a subunit of a specialized meiotic cohesin complex that mediates both centromeric and axial arm cohesion and promotes homolog bias as a component of chromosome cores. ..
  20. Orr Weaver T. Meiosis in Drosophila: seeing is believing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:10443-9 pubmed
    ..The products of two genes (mei-S332 and ord) essential for sister-chromatid cohesion have been identified recently...
  21. Allshire R. Centromeres, checkpoints and chromatid cohesion. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1997;7:264-73 pubmed
    ..Phenotypic and localization data combined with their pattern of rapid degradation at anaphase have implicated several yeast and Drosophila proteins in aspects of sister chromatid cohesion. ..
  22. Baker B, Carpenter A, Ripoll P. The Utilization during Mitotic Cell Division of Loci Controlling Meiotic Recombination and Disjunction in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1978;90:531-78 pubmed
    ..defective in processes required for regular meiotic chromosome segregation, four (l(1)TW-6(cs), ca(nd), mei-S332, ord) affect mitotic chromosome behavior...
  23. Bickel S, Moore D, Lai C, Orr Weaver T. Genetic interactions between mei-S332 and ord in the control of sister-chromatid cohesion. Genetics. 1998;150:1467-76 pubmed
    The Drosophila mei-S332 and ord gene products are essential for proper sister-chromatid cohesion during meiosis in both males and females. We have constructed flies that contain null mutations for both genes...
  24. Jeffreys C, Burrage P, Bickel S. A model system for increased meiotic nondisjunction in older oocytes. Curr Biol. 2003;13:498-503 pubmed
  25. Pawlowski W, Cande W. Coordinating the events of the meiotic prophase. Trends Cell Biol. 2005;15:674-81 pubmed
    ..Understanding the coordination between chromosome pairing, synapsis and recombination lends insight into many poorly explained aspects of meiosis, such as the nature of chromosome homology recognition. ..
  26. Cook K, Murphy T, Nguyen T, Karpen G. Identification of trans-acting genes necessary for centromere function in Drosophila melanogaster using centromere-defective minichromosomes. Genetics. 1997;145:737-47 pubmed
    ..The results presented in this study strongly suggest that dominant genetic interactions between mutations and centromere-defective minichromosomes could be used effectively to identify novel genes necessary for centromere function. ..
  27. Das A, Shah S, Fan B, Paik D, DiSanto D, Hinman A, et al. Spindle Assembly and Chromosome Segregation Requires Central Spindle Proteins in Drosophila Oocytes. Genetics. 2016;202:61-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In combination our results support a model where the meiotic central spindle and associated proteins are essential for acentrosomal chromosome segregation. ..
  28. Walker M, Hawley R. Hanging on to your homolog: the roles of pairing, synapsis and recombination in the maintenance of homolog adhesion. Chromosoma. 2000;109:3-9 pubmed
    ..It thus seems possible that the synaptonemal complex plays a role both in maintaining homolog adhesion during meiotic prophase and, more speculatively, in facilitating meiotic exchange. ..
  29. Christophorou N, Rubin T, Huynh J. Synaptonemal complex components promote centromere pairing in pre-meiotic germ cells. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1004012 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus show that meiotic proteins and meiotic organization of centromeres, which are key features to ensure reductional segregation, are laid out in amplifying germ cells, before meiosis has started. ..
  30. Williams B, Gatti M, Goldberg M. Bipolar spindle attachments affect redistributions of ZW10, a Drosophila centromere/kinetochore component required for accurate chromosome segregation. J Cell Biol. 1996;134:1127-40 pubmed
    ..We propose that ZW10 acts as part of, or immediately downstream of, a tension-sensing mechanism that regulates chromosome separation or movement at anaphase onset. ..
  31. Hawley R, McKim K, Arbel T. Meiotic segregation in Drosophila melanogaster females: molecules, mechanisms, and myths. Annu Rev Genet. 1993;27:281-317 pubmed
  32. Rieder C, Cole R. Chromatid cohesion during mitosis: lessons from meiosis. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 16):2607-13 pubmed
    ..This finding provides a straightforward explanation for why mutants in proteins responsible for centromeric cohesion in Drosophila (e.g. ord, mei-s332) disrupt meiosis but not mitosis.
  33. Meyer R, Delaage M, Rosset R, Capri M, Ait Ahmed O. A single mutation results in diploid gamete formation and parthenogenesis in a Drosophila yemanuclein-alpha meiosis I defective mutant. BMC Genet. 2010;11:104 pubmed publisher
    ..This work paves the way to further investigations on the evolution of the mechanisms that support sexual reproduction. ..
  34. Gyuricza M, Manheimer K, Apte V, Krishnan B, Joyce E, McKee B, et al. Dynamic and Stable Cohesins Regulate Synaptonemal Complex Assembly and Chromosome Segregation. Curr Biol. 2016;26:1688-1698 pubmed publisher
    ..complex (SC) in Drosophila depends on two independent pathways defined by the chromosome axis proteins C(2)M and ORD. Because C(2)M encodes a Kleisin-like protein and ORD is required for sister-chromatid cohesion, we tested the ..
  35. Musters H, Huntley M, Singh R. A genomic comparison of faster-sex, faster-X, and faster-male evolution between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila pseudoobscura. J Mol Evol. 2006;62:693-700 pubmed
    ..pseudoobscura orthologue. These results, from widely separated taxa, bolster the thesis that sexual system genes experience accelerated rates of change in comparison to nonsexual genes in evolution and speciation. ..
  36. Hirai K, Toyohira S, Ohsako T, Yamamoto M. Isolation and cytogenetic characterization of male meiotic mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2004;166:1795-806 pubmed
    ..mei(2)ys91 (a new allele of the orientation disruptor gene) and mei(3)M20 induced precocious separation of sister chromatids as early as prometa-phase I...
  37. Dobie K, Hari K, Maggert K, Karpen G. Centromere proteins and chromosome inheritance: a complex affair. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:206-17 pubmed
    ..A picture is beginning to emerge of the centromere-kinetechore as a complex and dynamic structure with conservation of function at the protein level across diverse species. ..
  38. Tomkiel J. Chromosomally-induced meiotic drive in Drosophila males: checkpoint or fallout?. Genetica. 2000;109:95-103 pubmed
    ..We discuss how this hypothesis may account for previously described examples chromosomal causes of meiotic drive and sterility in Drosophila. ..