Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Nrx-IV
Description: Neurexin IV
Alias: CG682, CG6827, CT21123, Dmel\CG6827, Dnrx, NRX, NRX IV, Nrx, Nrx IV, NrxIV, Nx IV, l(3)68Ff, l(3)rsg23, nrx, nrx IV, nrx-IV, nrxIV, rsg23, neurexin IV, CG6827-PA, CG6827-PB, Neurexin-4, Neurexin-IV, Nrx-IV-PA, Nrx-IV-PB, neurexin, neurexin 4, neurexinIV, rose-gespleten region interval 23
Species: fruit fly
- Banerjee S, Bainton R, Mayer N, Beckstead R, Bhat M. Septate junctions are required for ommatidial integrity and blood-eye barrier function in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2008;317:585-99 pubmed publisher..We show that the localization of Neurexin IV (Nrx IV), a SJ-specific protein, coincides with the location of SJs in the cone and pigment cells...
- Bhat M. Molecular organization of axo-glial junctions. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2003;13:552-9 pubmed..In addition, new roles for axo-glial paranodal septate junctions have emerged, which suggest that the paranodal region may act as an ionic barrier and a molecular fence in myelinated axons. ..
- Schwabe T, Bainton R, Fetter R, Heberlein U, Gaul U. GPCR signaling is required for blood-brain barrier formation in drosophila. Cell. 2005;123:133-44 pubmed..Our study demonstrates the importance of morphogenetic regulation in blood-brain barrier development and places GPCR signaling at its core. ..
- Genova J, Fehon R. Neuroglian, Gliotactin, and the Na+/K+ ATPase are essential for septate junction function in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:979-89 pubmed..In addition to the previously known components Coracle (COR) and Neurexin (NRX), we show that four other proteins, Gliotactin, Neuroglian (NRG), and both the alpha and beta subunits of ..
- Wheeler S, Banerjee S, Blauth K, Rogers S, Bhat M, Crews S. Neurexin IV and Wrapper interactions mediate Drosophila midline glial migration and axonal ensheathment. Development. 2009;136:1147-57 pubmed publisher..By contrast, Neurexin IV is present on the membranes of neurons and commissural axons, and is highly concentrated at their interfaces ..
- Banerjee S, Blauth K, Peters K, Rogers S, Fanning A, Bhat M. Drosophila neurexin IV interacts with Roundabout and is required for repulsive midline axon guidance. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5653-67 pubmed publisher..Here, we report that the Drosophila transmembrane septate junction-specific protein Neurexin IV (Nrx IV) functions in midline repulsive axon guidance...
- Laval M, Bel C, Faivre Sarrailh C. The lateral mobility of cell adhesion molecules is highly restricted at septate junctions in Drosophila. BMC Cell Biol. 2008;9:38 pubmed publisherA complex of three cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) Neurexin IV(Nrx IV), Contactin (Cont) and Neuroglian (Nrg) is implicated in the formation of septate junctions between epithelial cells in Drosophila...
- Bhat M, Izaddoost S, Lu Y, Cho K, Choi K, Bellen H. Discs Lost, a novel multi-PDZ domain protein, establishes and maintains epithelial polarity. Cell. 1999;96:833-45 pubmed..of development, DLT interacts with the apical determinant Crumbs (CRB) and the laterally localized protein Neurexin IV (NRX IV)...
- Zeitler J, Hsu C, Dionne H, Bilder D. Domains controlling cell polarity and proliferation in the Drosophila tumor suppressor Scribble. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:1137-46 pubmed..We suggest a model in which Scrib, via the activity of the LRR, governs proliferation primarily by regulating apicobasal polarity. ..
- Wu V, Schulte J, Hirschi A, Tepass U, Beitel G. Sinuous is a Drosophila claudin required for septate junction organization and epithelial tube size control. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:313-23 pubmed..using a sinuous null mutation suggests that sinuous functions in the same pathway as the septate junction genes neurexin and scribble, but that nervana 2, convoluted, varicose, and cystic have functions not shared by sinuous...
- Laprise P, Lau K, Harris K, Silva Gagliardi N, Paul S, Beronja S, et al. Yurt, Coracle, Neurexin IV and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase form a novel group of epithelial polarity proteins. Nature. 2009;459:1141-5 pubmed publisher..Here we report that the Drosophila FERM proteins Yurt (Yrt) and Coracle (Cora) and the membrane proteins Neurexin IV (Nrx-IV) and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase are a new group of functionally cooperating epithelial polarity proteins...
- Schulte J, Charish K, Que J, Ravn S, MacKinnon C, Auld V. Gliotactin and Discs large form a protein complex at the tricellular junction of polarized epithelial cells in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4391-401 pubmed..Finally this work supports a model where Gliotactin and Dlg are components of a larger protein complex that links the converging SJs with the TCJ to create the transepithelial barrier. ..
- Slováková J, Carmena A. Canoe functions at the CNS midline glia in a complex with Shotgun and Wrapper-Nrx-IV during neuron-glia interactions. Development. 2011;138:1563-71 pubmed publisher..unveil Cno function as a novel regulator of neuron-glia interactions, forming a complex with Shg, Wrapper and Neurexin IV, the homolog of vertebrate Caspr/paranodin...
- Nelson K, Furuse M, Beitel G. The Drosophila Claudin Kune-kune is required for septate junction organization and tracheal tube size control. Genetics. 2010;185:831-9 pubmed publisher..Double- and triple-mutant combinations of Sinuous and Megatrachea with Kune-kune resemble the Kune-kune single mutant, suggesting that Kune-kune has a more central role in septate junction formation than either Sinuous or Megatrachea. ..
- Oshima K, Fehon R. Analysis of protein dynamics within the septate junction reveals a highly stable core protein complex that does not include the basolateral polarity protein Discs large. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:2861-71 pubmed publisher..Most SJ-associated proteins, including Coracle, Neurexin IV and Nervana 2, displayed similar, extremely immobile kinetics...
- Baumgartner S, Littleton J, Broadie K, Bhat M, Harbecke R, Lengyel J, et al. A Drosophila neurexin is required for septate junction and blood-nerve barrier formation and function. Cell. 1996;87:1059-68 pubmed..We have characterized a novel member of the neurexin family, Neurexin IV (NRX), which is localized to septate junctions (SJs) of epithelial and glial cells...
- Bilder D, Perrimon N. Localization of apical epithelial determinants by the basolateral PDZ protein Scribble. Nature. 2000;403:676-80 pubmed..Our results show that the lateral domain of epithelia, particularly the septate junction, functions in restricting apical membrane identity and correctly placing adherens junctions. ..
- Tiklová K, Senti K, Wang S, Gräslund A, Samakovlis C. Epithelial septate junction assembly relies on melanotransferrin iron binding and endocytosis in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:1071-7 pubmed publisher..Mouse MTf complements the defects of Drosophila MTf mutants. Drosophila provides the first genetic model for the functional dissection of MTf in epithelial junction assembly and morphogenesis. ..
- Faivre Sarrailh C, Banerjee S, Li J, Hortsch M, Laval M, Bhat M. Drosophila contactin, a homolog of vertebrate contactin, is required for septate junction organization and paracellular barrier function. Development. 2004;131:4931-42 pubmed..Mutational analyses have shown that vertebrate NCP1 and its Drosophila homolog, Neurexin IV (NRX IV) are required for the formation of SJs...
- Rodrigues F, Thuma L, Klämbt C. The regulation of glial-specific splicing of Neurexin IV requires HOW and Cdk12 activity. Development. 2012;139:1765-76 pubmed publisher..In the fly BBB, glial cells establish intensive septate junctions that require the cell-adhesion molecule Neurexin IV. Alternative splicing generates two different Neurexin IV isoforms: Neurexin IV(exon3), which is found in cells ..
- Wu V, Beitel G. A junctional problem of apical proportions: epithelial tube-size control by septate junctions in the Drosophila tracheal system. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2004;16:493-9 pubmed..Possible tube-size functions of septate junctions include patterning of the apical extracellular matrix and regulation of conserved cell polarity genes such as Scribble and Discs Large. ..
- Zweier C, de Jong E, Zweier M, Orrico A, Ousager L, Collins A, et al. CNTNAP2 and NRXN1 are mutated in autosomal-recessive Pitt-Hopkins-like mental retardation and determine the level of a common synaptic protein in Drosophila. Am J Hum Genet. 2009;85:655-66 pubmed publisherHeterozygous copy-number variants and SNPs of CNTNAP2 and NRXN1, two distantly related members of the neurexin superfamily, have been repeatedly associated with a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as developmental language ..
- Tabuchi K, Sudhof T. Structure and evolution of neurexin genes: insight into the mechanism of alternative splicing. Genomics. 2002;79:849-59 pubmed..We now show that Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans express a single gene encoding only an alpha-neurexin, whereas humans and mice express three genes, each of which encodes alpha- and beta-neurexins transcribed from ..
- Ward R, Lamb R, Fehon R. A conserved functional domain of Drosophila coracle is required for localization at the septate junction and has membrane-organizing activity. J Cell Biol. 1998;140:1463-73 pubmed..Furthermore, the localization of Coracle and the transmembrane protein Neurexin to the septate junction display an interdependent relationship, suggesting that Coracle and Neurexin interact ..
- Banerjee S, Pillai A, Paik R, Li J, Bhat M. Axonal ensheathment and septate junction formation in the peripheral nervous system of Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2006;26:3319-29 pubmed..SJs are formed between the inner and outer glial membranes. We also show that Neurexin IV, Contactin, and Neuroglian are coexpressed in the peripheral glial membranes and that these proteins exist as a ..
- Behr M, Riedel D, Schuh R. The claudin-like megatrachea is essential in septate junctions for the epithelial barrier function in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;5:611-20 pubmed..we present evidence that Mega is essential for localization of the septate junction protein complex Coracle/Neurexin. The results indicate that claudin-like proteins are functionally conserved between vertebrates and Drosophila.
- Furuse M, Tsukita S. Claudins in occluding junctions of humans and flies. Trends Cell Biol. 2006;16:181-8 pubmed..Interestingly, claudin-like molecules have recently been identified in septate junctions of Drosophila. Here, we present an overview of recent progress in claudin studies conducted in mammals and flies. ..
- Llimargas M, Strigini M, Katidou M, Karagogeos D, Casanova J. Lachesin is a component of a septate junction-based mechanism that controls tube size and epithelial integrity in the Drosophila tracheal system. Development. 2004;131:181-90 pubmed..In addition, mutations in genes encoding other components of the SJs produce a similar tracheal phenotype. These results point out a new role of the SJs in morphogenesis regulating cell adhesion and cell size. ..
- Wang S, Jayaram S, Hemphälä J, Senti K, Tsarouhas V, Jin H, et al. Septate-junction-dependent luminal deposition of chitin deacetylases restricts tube elongation in the Drosophila trachea. Curr Biol. 2006;16:180-5 pubmed..We propose that the subsequent structural modification of chitin by chitin binding deacetylases selectively instructs the termination of tube elongation to the underlying epithelium. ..
- Paul S, Ternet M, Salvaterra P, Beitel G. The Na+/K+ ATPase is required for septate junction function and epithelial tube-size control in the Drosophila tracheal system. Development. 2003;130:4963-74 pubmed
- Schotman H, Karhinen L, Rabouille C. dGRASP-mediated noncanonical integrin secretion is required for Drosophila epithelial remodeling. Dev Cell. 2008;14:171-82 pubmed publisher..We speculate that this mechanism might be used during development as a means of targeting a specific subset of transmembrane proteins to the plasma membrane. ..
- Schneider M, Khalil A, Poulton J, Castillejo Lopez C, Egger Adam D, Wodarz A, et al. Perlecan and Dystroglycan act at the basal side of the Drosophila follicular epithelium to maintain epithelial organization. Development. 2006;133:3805-15 pubmed..1) by recruiting/anchoring the cytoplasmic protein Dystrophin; and (2) by excluding the transmembrane protein Neurexin. We suggest that the interaction of Pcan and Dg at the basal side of the epithelium promotes basal membrane ..
- Moyer K, Jacobs J. Varicose: a MAGUK required for the maturation and function of Drosophila septate junctions. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:99 pubmed publisher..In vari mutants, essential SJ proteins NeurexinIV and FasciclinIII are mislocalized basally and epithelia develop a leaky paracellular seal...
- Baumann O, Salvaterra P, Takeyasu K. Developmental changes in beta-subunit composition of Na,K-ATPase in the Drosophila eye. Cell Tissue Res. 2010;340:215-28 pubmed publisher..The non-visual cells within the compound eye express almost exclusively Nrv2, which segregates together with the alpha-subunit to septate junctions throughout development. ..
- Peterson S, Krasnow M. Subcellular trafficking of FGF controls tracheal invasion of Drosophila flight muscle. Cell. 2015;160:313-23 pubmed publisher..We propose that tracheal invasion is controlled by an AP-1-dependent switch in FGF trafficking. Thus, subcellular targeting of a chemoattractant can direct outgrowth to specific domains, including inside theÂ cell. ..
- Ng T, Yu F, Roy S. A homologue of the vertebrate SET domain and zinc finger protein Blimp-1 regulates terminal differentiation of the tracheal system in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Genes Evol. 2006;216:243-52 pubmed..Further, using genetic analysis, we demonstrate that its wild-type activity is critically required for the maturation of the tracheal system into properly differentiated tubes. ..
- Bätz T, Förster D, Luschnig S. The transmembrane protein Macroglobulin complement-related is essential for septate junction formation and epithelial barrier function in Drosophila. Development. 2014;141:899-908 pubmed publisher..Thus, Mcr represents a novel paradigm for investigating functional links between occluding junction formation and pathogen defense mechanisms. ..
- Khanna M, Stanley B, Thomas G. Towards a membrane proteome in Drosophila: a method for the isolation of plasma membrane. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:302 pubmed publisher..This points the way for further adaptations into other systems. ..
- Agnes F, Noselli S. [Dorsal closure in Drosophila. A genetic model for wound healing?]. C R Acad Sci III. 1999;322:5-13 pubmed..The molecular and cellular events that underlie these two analogous migratory processes are detailed, discussed and compared. We suggest that DC is a good genetic model for wound healing studying. ..
- Goberdhan D, Wilson C. JNK, cytoskeletal regulator and stress response kinase? A Drosophila perspective. Bioessays. 1998;20:1009-19 pubmed..Here, we review this work and discuss how future experiments in Drosophila should reveal the cell type-specific mechanisms by which JNKs perform their diverse functions. ..
- Liu X, Lengyel J. Drosophila arc encodes a novel adherens junction-associated PDZ domain protein required for wing and eye development. Dev Biol. 2000;221:419-34 pubmed..Misexpression of arc in the eye imaginal discs results in rough and larger eyes with fused ommatidia. We propose that arc affects eye development by modulating adherens junctions of the developing ommatidium. ..
- Boettner B, Harjes P, Ishimaru S, Heke M, Fan H, Qin Y, et al. The AF-6 homolog canoe acts as a Rap1 effector during dorsal closure of the Drosophila embryo. Genetics. 2003;165:159-69 pubmed..We further show that Rap1 acts upstream of Cno, but that Rap1, unlike Cno, is not involved in the stimulation of JNK pathway activity, indicating that Cno has both a Rap1-dependent and a Rap1-independent function in the DC process. ..
- Hatan M, Shinder V, Israeli D, Schnorrer F, Volk T. The Drosophila blood brain barrier is maintained by GPCR-dependent dynamic actin structures. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:307-19 pubmed publisher..The localization of the ARSs close to the septate junctions enables efficient sealing of membrane gaps formed during nerve cord growth. ..
- Daneman R, Barres B. The blood-brain barrier--lessons from moody flies. Cell. 2005;123:9-12 pubmed..Meanwhile, moody also has been identified in a screen for fly mutants with altered sensitivity to cocaine, remarkably implicating the BBB in the physiological response to narcotics. ..
- Jeon M, Zinn K. Receptor tyrosine phosphatases control tracheal tube geometries through negative regulation of Egfr signaling. Development. 2009;136:3121-9 pubmed publisher..PTPRJ corresponds to the murine Scc1 (suppressor of colon cancer) gene. ..
- Grice S, Liu J, Webber C. Synergistic interactions between Drosophila orthologues of genes spanned by de novo human CNVs support multiple-hit models of autism. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1004998 pubmed publisher..Our study illustrates mechanisms through which synergistic effects resulting from large structural variation can contribute to human disease. ..
- Syed M, Krudewig A, Engelen D, Stork T, Klämbt C. The CD59 family member Leaky/Coiled is required for the establishment of the blood-brain barrier in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2011;31:7876-85 pubmed publisher..In coiled mutants, the normal distribution of septate junction markers such as NeurexinIV, Coracle, or Discs large is disturbed...
- Slack C, Somers W, Sousa Nunes R, Chia W, Overton P. A mosaic genetic screen for novel mutations affecting Drosophila neuroblast divisions. BMC Genet. 2006;7:33 pubmed..Taken together, these results demonstrate the value of mosaic screens in the identification of genes involved in neuroblast division. ..
- Noselli S. JNK signaling and morphogenesis in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 1998;14:33-8 pubmed
- Banerjee S, Paik R, Mino R, Blauth K, Fisher E, Madden V, et al. A Laminin G-EGF-Laminin G module in Neurexin IV is essential for the apico-lateral localization of Contactin and organization of septate junctions. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25926 pubmed publisher..have identified a highly conserved core complex of SJ proteins consisting of three cell adhesion molecules Neurexin IV, Contactin, and Neuroglian, which interact with the cytoskeletal FERM domain protein Coracle...
- Strigini M, Cantera R, Morin X, Bastiani M, Bate M, Karagogeos D. The IgLON protein Lachesin is required for the blood-brain barrier in Drosophila. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;32:91-101 pubmed..In Drosophila, SJ are found in epithelia and in the glia that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Drosophila NeurexinIV and Gliotactin, two components of SJ, play an important role in nerve ensheathment and insulation...
- Mack N, Georgiou M. The interdependence of the Rho GTPases and apicobasal cell polarity. Small Gtpases. 2014;5:10 pubmed publisher..Regarding this latter theme, we provide further discussion of the potential plasticity of the cell polarity machinery and as a result the possible implications for human disease. ..
- Stork T, Thomas S, Rodrigues F, Silies M, Naffin E, Wenderdel S, et al. Drosophila Neurexin IV stabilizes neuron-glia interactions at the CNS midline by binding to Wrapper. Development. 2009;136:1251-61 pubmed publisher..Here, we show that this wrapping of axons depends on the interaction of the neuronal transmembrane protein Neurexin IV with the glial Ig-domain protein Wrapper...
- Gorfinkiel N, Arias A. Requirements for adherens junction components in the interaction between epithelial tissues during dorsal closure in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3289-98 pubmed..Our results show that regulated cell adhesion is a crucial element of the interactions that shape epithelial sheets in morphogenetic processes. ..
- Hemphälä J, Uv A, Cantera R, Bray S, Samakovlis C. Grainy head controls apical membrane growth and tube elongation in response to Branchless/FGF signalling. Development. 2003;130:249-58 pubmed
- Schmidt I, Thomas S, Kain P, Risse B, Naffin E, Kl mbt C. Kinesin heavy chain function in Drosophila glial cells controls neuronal activity. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7466-76 pubmed publisher..To better understand khc function, we determined Khc-dependent Rab proteins in glia and present evidence that Neurexin IV, a well known blood-brain barrier constituent, is one of the relevant cargo proteins...
- Jones B. Glial cell development in the Drosophila embryo. Bioessays. 2001;23:877-87 pubmed..Other roles of glia are being explored, including their requirement for axon guidance, neuronal survival, and signaling. ..
- Sharifkhodaei Z, Padash Barmchi M, Gilbert M, Samarasekera G, Fulga T, Van Vactor D, et al. The Drosophila tricellular junction protein Gliotactin regulates its own mRNA levels through BMP-mediated induction of miR-184. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:1477-89 pubmed publisher..miR-184 also targets a suite of septate junction proteins, including NrxIV, coracle and Mcr...
- Tepass U. Epithelial differentiation in Drosophila. Bioessays. 1997;19:673-82 pubmed..The combination of embryological and genetic/molecular tools in Drosophila will help us to elucidate the complex events that determine epithelial cell structure and how they relate to morphogenesis and other developmental processes. ..
- Tanentzapf G, Tepass U. Interactions between the crumbs, lethal giant larvae and bazooka pathways in epithelial polarization. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:46-52 pubmed
- Cantera R, Lüer K, Rusten T, Barrio R, Kafatos F, Technau G. Mutations in spalt cause a severe but reversible neurodegenerative phenotype in the embryonic central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2002;129:5577-86 pubmed..Effects on the expression of these genes are persistent but many morphological aspects of the phenotype are transient, leading to the concept of sequential redundancy for stable organisation of the central nervous system. ..
- Lee H, Cording A, Vielmetter J, Zinn K. Interactions between a receptor tyrosine phosphatase and a cell surface ligand regulate axon guidance and glial-neuronal communication. Neuron. 2013;78:813-26 pubmed publisher..We find that neuronal Ptp10D restrains signaling by overexpressed glial Sas, which would otherwise produce strong glial and axonal phenotypes. ..
- Tonning A, Hemphälä J, Tång E, Nannmark U, Samakovlis C, Uv A. A transient luminal chitinous matrix is required to model epithelial tube diameter in the Drosophila trachea. Dev Cell. 2005;9:423-30 pubmed..We propose that the transient luminal protein/polysaccharide matrix is sensed by the epithelial cells and coordinates cytoskeletal organization to ensure uniform lumen diameter. ..
- Trapp B, Kidd G. Axo-glial septate junctions. The maestro of nodal formation and myelination?. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:F97-F100 pubmed
- Yuan L, Ganetzky B. A glial-neuronal signaling pathway revealed by mutations in a neurexin-related protein. Science. 1999;283:1343-5 pubmed..Here the axotactin (axo) gene of Drosophila was shown to encode a member of the neurexin protein superfamily secreted by glia and subsequently localized to axonal tracts...
- Liu L, Tian Y, Zhang X, Zhang X, Li T, Xie W, et al. Neurexin Restricts Axonal Branching in Columns by Promoting Ephrin Clustering. Dev Cell. 2017;41:94-106.e4 pubmed publisher..Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila homolog of ?-neurexin (DNrx) plays an essential role in columnar restriction during L4 axon branching...
- Fairchild M, Smendziuk C, Tanentzapf G. A somatic permeability barrier around the germline is essential for Drosophila spermatogenesis. Development. 2015;142:268-81 pubmed publisher..We propose that the permeability barrier around the germline serves an important regulatory function during spermatogenesis by shaping the signaling events that take place between the soma and the germline. ..