Gene Symbol: Orc2
Description: Origin recognition complex subunit 2
Alias: CG3041, DmORC 2, DmORC2, DmOrc2, DmOrc2p, Dmel\CG3041, ORC, ORC2, Orc-2, Orc2p, dOrc2, fs(3)293, fs(3)293-19, k43, l(3)88Ab, l(3)A5, l(3)K43, l(3)SG44, l(3)dsl5, l(3)k43, orc2, rDmORC, origin recognition complex subunit 2, CG3041-PA, Orc2-PA, lethal(3)88Ab, origin recognition complex, origin recognition complex 2
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Clarey M, Botchan M, Nogales E. Single particle EM studies of the Drosophila melanogaster origin recognition complex and evidence for DNA wrapping. J Struct Biol. 2008;164:241-9 pubmed publisher
    Hyperphosphorylation of the Drosophila melanogaster origin recognition complex (DmORC) by cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) allows nucleotide binding but inhibits the ATPase activity of Orc1, and ablates the ATP-dependent interaction of ORC ..
  2. Beall E, Manak J, Zhou S, Bell M, Lipsick J, Botchan M. Role for a Drosophila Myb-containing protein complex in site-specific DNA replication. Nature. 2002;420:833-7 pubmed
    ..of the third chromosome chorion gene cluster, ACE3 and Ori-beta, are directly bound by Orc (origin recognition complex), and two-dimensional gel analysis has revealed that the primary origin used is Ori-beta (refs 7-9)...
  3. Whittaker A, Royzman I, Orr Weaver T. Drosophila double parked: a conserved, essential replication protein that colocalizes with the origin recognition complex and links DNA replication with mitosis and the down-regulation of S phase transcripts. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1765-76 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, DUP protein colocalizes with the origin recognition complex to specific sites in the ovarian follicle cells...
  4. Zhang H, Tower J. Sequence requirements for function of the Drosophila chorion gene locus ACE3 replicator and ori-beta origin elements. Development. 2004;131:2089-99 pubmed
    ..Antibody to the origin recognition complex subunit 2 (ORC2) recognizes large foci that localize to the endogenous chorion gene loci and to active ..
  5. Bosco G, Du W, Orr Weaver T. DNA replication control through interaction of E2F-RB and the origin recognition complex. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:289-95 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the Drosophila dE2F1 and dDP genes affect the origin recognition complex (DmORC) and initiation of replication at the chorion gene replication origin...
  6. Loebel D, Huikeshoven H, Cotterill S. Localisation of the DmCdc45 DNA replication factor in the mitotic cycle and during chorion gene amplification. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:3897-903 pubmed
    ..with a number of other replication proteins, including minichromosome maintenance proteins, the origin recognition complex and DNA polymerase alpha. We have cloned the gene coding for cdc45 protein from Drosophila melanogaster...
  7. Royzman I, Austin R, Bosco G, Bell S, Orr Weaver T. ORC localization in Drosophila follicle cells and the effects of mutations in dE2F and dDP. Genes Dev. 1999;13:827-40 pubmed
    We isolated mutations in Drosophila E2F and DP that affect chorion gene amplification and ORC2 localization in the follicle cells...
  8. Calvi B, Lilly M, Spradling A. Cell cycle control of chorion gene amplification. Genes Dev. 1998;12:734-44 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that chorion amplification is a model for understanding metazoan replicons and the controls that restrict replication to once per cell cycle. ..
  9. Hartl T, Boswell C, Orr Weaver T, Bosco G. Developmentally regulated histone modifications in Drosophila follicle cells: initiation of gene amplification is associated with histone H3 and H4 hyperacetylation and H1 phosphorylation. Chromosoma. 2007;116:197-214 pubmed
    ..b>Origin recognition complex subunit 2 (orc2) mutants with severe amplification defects do not abolish H4 acetylation, whereas the dup/..

More Information


  1. Calvi B, Byrnes B, Kolpakas A. Conservation of epigenetic regulation, ORC binding and developmental timing of DNA replication origins in the genus Drosophila. Genetics. 2007;177:1291-301 pubmed
    ..Further, we find that the acetylation of nucleosomes and Orc2 protein binding at active amplification origins is conserved...
  2. Kim J, Nordman J, Xie F, Kashevsky H, Eng T, Li S, et al. Integrative analysis of gene amplification in Drosophila follicle cells: parameters of origin activation and repression. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1384-98 pubmed publisher
    ..to investigate these in vivo replicons with respect to parameters of transcription, localization of the origin recognition complex (ORC), and histone acetylation, yielding important insights into gene amplification as a metazoan ..
  3. Gossen M, Pak D, Hansen S, Acharya J, Botchan M. A Drosophila homolog of the yeast origin recognition complex. Science. 1995;270:1674-7 pubmed
    ..have been identified that encode proteins homologous to Orc2p and Orc5p of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae origin recognition complex (ORC)...
  4. Asano M, Wharton R. E2F mediates developmental and cell cycle regulation of ORC1 in Drosophila. EMBO J. 1999;18:2435-48 pubmed
    Throughout the cell cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the level of origin recognition complex (ORC) is constant and ORCs are bound constitutively to replication origins...
  5. Deal R, Henikoff J, Henikoff S. Genome-wide kinetics of nucleosome turnover determined by metabolic labeling of histones. Science. 2010;328:1161-4 pubmed publisher
  6. Beall E, Lewis P, Bell M, Rocha M, Jones D, Botchan M. Discovery of tMAC: a Drosophila testis-specific meiotic arrest complex paralogous to Myb-Muv B. Genes Dev. 2007;21:904-19 pubmed
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that MMB serves diverse roles in different developmental pathways, and members of MMB can be found in alternative, noninteracting complexes in different cell types. ..
  7. Pak D, Pflumm M, Chesnokov I, Huang D, Kellum R, Marr J, et al. Association of the origin recognition complex with heterochromatin and HP1 in higher eukaryotes. Cell. 1997;91:311-23 pubmed
    The origin recognition complex (ORC) is required to initiate eukaryotic DNA replication and also engages in transcriptional silencing in S. cerevisiae...
  8. Sun J, Deng W. Notch-dependent downregulation of the homeodomain gene cut is required for the mitotic cycle/endocycle switch and cell differentiation in Drosophila follicle cells. Development. 2005;132:4299-308 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that Cut functions in regulating both cell differentiation and the cell cycle, and that downregulation of Cut by Notch contributes to the mitotic cycle/endocycle switch and cell differentiation in follicle cells. ..
  9. Bielinsky A, Blitzblau H, Beall E, Ezrokhi M, Smith H, Botchan M, et al. Origin recognition complex binding to a metazoan replication origin. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1427-31 pubmed
    The initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells at the onset of S phase requires the origin recognition complex (ORC) [1]. This six-subunit complex, first isolated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [2], is evolutionarily conserved [1]...
  10. Clarey M, Erzberger J, Grob P, Leschziner A, Berger J, Nogales E, et al. Nucleotide-dependent conformational changes in the DnaA-like core of the origin recognition complex. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:684-90 pubmed
    ..EM reconstructions of the Drosophila melanogaster origin recognition complex (ORC) reveal nucleotide-dependent conformational changes in the core of the complex...
  11. Gatti M, Baker B. Genes controlling essential cell-cycle functions in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Dev. 1989;3:438-53 pubmed
  12. Maines J, Stevens L, Tong X, Stein D. Drosophila dMyc is required for ovary cell growth and endoreplication. Development. 2004;131:775-86 pubmed
    ..In summary, dMyc plays an essential role in promoting the rapid growth that must occur in both the germline and the surrounding follicle cells for oogenesis to proceed. ..
  13. Ehrenhofer Murray A, Gossen M, Pak D, Botchan M, Rine J. Separation of origin recognition complex functions by cross-species complementation. Science. 1995;270:1671-4 pubmed
    Transcriptional silencing at the HMRa locus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the function of the origin recognition complex (ORC), the replication initiator of yeast...
  14. Remus D, Beall E, Botchan M. DNA topology, not DNA sequence, is a critical determinant for Drosophila ORC-DNA binding. EMBO J. 2004;23:897-907 pubmed
    Drosophila origin recognition complex (ORC) localizes to defined positions on chromosomes, and in follicle cells the chorion gene amplification loci are well-studied examples. However, the mechanism of specific localization is not known...
  15. MacAlpine H, Gordân R, Powell S, Hartemink A, MacAlpine D. Drosophila ORC localizes to open chromatin and marks sites of cohesin complex loading. Genome Res. 2010;20:201-11 pubmed publisher
    The origin recognition complex (ORC) is an essential DNA replication initiation factor conserved in all eukaryotes...
  16. Cayirlioglu P, Bonnette P, Dickson M, Duronio R. Drosophila E2f2 promotes the conversion from genomic DNA replication to gene amplification in ovarian follicle cells. Development. 2001;128:5085-98 pubmed
    ..The replication proteins ORC2, CDC45L and ORC5, which in wild-type follicle cell nuclei localize to sites of gene amplification, are distributed ..
  17. Chesnokov I, Remus D, Botchan M. Functional analysis of mutant and wild-type Drosophila origin recognition complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:11997-2002 pubmed
    The origin recognition complex (ORC) is the DNA replication initiator protein in eukaryotes. We have reconstituted a functional recombinant Drosophila ORC and compared activities of the wild-type and several mutant ORC variants...
  18. Chesnokov I, Gossen M, Remus D, Botchan M. Assembly of functionally active Drosophila origin recognition complex from recombinant proteins. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1289-96 pubmed
    ..of chromosomal DNA replication are believed to be determined in part by the binding of a heteromeric origin recognition complex (ORC) to DNA. We have cloned the genes encoding the subunits of the Drosophila ORC...
  19. Aggarwal B, Calvi B. Chromatin regulates origin activity in Drosophila follicle cells. Nature. 2004;430:372-6 pubmed
    ..We find that histones at the active origins are hyperacetylated, coincident with binding of the origin recognition complex (ORC)...
  20. Landis G, Kelley R, Spradling A, Tower J. The k43 gene, required for chorion gene amplification and diploid cell chromosome replication, encodes the Drosophila homolog of yeast origin recognition complex subunit 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3888-92 pubmed
    ..The sequence analyses reveal that the k43 gene encodes the Drosophila homolog of the yeast origin recognition complex subunit 2 (Orc2p), a protein required for replication origin function and transcriptional silencing in yeast...
  21. Chesnokov I, Chesnokova O, Botchan M. A cytokinetic function of Drosophila ORC6 protein resides in a domain distinct from its replication activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9150-5 pubmed
    ..We report that the smallest of Drosophila origin recognition complex subunits, Orc6, was found in embryos and cell culture localized to the cell membrane and cleavage furrow ..
  22. Ashburner M, Ball C, Blake J, Botstein D, Butler H, Cherry J, et al. Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium. Nat Genet. 2000;25:25-9 pubmed
  23. Claycomb J, MacAlpine D, Evans J, Bell S, Orr Weaver T. Visualization of replication initiation and elongation in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2002;159:225-36 pubmed
    ..Bromodeoxyuridine, origin recognition complex, and the elongation factors minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCM)2-7 and proliferating cell nuclear ..
  24. Gossen M, Pak D, Botchan M. Drosophila homolog of yeast ORC: correction. Science. 1996;271:1349 pubmed
  25. Xie F, Orr Weaver T. Isolation of a Drosophila amplification origin developmentally activated by transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:9651-6 pubmed publisher
    ..addition to the origin, DAFC-62D contains two other developmental stage-specific binding regions for the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) and the replicative helicase MCM2-7...
  26. Park E, MacAlpine D, Orr Weaver T. Drosophila follicle cell amplicons as models for metazoan DNA replication: a cyclinE mutant exhibits increased replication fork elongation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16739-46 pubmed
    ..of amplification, defining replication origins, establishing the role of the prereplication complex and origin recognition complex (ORC), and uncovering regulatory functions for the Myb, E2F1, and Rb transcription factors...
  27. Baldinger T, Gossen M. Binding of Drosophila ORC proteins to anaphase chromosomes requires cessation of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:140-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the acquisition of replication competence by eukaryotic chromosomes is the binding of the multisubunit origin recognition complex, ORC...
  28. Szabad J, Bryant P. The mode of action of "discless" mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1982;93:240-56 pubmed
  29. Svitin A, Chesnokov I. Study of DNA replication in Drosophila using cell free in vitro system. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:815-9 pubmed
    ..In vitro DNA replication is ORC and CDC6 dependent, as a removal of these proteins from the extracts abolishes DNA replication...
  30. Vorobyeva N, Mazina M, Golovnin A, Kopytova D, Gurskiy D, Nabirochkina E, et al. Insulator protein Su(Hw) recruits SAGA and Brahma complexes and constitutes part of Origin Recognition Complex-binding sites in the Drosophila genome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:5717-30 pubmed publisher
    Despite increasing data on the properties of replication origins, molecular mechanisms underlying origin recognition complex (ORC) positioning in the genome are still poorly understood...
  31. Li Y, Kirschmann D, Wallrath L. Does heterochromatin protein 1 always follow code?. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99 Suppl 4:16462-9 pubmed
    ..Such sequences are likely to include HP1 "target genes" whose discovery will aid in our understanding of HP1 lethality in Drosophila and metastasis of breast cancer cells. ..
  32. Bleichert F, Balasov M, Chesnokov I, Nogales E, Botchan M, Berger J. A Meier-Gorlin syndrome mutation in a conserved C-terminal helix of Orc6 impedes origin recognition complex formation. elife. 2013;2:e00882 pubmed publisher
    In eukaryotes, DNA replication requires the origin recognition complex (ORC), a six-subunit assembly that promotes replisome formation on chromosomal origins...
  33. Ahlander J, Chen X, Bosco G. The N-terminal domain of the Drosophila retinoblastoma protein Rbf1 interacts with ORC and associates with chromatin in an E2F independent manner. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2831 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulation of DNA replication may occur through interaction of Rb with the origin recognition complex (ORC). We characterized the interaction of Drosophila Rb, Rbf1, with ORC...
  34. Mortin M, Zuerner R, Berger S, Hamilton B. Mutations in the second-largest subunit of Drosophila RNA polymerase II interact with Ubx. Genetics. 1992;131:895-903 pubmed
    ..Three RpII140 alleles cause a transformation of capitellum to wing but unlike RpII215 alleles, only when the concentration of Ubx protein is reduced by mutations in Ubx. ..
  35. Gurudatta B, Yang J, Van Bortle K, Donlin Asp P, Corces V. Dynamic changes in the genomic localization of DNA replication-related element binding factor during the cell cycle. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:1605-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These sites are highly enriched for sites where Orc2 and Mcm2 are present during interphase and at the borders of topological domains of chromosomes defined by Hi-C...
  36. Milan M, Clemente Ruiz M, Dekanty A, Muzzopappa M. Aneuploidy and tumorigenesis in Drosophila. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2014;28:110-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we discuss the role of aneuploidy in tumorigenesis in light of the contribution of Drosophila epithelial cancer models and propose a stress-induced tumor-promoting role of aneuploidy. ..
  37. Pflumm M. The role of DNA replication in chromosome condensation. Bioessays. 2002;24:411-8 pubmed
    ..Recent phenotypic analysis of Drosophila DNA replication mutants has revitalized this old idea. In this review, the role of DNA replication in chromosome condensation will be examined. ..
  38. Eissenberg J, Elgin S. The HP1 protein family: getting a grip on chromatin. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000;10:204-10 pubmed
    ..A number of intriguing interactions between HP1 and other proteins have been described, implicating HP1 in gene regulation, DNA replication, and nuclear architecture. ..
  39. Lemos B, Branco A, Hartl D. Epigenetic effects of polymorphic Y chromosomes modulate chromatin components, immune response, and sexual conflict. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15826-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These include key components such as HP1, Trithorax-like (GAGA factor), Su(var)3-9, Brahma, MCM2, ORC2, and inner centromere protein...
  40. Park S, Asano M. The origin recognition complex is dispensable for endoreplication in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12343-8 pubmed publisher
    The origin recognition complex (ORC) is an essential component of the prereplication complex (pre-RC) in mitotic cell cycles. The role of ORC as a foundation to assemble the pre-RC is conserved from yeast to human...
  41. Szuperák M, Zvara A, Erdelyi M. Identification of germ plasm-enriched mRNAs in Drosophila melanogaster by the cDNA microarray technique. Gene Expr Patterns. 2005;5:717-23 pubmed
    ..We conclude that this combination of microarray and in situ hybridization techniques is a simple but powerful experimental design for the genome-wide identification of genes coding for germ plasm localized transcripts. ..
  42. Bandura J, Beall E, Bell M, Silver H, Botchan M, Calvi B. humpty dumpty is required for developmental DNA amplification and cell proliferation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2005;15:755-9 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that hd defines a new gene family likely required for cell proliferation in all multicellular eukaryotes. ..
  43. Orr Weaver T. Drosophila chorion genes: cracking the eggshell's secrets. Bioessays. 1991;13:97-105 pubmed
    ..Regulatory elements for temporal as well as spatial control of chorion gene expression have been characterized, and two candidate transcription factor genes have been cloned. ..
  44. Christensen T, Tye B. Drosophila MCM10 interacts with members of the prereplication complex and is required for proper chromosome condensation. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:2206-15 pubmed
    ..Moreover, Mcm10 interacts with key members of the prereplication complex: Mcm2, Dup (Cdt1), and Orc2. Interactions were also detected between Mcm10 and itself, Cdc45, and Hp1...
  45. Shareef M, Badugu R, Kellum R. HP1/ORC complex and heterochromatin assembly. Genetica. 2003;117:127-34 pubmed
    ..A complex of HP1 associated with the origin recognition complex (ORC) and an HP1/ORC-associated protein (HOAP) was purified from the maternally loaded cytoplasm of ..
  46. Royzman I, Orr Weaver T. S phase and differential DNA replication during Drosophila oogenesis. Genes Cells. 1998;3:767-76 pubmed
    ..Cyclin E and E2F are needed for this differential DNA replication during Drosophila oogenesis. ..
  47. Remus D, Blanchette M, Rio D, Botchan M. CDK phosphorylation inhibits the DNA-binding and ATP-hydrolysis activities of the Drosophila origin recognition complex. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39740-51 pubmed
    ..The origin recognition complex (ORC) initiates the assembly of pre-RCs at origins of replication and Cdk phosphorylation of ORC is ..
  48. Sahashi R, Matsuda R, Suyari O, Kawai M, Yoshida H, Cotterill S, et al. Functional analysis of Drosophila DNA polymerase ? p58 subunit. Am J Cancer Res. 2013;3:478-89 pubmed
    ..Furthermore we detect a putative functional interaction between dpol? and ORC2 in discs suggesting that pol? plays a role in the initiation of DNA replication in Drosophila.
  49. Hamilton B, Mortin M, Greenleaf A. Reverse genetics of Drosophila RNA polymerase II: identification and characterization of RpII140, the genomic locus for the second-largest subunit. Genetics. 1993;134:517-29 pubmed
    ..These results strongly support the conclusion that the A5 complementation group is equivalent to the genomic RpII140 locus. ..
  50. DiAntonio A. Learning something ORIGINal at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Neuron. 1999;23:1-2 pubmed
  51. Spradling A. ORC binding, gene amplification, and the nature of metazoan replication origins. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2619-23 pubmed
  52. Balasov M, Akhmetova K, Chesnokov I. Drosophila model of Meier-Gorlin syndrome based on the mutation in a conserved C-Terminal domain of Orc6. Am J Med Genet A. 2015;167A:2533-40 pubmed publisher
    ..MGS often carry mutations in the genes encoding the components of the pre-replicative complex such as Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) subunits Orc1, Orc4, Orc6, and helicase loaders Cdt1 and Cdc6...
  53. Okudaira K, Ohno K, Yoshida H, Asano M, Hirose F, Yamaguchi M. Transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila orc2 gene by the DREF pathway. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1732:23-30 pubmed
    ..One of the suppressor genes identified was the Drosophila orc2 gene...
  54. McConnell K, Dixon M, Calvi B. The histone acetyltransferases CBP and Chameau integrate developmental and DNA replication programs in Drosophila ovarian follicle cells. Development. 2012;139:3880-90 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal a complexity of origin epigenetic regulation by multiple HATs during development and suggest that chromatin modifiers are a nexus that integrates differentiation and DNA replication programs. ..
  55. Pinto S, Quintana D, Smith P, Mihalek R, Hou Z, Boynton S, et al. latheo encodes a subunit of the origin recognition complex and disrupts neuronal proliferation and adult olfactory memory when mutant. Neuron. 1999;23:45-54 pubmed
    ..lat encodes a novel protein with homology to a subunit of the origin recognition complex (ORC)...
  56. Wallace J, Orr Weaver T. Replication of heterochromatin: insights into mechanisms of epigenetic inheritance. Chromosoma. 2005;114:389-402 pubmed
    ..have been identified for replication factors in reinstating heterochromatin, particularly functions for origin recognition complex, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and chromatin-assembly factor 1 in recruiting the heterochromatin ..
  57. Pasero P, Schwob E. Think global, act local--how to regulate S phase from individual replication origins. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000;10:178-86 pubmed
    ..identified on fission yeast and Drosophila chromosomes, suggesting that the DNA-binding activity of the origin recognition complex has diverged to recruit conserved initiation factors on polymorphic replication origins...
  58. Maqbool S, Mehrotra S, Kolpakas A, Durden C, Zhang B, Zhong H, et al. Dampened activity of E2F1-DP and Myb-MuvB transcription factors in Drosophila endocycling cells. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:4095-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that dampened transcriptional activation by E2F1-DP and Myb-MuvB is important to repress mitosis and coordinate the endocycle transcriptional and protein stability oscillators. ..
  59. Wakimoto B. Beyond the nucleosome: epigenetic aspects of position-effect variegation in Drosophila. Cell. 1998;93:321-4 pubmed
  60. Castellanos E, Dominguez P, Gonzalez C. Centrosome dysfunction in Drosophila neural stem cells causes tumors that are not due to genome instability. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1209-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that such tumors might be caused by impaired asymmetric division of neural stem cells [4]. These results show that centrosome loss, far from being innocuous, is a potentially dangerous condition in flies...
  61. Hyun J, Jasper H, Bohmann D. DREF is required for efficient growth and cell cycle progression in Drosophila imaginal discs. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:5590-8 pubmed
    ..These data establish DREF as a global regulator of transcriptional programs that mediate cell proliferation and organ growth during animal development. ..
  62. Snyder P, Galanopoulos V, Kafatos F. Trans-acting amplification mutants and other eggshell mutants of the third chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:3341-5 pubmed
    ..The possible nature of these mutations is discussed. ..
  63. Bleichert F, Botchan M, Berger J. Crystal structure of the eukaryotic origin recognition complex. Nature. 2015;519:321-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In eukaryotes, the heterohexameric origin recognition complex (ORC) is essential for coordinating replication onset...
  64. Dekanty A, Barrio L, Muzzopappa M, Auer H, Milan M. Aneuploidy-induced delaminating cells drive tumorigenesis in Drosophila epithelia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20549-54 pubmed publisher
  65. Apger J, Reubens M, Henderson L, Gouge C, Ilic N, Zhou H, et al. Multiple functions for Drosophila Mcm10 suggested through analysis of two Mcm10 mutant alleles. Genetics. 2010;185:1151-65 pubmed publisher
  66. Pflumm M, Botchan M. Orc mutants arrest in metaphase with abnormally condensed chromosomes. Development. 2001;128:1697-707 pubmed
    The origin recognition complex (ORC) is a six subunit complex required for eukaryotic DNA replication initiation and for silencing of the heterochromatic mating type loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  67. Kim J, Orr Weaver T. Analysis of a Drosophila amplicon in follicle cells highlights the diversity of metazoan replication origins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:16681-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed the developmental localization of the origin recognition complex (ORC) and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM)2-7 complex, the replicative helicase...
  68. Crevel G, Cotterill S. Forced binding of the origin of replication complex to chromosomal sites in Drosophila S2 cells creates an origin of replication. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:965-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that fusion of a Gal4-binding domain to proteins of the origin of replication complex (Orc) is sufficient to direct initiation to Gal4-binding sites inserted in the Drosophila S2 cell chromosome...
  69. Badugu R, Yoo Y, Singh P, Kellum R. Mutations in the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) hinge domain affect HP1 protein interactions and chromosomal distribution. Chromosoma. 2005;113:370-84 pubmed
    ..Hypo-phosphorylated HP1 is associated with the DNA-binding activities of the origin recognition complex (ORC) and an HMG-like HP1/ORC-Associated Protein (HOAP)...
  70. Csink A, Henikoff S. Something from nothing: the evolution and utility of satellite repeats. Trends Genet. 1998;14:200-4 pubmed
    ..To account for the ubiquity and pericentric localization of satellites, we propose that they are utilized to maintain regions of late replication, thus ensuring that the centromere is the last region to replicate on a chromosome. ..