Gene Symbol: Nurf-38
Description: Nucleosome remodeling factor - 38kD
Alias: CG4634, Dmel\CG4634, N38, NURF, NURF 38, NURF-38, NURF38, Nurf 38, Nurf38, dNURF, l(2)k16102, p38, p38/NURF-38, nucleosome remodeling factor - 38kD, CG4634-PA, CG4634-PB, CG4634-PC, Nurf-38-PA, Nurf-38-PB, Nurf-38-PC, inorganic pyrophosphatase, nucleosome remodeling factor, nucleosome remodeling factor-38 kDa, pyrophosphatase
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Xiao H, Sandaltzopoulos R, Wang H, Hamiche A, Ranallo R, Lee K, et al. Dual functions of largest NURF subunit NURF301 in nucleosome sliding and transcription factor interactions. Mol Cell. 2001;8:531-43 pubmed
    b>NURF is an ISWI complex of four proteins that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to catalyze nucleosome sliding. Three NURF components have been identified previously...
  2. Tsukiyama T, Daniel C, Tamkun J, Wu C. ISWI, a member of the SWI2/SNF2 ATPase family, encodes the 140 kDa subunit of the nucleosome remodeling factor. Cell. 1995;83:1021-6 pubmed vitro requires the concerted action of the GAGA transcription factor and NURF, an ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor. NURF is composed of four subunits and is biochemically distinct from the SWI2/SNF2 multiprotein ..
  3. Tsukiyama T, Wu C. Purification and properties of an ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor. Cell. 1995;83:1011-20 pubmed
    We report the purification of an ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF) from Drosophila embryo extracts...
  4. Kugler S, Nagel A. A novel Pzg-NURF complex regulates Notch target gene activity. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3443-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Putzig associates with the NURF complex...
  5. Song H, Spichiger Haeusermann C, Basler K. The ISWI-containing NURF complex regulates the output of the canonical Wingless pathway. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:1140-6 pubmed publisher
    ..ISWI is found in several chromatin-remodelling complexes, including nucleosome remodelling factor (NURF). The effect of interfering with the function of other components of the NURF complex in vivo mimics that of ISWI...
  6. Wysocka J, Swigut T, Xiao H, Milne T, Kwon S, Landry J, et al. A PHD finger of NURF couples histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation with chromatin remodelling. Nature. 2006;442:86-90 pubmed
    ..Here we show that a plant homeodomain (PHD) finger of nucleosome remodelling factor (NURF), an ISWI-containing ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling complex, mediates a direct preferential association with ..
  7. Hamiche A, Sandaltzopoulos R, Gdula D, Wu C. ATP-dependent histone octamer sliding mediated by the chromatin remodeling complex NURF. Cell. 1999;97:833-42 pubmed
    Drosophila NURF is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex that contains ISWI, a member of the SWI2/SNF2 family of ATPases...
  8. Gdula D, Sandaltzopoulos R, Tsukiyama T, Ossipow V, Wu C. Inorganic pyrophosphatase is a component of the Drosophila nucleosome remodeling factor complex. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3206-16 pubmed
    The Drosophila nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF) is a protein complex consisting of four polypeptides that facilitates the perturbation of chromatin structure in vitro in an ATP-dependent manner...
  9. Badenhorst P, Voas M, Rebay I, Wu C. Biological functions of the ISWI chromatin remodeling complex NURF. Genes Dev. 2002;16:3186-98 pubmed
    The nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF) is one of several ISWI-containing protein complexes that catalyze ATP-dependent nucleosome sliding and facilitate transcription of chromatin in vitro...

More Information


  1. Verghese S, Su T. STAT, Wingless, and Nurf-38 determine the accuracy of regeneration after radiation damage in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007055 pubmed publisher
    ..STAT92E (Drosophila STAT3/5) and Nurf-38, which encodes a member of the Nucleosome Remodeling Factor complex, oppose each other in these cells to modulate the frequency of ectopic disc growth...
  2. Cherry C, MATUNIS E. Epigenetic regulation of stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis via the nucleosome-remodeling factor NURF. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;6:557-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that epigenetic regulation via the nucleosome-remodeling factor (NURF) complex ensures GSC and CPC maintenance by positively regulating JAK-STAT signaling, thereby preventing premature ..
  3. On T, Xiong X, Pu S, Turinsky A, Gong Y, Emili A, et al. The evolutionary landscape of the chromatin modification machinery reveals lineage specific gains, expansions, and losses. Proteins. 2010;78:2075-89 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, in addition to informing on the evolution of CM as a system, this study provides a set of comparative genomic approaches that can be generally applied to any biological systems. ..
  4. Varga Weisz P, Becker P. Regulation of higher-order chromatin structures by nucleosome-remodelling factors. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:151-6 pubmed
    ..Recent observations support roles for nucleosome-remodelling factors at the supra-nucleosomal level. ..
  5. Glass C, Rosenfeld M. The coregulator exchange in transcriptional functions of nuclear receptors. Genes Dev. 2000;14:121-41 pubmed
  6. Peterson C. Multiple SWItches to turn on chromatin?. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1996;6:171-5 pubmed
  7. Jacobson S, Pillus L. Modifying chromatin and concepts of cancer. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:175-84 pubmed
    ..Understanding the function of these factors will be key to defining mechanisms of transcriptional regulation and understanding cancers linked to aberrant chromatin modification. ..
  8. Guschin D, Wolffe A. SWItched-on mobility. Curr Biol. 1999;9:R742-6 pubmed
    Recent studies have shown that two nucleosome-remodeling complexes, NURF and CHRAC, open chromatin for transcription and replication by using their common catalytic subunit, the nucleosomal ATPase ISWI, to increase the mobility of ..
  9. Corona D, Tamkun J. Multiple roles for ISWI in transcription, chromosome organization and DNA replication. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1677:113-9 pubmed
    ..Here we discuss recent progress toward understanding the biological functions of ISWI, with an emphasis on its roles in transcription, chromosome organization and DNA replication. ..
  10. Mizuguchi G, Tsukiyama T, Wisniewski J, Wu C. Role of nucleosome remodeling factor NURF in transcriptional activation of chromatin. Mol Cell. 1997;1:141-50 pubmed
    The Drosophila nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF) is a protein complex of four subunits that assists transcription factor-mediated perturbation of nucleosomes in an ATP-dependent manner...
  11. Jones K, Kadonaga J. Exploring the transcription-chromatin interface. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1992-6 pubmed
  12. Di Croce L, Koop R, Beato M. Rapid purification of intact minichromosomes over a glycerol cushion. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999;27:e11 pubmed
    ..As centrifugation through glycerol yields chromatin free of ATP and several characterized chromatin remodeling complexes, this method should be useful for structural and functional studies in vitro. ..
  13. Kwon S, Xiao H, Wu C, Badenhorst P. Alternative splicing of NURF301 generates distinct NURF chromatin remodeling complexes with altered modified histone binding specificities. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000574 pubmed publisher
    ..This truncated NURF301 isoform assembles a complex containing ISWI, NURF55, and NURF38, indicating that a second class of NURF remodeling complex, deficient in H3K4me3 and H4K16Ac recognition, exists...
  14. Schwanbeck R, Xiao H, Wu C. Spatial contacts and nucleosome step movements induced by the NURF chromatin remodeling complex. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:39933-41 pubmed
    The nucleosome remodeling factor NURF is a four-subunit, ISWI-containing chromatin remodeling complex that catalyzes nucleosome sliding in an ATP-dependent fashion, thereby modulating the accessibility of the DNA...
  15. Stephens G, Xiao H, Lankenau D, Wu C, Elgin S. Heterochromatin protein 2 interacts with Nap-1 and NURF: a link between heterochromatin-induced gene silencing and the chromatin remodeling machinery in Drosophila. Biochemistry. 2006;45:14990-9 pubmed
    ..Upon probing fractions in which HP2 and Nap-1 are both present, we find that the nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF), an ISWI-dependent chromatin remodeling complex, is also present...
  16. Shen X, Xiao H, Ranallo R, Wu W, Wu C. Modulation of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes by inositol polyphosphates. Science. 2003;299:112-4 pubmed
    ..Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) inhibits nucleosome mobilization by NURF, ISW2, and INO80 complexes...
  17. Nowak S, Aihara H, Gonzalez K, Nibu Y, Baylies M. Akirin links twist-regulated transcription with the Brahma chromatin remodeling complex during embryogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002547 pubmed publisher
  18. Reinberg D, Orphanides G, Ebright R, Akoulitchev S, Carcamo J, Cho H, et al. The RNA polymerase II general transcription factors: past, present, and future. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1998;63:83-103 pubmed
  19. Nakahara K, Kim K, Sciulli C, Dowd S, Minden J, Carthew R. Targets of microRNA regulation in the Drosophila oocyte proteome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:12023-8 pubmed
    ..The preponderance of genes that control global protein abundance suggests this process is under tight control by miRNAs at the onset of fertilization. ..
  20. Corona D, Eberharter A, Budde A, Deuring R, Ferrari S, Varga Weisz P, et al. Two histone fold proteins, CHRAC-14 and CHRAC-16, are developmentally regulated subunits of chromatin accessibility complex (CHRAC). EMBO J. 2000;19:3049-59 pubmed
    ..The developmental expression profiles of both subunits suggest specialized roles in chromatin remodelling reactions in the early embryo for both histone fold subunits. ..
  21. Bohla D, Herold M, Panzer I, Buxa M, Ali T, Demmers J, et al. A functional insulator screen identifies NURF and dREAM components to be required for enhancer-blocking. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e107765 pubmed publisher
    ..Among 78 genes required for optimal Fab-8 mediated enhancer blocking, all four components of the NURF complex as well as several subunits of the dREAM complex were most evident...
  22. Tyler J, Kadonaga J. The "dark side" of chromatin remodeling: repressive effects on transcription. Cell. 1999;99:443-6 pubmed
  23. Silver Morse L, Li W. JAK-STAT in heterochromatin and genome stability. JAKSTAT. 2013;2:e26090 pubmed publisher
    ..These higher heterochromatin levels result in suppression of hematopoietic tumor-like masses, increased resistance to DNA damage, and longer lifespan. ..
  24. Alkhatib S, Landry J. The nucleosome remodeling factor. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:3197-207 pubmed publisher
    An essential component of the chromatin remodeling machinery is NURF (Nucleosome Remodeling Factor), the founding member of the ISWI family of chromatin remodeling complexes...
  25. Creagh E, Brumatti G, Sheridan C, Duriez P, Taylor R, Cullen S, et al. Bicaudal is a conserved substrate for Drosophila and mammalian caspases and is essential for cell survival. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5055 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that bicaudal/betaNAC is essential for cell survival and is a conserved target of caspases from flies to man. ..
  26. Baumann M, Mamais A, McBlane F, Xiao H, Boyes J. Regulation of V(D)J recombination by nucleosome positioning at recombination signal sequences. EMBO J. 2003;22:5197-207 pubmed
    ..We therefore suggest that nucleosome positioning by RSSs provides a previously unanticipated level of protection and regulation of V(D)J recombination. ..
  27. Neely K, Workman J. The complexity of chromatin remodeling and its links to cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1603:19-29 pubmed
    ..Their subunit composition and brief overview of their functional properties will be discussed. Also, current links between human chromatin-remodeling complexes and cell growth and cancer will be presented. ..
  28. Wu C, Tsukiyama T, Gdula D, Georgel P, Martinez Balbas M, Mizuguchi G, et al. ATP-dependent remodeling of chromatin. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1998;63:525-34 pubmed
  29. Kingston R, Bunker C, Imbalzano A. Repression and activation by multiprotein complexes that alter chromatin structure. Genes Dev. 1996;10:905-20 pubmed
    ..This implies a regulation of the activity of these complexes in response to developmental cues and further implies that the work to fully understand these complexes will occupy a generation of scientists. ..
  30. Garcia Lopez A, Monferrer L, Garcia Alcover I, Vicente Crespo M, Alvarez Abril M, Artero R. Genetic and chemical modifiers of a CUG toxicity model in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1595 pubmed publisher
    ..CUG repeat RNA, and they include mRNA export factor Aly, apoptosis inhibitor Thread, chromatin remodelling factor Nurf-38, and extracellular matrix structural component Viking...
  31. Hochheimer A, Tjian R. Diversified transcription initiation complexes expand promoter selectivity and tissue-specific gene expression. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1309-20 pubmed
  32. Fry C, Peterson C. Chromatin remodeling enzymes: who's on first?. Curr Biol. 2001;11:R185-97 pubmed
    ..Here we review recent developments concerning the role of chromatin remodeling enzymes in gene regulation, and propose several models to explain how different chromatin remodeling activities can be functionally coupled. ..
  33. Peterson C. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling: going mobile. FEBS Lett. 2000;476:68-72 pubmed
    ..Here the biochemical properties of these enzymes are reviewed and the manner in which ATP-driven nucleosome movements might account for many of these diverse activities is discussed. ..
  34. Gregory P, Hörz W. Chromatin and transcription--how transcription factors battle with a repressive chromatin environment. Eur J Biochem. 1998;251:9-18 pubmed
    ..These data provide the latest and potentially most significant demonstration of the importance of the nucleosome in the regulation of transcription. ..
  35. Zhang B, Mehrotra S, Ng W, Calvi B. Low levels of p53 protein and chromatin silencing of p53 target genes repress apoptosis in Drosophila endocycling cells. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004581 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results define molecular mechanisms by which different cells in development modulate their apoptotic response, with broader significance for the survival of normal and cancer polyploid cells in mammals. ..
  36. Boyer L, Logie C, Bonte E, Becker P, Wade P, Wolffe A, et al. Functional delineation of three groups of the ATP-dependent family of chromatin remodeling enzymes. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:18864-70 pubmed
    ..We compare six different remodeling complexes: ySWI/SNF, yRSC, hSWI/SNF, xMi-2, dCHRAC, and dNURF. We find that each complex uses similar amounts of ATP to remodel nucleosomal arrays at nearly identical rates...