Gene Symbol: okr
Description: okra
Alias: CG3736, DhR54, DmRAD54, DmRad54, Dmel\CG3736, Dmrad54, OKR, Okr, RAD54, RAD54L, Rad54, Ras54, rad54, okra, CG3736-PA, okr-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Lu W, Chapo J, Roig I, Abrams J. Meiotic recombination provokes functional activation of the p53 regulatory network. Science. 2010;328:1278-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish a physiological role for p53 in meiosis and suggest that tumor-suppressive functions may have been co-opted from primordial activities linked to recombination. ..
  2. Mehrotra S, McKim K. Temporal analysis of meiotic DNA double-strand break formation and repair in Drosophila females. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e200 pubmed
    ..From a comparison of the frequency of gamma-His2Av foci and crossovers, it appears that Drosophila females have only a weak mechanism to ensure a crossover in the presence of a low number of DSBs. ..
  3. Bhagat R, Manheim E, Sherizen D, McKim K. Studies on crossover-specific mutants and the distribution of crossing over in Drosophila females. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2004;107:160-71 pubmed
    ..This may be the activation of a regulatory system that ensures at least one crossover per chromosome, and which compensates for an absence of crossovers by attempting to generate them at random locations. ..
  4. Laurencon A, Orme C, Peters H, Boulton C, Vladar E, Langley S, et al. A large-scale screen for mutagen-sensitive loci in Drosophila. Genetics. 2004;167:217-31 pubmed
    ..At least one allele of each new gene identified in this study is available at the Bloomington Stock Center. ..
  5. Abdu U, González Reyes A, Ghabrial A, Schupbach T. The Drosophila spn-D gene encodes a RAD51C-like protein that is required exclusively during meiosis. Genetics. 2003;165:197-204 pubmed
    ..As there is no apparent ortholog of the meiosis-specific DMC1 gene in the Drosophila genome, and given their meiosis-specific requirement, we suggest that spn-B and spn-D may have a function comparable to DMC1. ..
  6. Manheim E, McKim K. The Synaptonemal complex component C(2)M regulates meiotic crossing over in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2003;13:276-85 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the appearance of C(3)G-independent crossovers in c(2)M mutants suggests a novel role in preventing recombination in the absence of complete SC. ..
  7. Kooistra R, Vreeken K, Zonneveld J, de Jong A, Eeken J, Osgood C, et al. The Drosophila melanogaster RAD54 homolog, DmRAD54, is involved in the repair of radiation damage and recombination. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6097-104 pubmed
    ..Here the isolation and functional characterization of the RAD54 homolog of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, DmRAD54, are described. The putative Dmrad54 protein displays 46 to 57% identity to its homologs from yeast and mammals...
  8. Johnson Schlitz D, Flores C, Engels W. Multiple-pathway analysis of double-strand break repair mutations in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e50 pubmed
  9. Abdu U, Klovstad M, Butin Israeli V, Bakhrat A, Schupbach T. An essential role for Drosophila hus1 in somatic and meiotic DNA damage responses. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1042-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that hus1 is essential for the activation of the meiotic checkpoint and that hus1 is also required for the organization of the oocyte DNA, a function that might be independent of the meiotic checkpoint. ..

More Information


  1. Gorski M, Eeken J, de Jong A, Klink I, Loos M, Romeijn R, et al. The Drosophila melanogaster DNA Ligase IV gene plays a crucial role in the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks and acts synergistically with Rad54. Genetics. 2003;165:1929-41 pubmed
    ..To determine the relative contribution of NHEJ and homologous recombination (HR) in Drosophila, Lig4; Rad54 double-mutant flies were generated...
  2. Abdu U, Brodsky M, Schupbach T. Activation of a meiotic checkpoint during Drosophila oogenesis regulates the translation of Gurken through Chk2/Mnk. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1645-51 pubmed
    ..DmChk2 is a transducer of the meiotic checkpoint in flies that is activated by unrepaired double-strand DNA breaks. Activation of DmChk2 in this specific checkpoint affects a cell cycle regulator as well as mRNA translation. ..
  3. Holmes A, Weedmark K, Gloor G. Mutations in the extra sex combs and Enhancer of Polycomb genes increase homologous recombination in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2006;172:2367-77 pubmed
    ..We propose that esc and E(Pc) mutants enhance homologous recombination by modulating the histone acetylation status of histone H4 at the double-strand break. ..
  4. Lake C, Nielsen R, Hawley R. The Drosophila zinc finger protein trade embargo is required for double strand break formation in meiosis. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002005 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that Trem may act by either directing the binding of Mei-P22 to preferred sites of DSB formation or by altering chromatin structure in a manner that allows Mei-P22 to form foci. ..
  5. Klovstad M, Abdu U, Schupbach T. Drosophila brca2 is required for mitotic and meiotic DNA repair and efficient activation of the meiotic recombination checkpoint. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e31 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, Brca2 co-immunoprecipitates with the checkpoint protein Rad9, suggesting a direct role for Brca2 in the transduction of the meiotic recombination checkpoint signal. ..
  6. Jang J, Sherizen D, Bhagat R, Manheim E, McKim K. Relationship of DNA double-strand breaks to synapsis in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:3069-77 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, mutations in Drosophila Rad54 (okr) and Rad51 (spnB) homologs cause delayed and prolonged gamma-HIS2AV staining, suggesting that double-strand ..
  7. Ghabrial A, Schupbach T. Activation of a meiotic checkpoint regulates translation of Gurken during Drosophila oogenesis. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:354-7 pubmed
    The genes okra and spindle-B act during meiosis in Drosophila to repair double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) associated with meiotic recombination. Unexpectedly, mutations in these genes cause dorsoventral patterning defects during oogenesis...
  8. Joyce E, McKim K. Drosophila PCH2 is required for a pachytene checkpoint that monitors double-strand-break-independent events leading to meiotic crossover formation. Genetics. 2009;181:39-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, PCH2-dependent delays in prophase may allow additional crossovers to form. ..
  9. Romeijn R, Gorski M, van Schie M, Noordermeer J, Mullenders L, Ferro W, et al. Lig4 and rad54 are required for repair of DNA double-strand breaks induced by P-element excision in Drosophila. Genetics. 2005;169:795-806 pubmed
    ..the repair of these breaks, the w(hd) P-element was mobilized in flies carrying mutant alleles of either lig4 or rad54. The survival of both lig4- and rad54-deficient males was reduced to 25% in comparison to the wild type, ..
  10. Wilson J, Connell J, Schlenker J, Macdonald P. Novel genetic screen for genes involved in posterior body patterning in Drosophila. Dev Genet. 1996;19:199-209 pubmed
    ..These defects are distinct from previously described perturbations in oskar activity and provide new insights into the regulation of oskar. ..
  11. Findley S, Tamanaha M, Clegg N, Ruohola Baker H. Maelstrom, a Drosophila spindle-class gene, encodes a protein that colocalizes with Vasa and RDE1/AGO1 homolog, Aubergine, in nuage. Development. 2003;130:859-71 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, maelstrom mutant ovaries show mislocalization of two proteins involved in the microRNA and/or RNAi pathways, Dicer and Argonaute2, suggesting a potential connection between nuage and the microRNA-pathway. ..
  12. Siddique H, Sharma A, Gupta S, Murthy R, Dhawan A, Saxena D, et al. DNA damage induced by industrial solid waste leachates in Drosophila melanogaster: a mechanistic approach. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2008;49:206-16 pubmed publisher
    ..protein), mus201 (deficient in excision repair protein), mus308 (deficient in postreplication repair protein), and rad54 (deficient in double strand break repair protein) than in the OregonR(+) wild-type strain...
  13. Thacker J. A surfeit of RAD51-like genes?. Trends Genet. 1999;15:166-8 pubmed
    ..The recent cloning and functional analysis of eukaryotic recombination genes suggests that at least part of the intricate mechanism involved is conserved from bacteria to humans, but is also yielding some surprises. ..
  14. Jaklevic B, Su T. Relative contribution of DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints, and cell death to survival after DNA damage in Drosophila larvae. Curr Biol. 2004;14:23-32 pubmed
    ..regulate the cell cycle and repair DNA; grp (DmChk1) mutants cannot regulate the cell cycle but repair DNA; okra (DmRAD54) mutants regulate the cell cycle but are deficient in repair of double strand breaks (DSB); mei-41 (DmATR) ..
  15. Pastink A, Lohman P. Repair and consequences of double-strand breaks in DNA. Mutat Res. 1999;428:141-56 pubmed
  16. Morris J, Lehmann R. Drosophila oogenesis: versatile spn doctors. Curr Biol. 1999;9:R55-8 pubmed
    ..Genes of the spindle class, which encode double-strand break repair enzymes and RNA helicases, affect oocyte polarity and the decision whether to differentiate as an oocyte or a nurse cell. ..
  17. de Buendía P. Search for DNA repair pathways in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1998;407:67-84 pubmed
    ..A possible explanation could be a weaker control of post-replication repair mechanisms in Drosophila than in yeast. It is expected that this research could help for a better understanding of repair mechanisms in complex organisms. ..
  18. Pastink A, Eeken J, Lohman P. Genomic integrity and the repair of double-strand DNA breaks. Mutat Res. 2001;480-481:37-50 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes our current knowledge about DSB-repair with emphasis on recent progress in understanding the precise biochemical activities of individual proteins involved. ..
  19. Collins K, Unruh J, Slaughter B, Yu Z, Lake C, Nielsen R, et al. Corolla is a novel protein that contributes to the architecture of the synaptonemal complex of Drosophila. Genetics. 2014;198:219-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations help provide a more complete model of SC structure and function in Drosophila females...
  20. LaFave M, Andersen S, Stoffregen E, Holsclaw J, Kohl K, Overton L, et al. Sources and structures of mitotic crossovers that arise when BLM helicase is absent in Drosophila. Genetics. 2014;196:107-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide important new insights into sources and structures of mitotic crossovers and functions of BLM helicase. ..
  21. Lake C, Holsclaw J, Bellendir S, Sekelsky J, Hawley R. The development of a monoclonal antibody recognizing the Drosophila melanogaster phosphorylated histone H2A variant (?-H2AV). G3 (Bethesda). 2013;3:1539-43 pubmed publisher
  22. Schnorr J, Holdcraft R, Chevalier B, Berg C. Ras1 interacts with multiple new signaling and cytoskeletal loci in Drosophila eggshell patterning and morphogenesis. Genetics. 2001;159:609-22 pubmed
    ..Mutations in Star and l(2)43Bb had no significant effect upon the lambdatop eggshell defect whereas smt3 and dock alleles significantly suppressed the lambdatop phenotype. ..
  23. Barbosa V, Kimm N, Lehmann R. A maternal screen for genes regulating Drosophila oocyte polarity uncovers new steps in meiotic progression. Genetics. 2007;176:1967-77 pubmed
  24. Dekanty A, Barrio L, Milan M. Contributions of DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints and cell death to suppressing the DNA damage-induced tumorigenic behavior of Drosophila epithelial cells. Oncogene. 2015;34:978-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumorigenic response of the tissue to IR is enhanced by depletion of Okra/DmRAD54 or spnA/DmRAD51--genes required for homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks in G2--and ..
  25. Schneiderman J, Sakai A, Goldstein S, Ahmad K. The XNP remodeler targets dynamic chromatin in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14472-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the XNP focus appears to be a functional genetic element that can contribute to gene silencing throughout the nucleus. ..
  26. Alexiadis V, Kadonaga J. Strand pairing by Rad54 and Rad51 is enhanced by chromatin. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2767-71 pubmed
    We investigated the role of chromatin in the catalysis of homologous strand pairing by Rad54 and Rad51. Rad54 is related to the ATPase subunits of chromatin-remodeling factors, whereas Rad51 is related to bacterial RecA...
  27. Mishra M, Sharma A, Shukla A, Pragya P, Murthy R, de Pomerai D, et al. Transcriptomic analysis provides insights on hexavalent chromium induced DNA double strand breaks and their possible repair in midgut cells of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Mutat Res. 2013;747-748:28-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Along with this, DSBs generation in spn-A and okr [essential genes in homologous recombination repair (HR) pathway] mutants was also tested for the possible ..
  28. Kadir R, Bakhrat A, Tokarsky R, Abdu U. Localization of the Drosophila Rad9 protein to the nuclear membrane is regulated by the C-terminal region and is affected in the meiotic checkpoint. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38010 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, by studying the localization pattern of DmRad9, our study reveals that the DmRad9A C-terminal region targets the protein to the nuclear membrane, where it might play a role in response to the activation of the meiotic checkpoint. ..
  29. McDaniel I, Lee J, Berger M, Hanagami C, Armstrong J. Investigations of CHD1 function in transcription and development of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2008;178:583-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results clarify the roles of chromatin remodelers in transcription and provide novel insights into CHD1 function. ..
  30. Chiolo I, Minoda A, Colmenares S, Polyzos A, Costes S, Karpen G. Double-strand breaks in heterochromatin move outside of a dynamic HP1a domain to complete recombinational repair. Cell. 2011;144:732-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the spatial and temporal control of DSB repair in heterochromatin safeguards genome stability by preventing aberrant exchanges between repeats. ..
  31. Bozas A, Beumer K, Trautman J, Carroll D. Genetic analysis of zinc-finger nuclease-induced gene targeting in Drosophila. Genetics. 2009;182:641-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The frequency of HR dropped significantly in flies homozygous for mutations in spnA (Rad51) or okr (Rad54), two components of the invasion-mediated synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) pathway...
  32. Pedersen K, Kristensen T, Loeschcke V, Petersen B, Duus J, Nielsen N, et al. Metabolomic signatures of inbreeding at benign and stressful temperatures in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2008;180:1233-43 pubmed publisher
  33. Wei D, Rong Y. A genetic screen for DNA double-strand break repair mutations in Drosophila. Genetics. 2007;177:63-77 pubmed
    ..We show that Drosophila Rad51 and Rad54 are both required for homologous repair by gene conversion, but are dispensable for single-strand annealing repair...
  34. Kooistra R, Pastink A, Zonneveld J, Lohman P, Eeken J. The Drosophila melanogaster DmRAD54 gene plays a crucial role in double-strand break repair after P-element excision and acts synergistically with Ku70 in the repair of X-ray damage. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:6269-75 pubmed
    ..A Drosophila melanogaster strain deficient in the RAD54 homolog DmRAD54 is characterized by increased X-ray and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) sensitivity...
  35. Wylie A, Lu W, D Brot A, Buszczak M, Abrams J. p53 activity is selectively licensed in the Drosophila stem cell compartment. elife. 2014;3:e01530 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the findings uncover ancestral links between p53 and aberrant proliferation that are independent of DNA breaks and predate evolution of the ARF/Mdm2 axis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01530.001. ..
  36. Alexiadis V, Lusser A, Kadonaga J. A conserved N-terminal motif in Rad54 is important for chromatin remodeling and homologous strand pairing. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:27824-9 pubmed
    The Swi2/Snf2-related protein Rad54 is a chromatin remodeling enzyme that is important for homologous strand pairing catalyzed by the eukaryotic recombinase Rad51...
  37. Milan M, Clemente Ruiz M, Dekanty A, Muzzopappa M. Aneuploidy and tumorigenesis in Drosophila. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2014;28:110-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we discuss the role of aneuploidy in tumorigenesis in light of the contribution of Drosophila epithelial cancer models and propose a stress-induced tumor-promoting role of aneuploidy. ..
  38. Cohen S, Yacobi K, Segal D. Extrachromosomal circular DNA of tandemly repeated genomic sequences in Drosophila. Genome Res. 2003;13:1133-45 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the genes okra, mus309, and mei41 did not affect eccDNA under normal conditions or following mutagen treatment, implying that ..
  39. Lake C, Nielsen R, Guo F, Unruh J, Slaughter B, Hawley R. Vilya, a component of the recombination nodule, is required for meiotic double-strand break formation in Drosophila. elife. 2015;4:e08287 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus Vilya links the mechanism of DSB formation to either the selection of those DSBs that will become crossovers or to the actual process of crossing over. ..
  40. Kim S, Bugga L, Hong E, Zabinsky R, Edwards R, Deodhar P, et al. An RNAi-Based Candidate Screen for Modifiers of the CHD1 Chromatin Remodeler and Assembly Factor in Drosophila melanogaster. G3 (Bethesda). 2015;6:245-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that CHD1 may act in opposition to other remodeling factors, including INO80, and that the recruitment of CHD1 to active genes by RTF1 is conserved in flies. ..
  41. Nagel A, Fischer P, Szawinski J, La Rosa M, Preiss A. Cyclin G is involved in meiotic recombination repair in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:5555-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose that CycG has a role in an early step of meiotic recombination repair, thereby affecting EGFR-mediated patterning processes during oogenesis. ..