Gene Symbol: oc
Description: ocelliless
Alias: CG12154, Dmel\CG12154, Otd, Otx, l(1)7Ff, l(1)8Ac, ort, otd, uvi, ocelliless, CG12154-PC, CG12154-PD, CG12154-PE, CG12154-PF, CG12154-PG, oc-PC, oc-PD, oc-PE, oc-PF, oc-PG, orthodentical, orthodenticle, uvi-insensitive
Species: fruit fly
Products:     oc

Top Publications

  1. Finkelstein R, Smouse D, Capaci T, Spradling A, Perrimon N. The orthodenticle gene encodes a novel homeo domain protein involved in the development of the Drosophila nervous system and ocellar visual structures. Genes Dev. 1990;4:1516-27 pubmed
    The orthodenticle (otd) locus of Drosophila is required for embryonic development, and null mutations of otd cause defects in head development and segmental patterning...
  2. Strauss R. The central complex and the genetic dissection of locomotor behaviour. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2002;12:633-8 pubmed
  3. Coiffier D, Charroux B, Kerridge S. Common functions of central and posterior Hox genes for the repression of head in the trunk of Drosophila. Development. 2008;135:291-300 pubmed
    ..We propose that an evolutionary early function of Hox genes was to modify primitive head morphology with novel functions specialising the trunk appearing later on. ..
  4. Hartmann B, Reichert H, Walldorf U. Interaction of gap genes in the Drosophila head: tailless regulates expression of empty spiracles in early embryonic patterning and brain development. Mech Dev. 2001;109:161-72 pubmed
    ..These results are the first demonstration of direct transcriptional regulation between gap genes in the head. ..
  5. Finkelstein R, Perrimon N. The orthodenticle gene is regulated by bicoid and torso and specifies Drosophila head development. Nature. 1990;346:485-8 pubmed
    ..We report here that the homeobox gene orthodenticle (otd), which is involved in head development, could be such a gene...
  6. Lichtneckert R, Reichert H. Anteroposterior regionalization of the brain: genetic and comparative aspects. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;628:32-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene families that have been characterized include the otd/Otx and ems/Emx genes which are involved in specification of the anterior brain, the Hox genes which are involved in ..
  7. Urbach R. A procephalic territory in Drosophila exhibiting similarities and dissimilarities compared to the vertebrate midbrain/hindbrain boundary region. Neural Dev. 2007;2:23 pubmed
    In vertebrates, the primordium of the brain is subdivided by the expression of Otx genes (forebrain/anterior midbrain), Hox genes (posterior hindbrain), and the genes Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 (intervening region)...
  8. Nagao T, Leuzinger S, Acampora D, Simeone A, Finkelstein R, Reichert H, et al. Developmental rescue of Drosophila cephalic defects by the human Otx genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:3737-42 pubmed
    ..The anteriorly expressed homeobox gene otd in Drosophila and its homolog Otx in mouse are required for the early development of the most anterior part of the ..
  9. Vandendries E, Johnson D, Reinke R. orthodenticle is required for photoreceptor cell development in the Drosophila eye. Dev Biol. 1996;173:243-55 pubmed
    ..We show that orthodenticle (otd), a homeobox gene, is required for R-cell morphogenesis during pupation...

More Information


  1. Pick L. Segmentation: painting stripes from flies to vertebrates. Dev Genet. 1998;23:1-10 pubmed
  2. He F, Saunders T, Wen Y, Cheung D, Jiao R, ten Wolde P, et al. Shaping a morphogen gradient for positional precision. Biophys J. 2010;99:697-707 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that the positional information provided by the wt Bcd gradient profile is highly precise and necessary for patterning precision...
  3. Galliot B, Miller D. Origin of anterior patterning. How old is our head?. Trends Genet. 2000;16:1-5 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, some of these are expressed apically and/or during apical patterning in hydrozoans, suggesting that head patterning is much older than previously thought. ..
  4. Xie B, Charlton Perkins M, McDonald E, Gebelein B, Cook T. Senseless functions as a molecular switch for color photoreceptor differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:4243-53 pubmed
    ..In addition, we demonstrate that Pros and Sens function together with the transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd) to oppositely regulate R7 and R8 PR Rhodopsin gene expression in vitro...
  5. McDonald E, Xie B, Workman M, Charlton Perkins M, Terrell D, Reischl J, et al. Separable transcriptional regulatory domains within Otd control photoreceptor terminal differentiation events. Dev Biol. 2010;347:122-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Orthodenticle (Otd)-related transcription factors are essential for anterior patterning and brain morphogenesis from Cnidaria to Mammals, and genetically underlie several human retinal pathologies...
  6. Simpson Brose M, Treisman J, Desplan C. Synergy between the hunchback and bicoid morphogens is required for anterior patterning in Drosophila. Cell. 1994;78:855-65 pubmed
    ..bcd may be a newly acquired Drosophila gene, which is gradually replacing some of the functions performed by maternal hb in other species. ..
  7. De Velasco B, Erclik T, Shy D, Sclafani J, Lipshitz H, McInnes R, et al. Specification and development of the pars intercerebralis and pars lateralis, neuroendocrine command centers in the Drosophila brain. Dev Biol. 2007;302:309-23 pubmed
  8. Gutjahr T, Frei E, Noll M. Complex regulation of early paired expression: initial activation by gap genes and pattern modulation by pair-rule genes. Development. 1993;117:609-23 pubmed
    ..The factors activating paired expression in the pair-rule mode appear to interact with those activating it along the dorsoventral axis. ..
  9. Schroeder M, Pearce M, Fak J, Fan H, Unnerstall U, Emberly E, et al. Transcriptional control in the segmentation gene network of Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E271 pubmed
    ..The study demonstrates that computational methods are a powerful complement to experimental approaches in the analysis of transcription networks. ..
  10. Cook T. Cell diversity in the retina: more than meets the eye. Bioessays. 2003;25:921-5 pubmed
    ..As Prospero, the Drosophila homolog of Prox1, also participates in retinal cell specification, these data provide a forum for asking new questions concerning pathways that may regulate retinogenesis across evolution. ..
  11. Löhr U, Chung H, Beller M, Jackle H. Antagonistic action of Bicoid and the repressor Capicua determines the spatial limits of Drosophila head gene expression domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21695-700 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the spatial domains of head gene expression are determined by Bcd in concert with Tor-dependent repressors. ..
  12. Hirth F, Kammermeier L, Frei E, Walldorf U, Noll M, Reichert H. An urbilaterian origin of the tripartite brain: developmental genetic insights from Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:2365-73 pubmed
    ..and an intervening midbrain/hindbrain boundary region, which are characterized by the specific expression of the Otx, Hox and Pax2/5/8 genes, respectively...
  13. Younossi Hartenstein A, Green P, Liaw G, Rudolph K, Lengyel J, Hartenstein V. Control of early neurogenesis of the Drosophila brain by the head gap genes tll, otd, ems, and btd. Dev Biol. 1997;182:270-83 pubmed
    ..l'sc expression in the procephalic neurectoderm is controlled by the head gap genes tailless (tll), orthodenticle (otd), buttonhead (btd), and empty spiracles (ems), which are expressed in partially overlapping domains of ..
  14. Schmidt Ott U, Gonzalez Gaitan M, Jackle H, Technau G. Number, identity, and sequence of the Drosophila head segments as revealed by neural elements and their deletion patterns in mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:8363-7 pubmed
  15. Riddihough G, Ish Horowicz D. Individual stripe regulatory elements in the Drosophila hairy promoter respond to maternal, gap, and pair-rule genes. Genes Dev. 1991;5:840-54 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that different but overlapping subsets of gap genes regulate each stripe and that activation and repression are both important in generating the stripe pattern. ..
  16. Johnston R, Otake Y, Sood P, Vogt N, Behnia R, Vasiliauskas D, et al. Interlocked feedforward loops control cell-type-specific Rhodopsin expression in the Drosophila eye. Cell. 2011;145:956-68 pubmed publisher
    ..dve is a shared component of two opposing, interlocked feedforward loops (FFLs). Orthodenticle and Dve interact in an incoherent FFL to repress Rhodopsin expression throughout the eye...
  17. Gao Q, Finkelstein R. Targeting gene expression to the head: the Drosophila orthodenticle gene is a direct target of the Bicoid morphogen. Development. 1998;125:4185-93 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that a small regulatory region upstream of the cephalic gap gene orthodenticle (otd) is sufficient to recapitulate early otd expression in the head primordium...
  18. Sprecher S, Desplan C. Switch of rhodopsin expression in terminally differentiated Drosophila sensory neurons. Nature. 2008;454:533-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This fate switch of functioning, terminally differentiated neurons provides a novel, unexpected example of hard-wired sensory plasticity. ..
  19. Cohen S, Jurgens G. Mediation of Drosophila head development by gap-like segmentation genes. Nature. 1990;346:482-5 pubmed
    ..We report here that three previously identified zygotic genes buttonhead (btd), empty spiracles (ems) and orthodenticle (otd) may behave like gap genes that mediate bcd function in the embryonic head.
  20. Makeev V, Lifanov A, Nazina A, Papatsenko D. Distance preferences in the arrangement of binding motifs and hierarchical levels in organization of transcription regulatory information. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6016-26 pubmed
    ..We discuss the role of the hierarchy in understanding transcriptional regulation and in detection of transcription regulatory regions in genomes. ..
  21. Rivera Pomar R, Jackle H. From gradients to stripes in Drosophila embryogenesis: filling in the gaps. Trends Genet. 1996;12:478-83 pubmed
    ..Recent progress has begun to reveal the mechanisms by which coherent positional information of maternal origin becomes transferred into serially repeated zygotic gene expression domains reflecting the metameric body plan of the larva. ..
  22. Royet J, Finkelstein R. Pattern formation in Drosophila head development: the role of the orthodenticle homeobox gene. Development. 1995;121:3561-72 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate genetically that there is a graded requirement for the activity of the orthodenticle homeobox gene in forming specific structures of the developing head...
  23. Finkelstein R, Boncinelli E. From fly head to mammalian forebrain: the story of otd and Otx. Trends Genet. 1994;10:310-5 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that this domain is specified according to a genetic paradigm that is different from that governing trunk development, and are also beginning to provide insights into the structures that underlie the rostral brain. ..
  24. He F, Wen Y, Cheung D, Deng J, Lu L, Jiao R, et al. Distance measurements via the morphogen gradient of Bicoid in Drosophila embryos. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:80 pubmed publisher
    ..They demonstrate that the physical features of an embryo, such as its shape, are integral to how pattern is formed. ..
  25. Crauk O, Dostatni N. Bicoid determines sharp and precise target gene expression in the Drosophila embryo. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1888-98 pubmed
  26. Blanco J, Seimiya M, Pauli T, Reichert H, Gehring W. Wingless and Hedgehog signaling pathways regulate orthodenticle and eyes absent during ocelli development in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2009;329:104-15 pubmed publisher
    The homeobox gene orthodenticle (otd) controls the process of regional specification that takes place in the Drosophila eye-antennal disc during ocelli development...
  27. Wieschaus E, Perrimon N, Finkelstein R. orthodenticle activity is required for the development of medial structures in the larval and adult epidermis of Drosophila. Development. 1992;115:801-11 pubmed
    Lethal alleles of orthodenticle (= otd) cause abnormalities in the embryonic head that reflect an early role in anterior pattern formation. In addition, otd activity is required for the development of the larval and adult epidermis...
  28. Klämbt C, Jacobs J, Goodman C. The midline of the Drosophila central nervous system: a model for the genetic analysis of cell fate, cell migration, and growth cone guidance. Cell. 1991;64:801-15 pubmed
    ..A genetic test of this model has utilized a number of mutations that, by either eliminating or altering the differentiation of various midline cells, perturb the development of the axon commissures in a predictable fashion. ..
  29. Wimmer E, Cohen S, Jackle H, Desplan C. buttonhead does not contribute to a combinatorial code proposed for Drosophila head development. Development. 1997;124:1509-17 pubmed
    The Drosophila gap-like segmentation genes orthodenticle, empty spiracles and buttonhead (btd) are expressed and required in overlapping domains in the head region of the blastoderm stage embryo...
  30. Haas M, Brown S, Beeman R. Pondering the procephalon: the segmental origin of the labrum. Dev Genes Evol. 2001;211:89-95 pubmed
    ..This model appears to explain a wider variety of insect head segmentation phenomena. Embryological, histological, neurological and molecular evidence supporting the new model is reviewed. ..
  31. Acampora D, Avantaggiato V, Tuorto F, Barone P, Reichert H, Finkelstein R, et al. Murine Otx1 and Drosophila otd genes share conserved genetic functions required in invertebrate and vertebrate brain development. Development. 1998;125:1691-702 pubmed
    ..Drosophila orthodenticle (otd) and murine Otx genes exemplify this, both in terms of expression patterns and mutant phenotypes...
  32. Fichelson P, Brigui A, Pichaud F. Orthodenticle and Kruppel homolog 1 regulate Drosophila photoreceptor maturation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7893-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identify a pathway in which the conserved homeobox protein Orthodenticle (Otd) acts together with the ecdysone receptor (EcR) to directly repress the expression of the transcription ..
  33. Simeone A, Acampora D, Mallamaci A, Stornaiuolo A, D Apice M, Nigro V, et al. A vertebrate gene related to orthodenticle contains a homeodomain of the bicoid class and demarcates anterior neuroectoderm in the gastrulating mouse embryo. EMBO J. 1993;12:2735-47 pubmed
    We studied the expression of two vertebrate homeobox genes, Otx1 and Otx2, related to orthodenticle, a gene expressed in the developing head of Drosophila...
  34. Berman B, Nibu Y, Pfeiffer B, Tomancak P, Celniker S, Levine M, et al. Exploiting transcription factor binding site clustering to identify cis-regulatory modules involved in pattern formation in the Drosophila genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:757-62 pubmed
    ..We tested one of the newly identified clusters, mapping upstream of the gap gene giant (gt), and show that it acts as an enhancer that recapitulates the posterior expression pattern of gt. ..
  35. Hirth F, Therianos S, Loop T, Gehring W, Reichert H, Furukubo Tokunaga K. Developmental defects in brain segmentation caused by mutations of the homeobox genes orthodenticle and empty spiracles in Drosophila. Neuron. 1995;15:769-78 pubmed
    We have studied the roles of the homeobox genes orthodenticle (otd) and empty spiracles (ems) in embryonic brain development of Drosophila. The embryonic brain is composed of three segmental neuromeres...
  36. TERRELL D, Xie B, Workman M, Mahato S, Zelhof A, Gebelein B, et al. OTX2 and CRX rescue overlapping and photoreceptor-specific functions in the Drosophila eye. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:215-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Otd-related transcription factors are evolutionarily conserved to control anterior patterning and neurogenesis...
  37. Royet J, Finkelstein R. Establishing primordia in the Drosophila eye-antennal imaginal disc: the roles of decapentaplegic, wingless and hedgehog. Development. 1997;124:4793-800 pubmed
    ..We show that the genes wingless (wg) and orthodenticle (otd) are expressed throughout the entire second instar eye-antennal disc, conferring a default fate of dorsal ..
  38. Acampora D, Simeone A. The TINS Lecture. Understanding the roles of Otx1 and Otx2 in the control of brain morphogenesis. Trends Neurosci. 1999;22:116-22 pubmed
    The murine homologs of the orthodenticle (otd) gene of Drosophila, Otx1 and Otx2, have an important role in brain morphogenesis...
  39. Mishra M, Oke A, Lebel C, McDonald E, Plummer Z, Cook T, et al. Pph13 and orthodenticle define a dual regulatory pathway for photoreceptor cell morphogenesis and function. Development. 2010;137:2895-904 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed a molecular and morphological comparison of Drosophila Pph13 and orthodenticle (otd) mutants to investigate the transcriptional network controlling the late stages of rhabdomeric ..
  40. Mace D, Varnado N, Zhang W, Frise E, Ohler U. Extraction and comparison of gene expression patterns from 2D RNA in situ hybridization images. Bioinformatics. 2010;26:761-9 pubmed publisher
    ..genome.duke.edu/generegulation/image_analysis/insitu uwe.ohler@duke.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. ..
  41. Triphan T, Poeck B, Neuser K, Strauss R. Visual targeting of motor actions in climbing Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2010;20:663-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report on two mutants, ocelliless(1) and tay bridge(1), that, although making a correct decision to climb, fail dramatically in aiming at the ..
  42. Cohen S, Jurgens G. Drosophila headlines. Trends Genet. 1991;7:267-72 pubmed
    ..Organization of the cephalic segments uses a mechanism distinct from the familiar bierarchical cascade of segmentation genes that subdivides the trunk of the embryo. ..
  43. Ochoa Espinosa A, Yu D, Tsirigos A, Struffi P, Small S. Anterior-posterior positional information in the absence of a strong Bicoid gradient. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3823-8 pubmed publisher
  44. Thor S. The genetics of brain development: conserved programs in flies and mice. Neuron. 1995;15:975-7 pubmed
  45. Sprecher S, Pichaud F, Desplan C. Adult and larval photoreceptors use different mechanisms to specify the same Rhodopsin fates. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2182-95 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the combinatorial action of the transcription factors Spalt, Seven-up, and Orthodenticle specifies the two PR subtypes...
  46. Tahayato A, Sonneville R, Pichaud F, Wernet M, Papatsenko D, Beaufils P, et al. Otd/Crx, a dual regulator for the specification of ommatidia subtypes in the Drosophila retina. Dev Cell. 2003;5:391-402 pubmed
    ..The homeoprotein Orthodenticle acts through these sites to activate rh3 and rh5 in their specific ommatidial subclass and through the same ..
  47. Leuzinger S, Hirth F, Gerlich D, Acampora D, Simeone A, Gehring W, et al. Equivalence of the fly orthodenticle gene and the human OTX genes in embryonic brain development of Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:1703-10 pubmed
    Members of the orthodenticle gene family are essential for embryonic brain development in animals as diverse as insects and mammals...
  48. Gao Q, Wang Y, Finkelstein R. Orthodenticle regulation during embryonic head development in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1996;56:3-15 pubmed
    The homeobox gene orthodenticle (otd) specifies anterior head development in the Drosophila embryo, otd-related genes are also found in vertebrates, with expression patterns suggesting that they are important for the development of ..
  49. Jukam D, Xie B, Rister J, TERRELL D, Charlton Perkins M, Pistillo D, et al. Opposite feedbacks in the Hippo pathway for growth control and neural fate. Science. 2013;342:1238016 pubmed publisher
    ..Hippo network behavior relies on a tissue-restricted transcription factor network-including a conserved Otx/Orthodenticle-Nrl/Traffic Jam feedforward module-that allows Warts-Yki-Melted to operate as a bistable switch...
  50. Chang J, Jeon S, Kim S. The hierarchical relationship among the spitz/Egfr signaling genes in cell fate determination in the Drosophila ventral neuroectoderm. Mol Cells. 2003;15:186-93 pubmed
    ..We also found that argos (aos) and orthodenticle (otd) act downstream of pointed (pnt), and that aos represses expression of otd in the lateral neuroectoderm ..
  51. Nguyen D, Rohrbaugh M, Lai Z. The Drosophila homolog of Onecut homeodomain proteins is a neural-specific transcriptional activator with a potential role in regulating neural differentiation. Mech Dev. 2000;97:57-72 pubmed
    ..In support of this notion, overexpression of a putative dominant negative form of D-Onecut during eye development does not affect early cell fate specification, but severely affects photoreceptor differentiation. ..
  52. Hartmann B, Reichert H. The genetics of embryonic brain development in Drosophila. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1998;12:194-205 pubmed
  53. Takemura S, Karuppudurai T, Ting C, Lu Z, Lee C, Meinertzhagen I. Cholinergic circuits integrate neighboring visual signals in a Drosophila motion detection pathway. Curr Biol. 2011;21:2077-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Tm2 integrates sign-conserving inputs from neighboring columns to mediate the detection of front-to-back motion generated during forward motion. ..
  54. Zhao C, York A, Yang F, Forsthoefel D, Dave V, Fu D, et al. The activity of the Drosophila morphogenetic protein Bicoid is inhibited by a domain located outside its homeodomain. Development. 2002;129:1669-80 pubmed
  55. Radke K, Johnson K, Guo R, Davidson A, Ambrosio L. Drosophila-raf acts to elaborate dorsoventral pattern in the ectoderm of developing embryos. Genetics. 2001;159:1031-44 pubmed
    ..The consequences of eliminating key D-raf regulatory domains and specific serine residues in the transmission of Egfr and lateral epidermal signals were also addressed here. ..
  56. Andrioli L, Digiampietri L, de Barros L, Machado Lima A. Huckebein is part of a combinatorial repression code in the anterior blastoderm. Dev Biol. 2012;361:177-85 pubmed publisher
  57. Sen S, Biagini S, Reichert H, Vijayraghavan K. Orthodenticle is required for the development of olfactory projection neurons and local interneurons in Drosophila. Biol Open. 2014;3:711-7 pubmed publisher
    ..lineage, ALl1, of the antennal lobe and show that the transcription factor-encoding cephalic gap gene orthodenticle is required in this lineage during postembryonic brain development...