Gene Symbol: Nrg
Description: Neuroglian
Alias: CG1634, CT4318, Dmel\CG1634, NFASC, NRG, Ngl, Nrg167, Nrg180, RA35, ceb, fs(1)M72, ibx, l(1)7Fa, l(1)G0099, l(1)G0413, l(1)G0488, nrg, neuroglian, CG1634-PA, CG1634-PB, CG1634-PC, CG1634-PD, CG1634-PE, CG1634-PF, CG1634-PG, CG1634-PH, CG1634-PI, Nrg-PA, Nrg-PB, Nrg-PC, Nrg-PD, Nrg-PE, Nrg-PF, Nrg-PG, Nrg-PH, Nrg-PI, central brain deranged, female sterile(1)M72, icebox, lethal (1) G0488
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Nrg

Top Publications

  1. Shandala T, Takizawa K, Saint R. The dead ringer/retained transcriptional regulatory gene is required for positioning of the longitudinal glia in the Drosophila embryonic CNS. Development. 2003;130:1505-13 pubmed
    ..This suggests that loco and pros are targets of DRI transcriptional activation in some LG. We conclude that dri is an important regulator of the late development of longitudinal glia. ..
  2. Kristiansen L, Velasquez E, Romani S, Baars S, Berezin V, Bock E, et al. Genetic analysis of an overlapping functional requirement for L1- and NCAM-type proteins during sensory axon guidance in Drosophila. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005;28:141-52 pubmed
    ..We have studied the functional requirements for the Drosophila L1- and NCAM-type proteins, Neuroglian (Nrg) and Fasciclin II (FasII), during postembryonic sensory axon guidance...
  3. Wu V, Beitel G. A junctional problem of apical proportions: epithelial tube-size control by septate junctions in the Drosophila tracheal system. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2004;16:493-9 pubmed
    ..Possible tube-size functions of septate junctions include patterning of the apical extracellular matrix and regulation of conserved cell polarity genes such as Scribble and Discs Large. ..
  4. Forni J, Romani S, Doherty P, Tear G. Neuroglian and FasciclinII can promote neurite outgrowth via the FGF receptor Heartless. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004;26:282-91 pubmed
    ..We show that both FasciclinII and Neuroglian are able to promote outgrowth of FasciclinII or Neuroglian expressing neurons, respectively...
  5. Hortsch M, Paisley K, Tian M, Qian M, Bouley M, Chandler R. The axonal localization of large Drosophila ankyrin2 protein isoforms is essential for neuronal functionality. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2002;20:43-55 pubmed
    ..We show that once polarization is established, it persists during later stages of Drosophila development. We also present genetic evidence that the absence of axonal Dank2 protein is lethal. ..
  6. Hortsch M, O Shea K, Zhao G, Kim F, Vallejo Y, Dubreuil R. A conserved role for L1 as a transmembrane link between neuronal adhesion and membrane cytoskeleton assembly. Cell Adhes Commun. 1998;5:61-73 pubmed
    ..Human L1-CAM and its Drosophila homolog neuroglian are rather divergent in sequence, with the highest degree of amino acid sequence conservation between segments ..
  7. Garcia Alonso L, Romani S, Jimenez F. The EGF and FGF receptors mediate neuroglian function to control growth cone decisions during sensory axon guidance in Drosophila. Neuron. 2000;28:741-52 pubmed
    ..We show that, in Drosophila, loss-of-function conditions of either the Neuroglian CAM, the FGF receptor coded by the gene heartless, or the EGF receptor coded by DER display a similar phenotype ..
  8. Schwabe T, Bainton R, Fetter R, Heberlein U, Gaul U. GPCR signaling is required for blood-brain barrier formation in drosophila. Cell. 2005;123:133-44 pubmed
    ..Our study demonstrates the importance of morphogenetic regulation in blood-brain barrier development and places GPCR signaling at its core. ..
  9. Dubreuil R, Maddux P, Grushko T, MacVicar G. Segregation of two spectrin isoforms: polarized membrane-binding sites direct polarized membrane skeleton assembly. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:1933-42 pubmed
    ..are recruited to sites of cell-cell contact in Drosophila S2 cells expressing the homophilic adhesion molecule neuroglian. Here, we show that neuroglian has no apparent effect on a second spectrin isoform (alpha beta H), which is ..

More Information


  1. Godenschwege T, Kristiansen L, Uthaman S, Hortsch M, Murphey R. A conserved role for Drosophila Neuroglian and human L1-CAM in central-synapse formation. Curr Biol. 2006;16:12-23 pubmed
    Drosophila Neuroglian (Nrg) and its vertebrate homolog L1-CAM are cell-adhesion molecules (CAM) that have been well studied in early developmental processes...
  2. Genova J, Fehon R. Neuroglian, Gliotactin, and the Na+/K+ ATPase are essential for septate junction function in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:979-89 pubmed
    ..the previously known components Coracle (COR) and Neurexin (NRX), we show that four other proteins, Gliotactin, Neuroglian (NRG), and both the alpha and beta subunits of the Na+/K+ ATPase, are required for formation of the paracellular ..
  3. Furuse M, Tsukita S. Claudins in occluding junctions of humans and flies. Trends Cell Biol. 2006;16:181-8 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, claudin-like molecules have recently been identified in septate junctions of Drosophila. Here, we present an overview of recent progress in claudin studies conducted in mammals and flies. ..
  4. Strauss R, Heisenberg M. A higher control center of locomotor behavior in the Drosophila brain. J Neurosci. 1993;13:1852-61 pubmed
  5. Laval M, Bel C, Faivre Sarrailh C. The lateral mobility of cell adhesion molecules is highly restricted at septate junctions in Drosophila. BMC Cell Biol. 2008;9:38 pubmed publisher
    A complex of three cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) Neurexin IV(Nrx IV), Contactin (Cont) and Neuroglian (Nrg) is implicated in the formation of septate junctions between epithelial cells in Drosophila...
  6. Paul S, Ternet M, Salvaterra P, Beitel G. The Na+/K+ ATPase is required for septate junction function and epithelial tube-size control in the Drosophila tracheal system. Development. 2003;130:4963-74 pubmed
  7. Goossens T, Kang Y, Wuytens G, Zimmermann P, Callaerts Vegh Z, Pollarolo G, et al. The Drosophila L1CAM homolog Neuroglian signals through distinct pathways to control different aspects of mushroom body axon development. Development. 2011;138:1595-605 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we describe the role of the L1-type CAM Neuroglian protein (NRG) in different steps of Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neuron axonogenesis...
  8. Hall S, Bone C, Oshima K, Zhang L, McGraw M, Lucas B, et al. Macroglobulin complement-related encodes a protein required for septate junction organization and paracellular barrier function in Drosophila. Development. 2014;141:889-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show a unique interdependence between Mcr and Nrg for SJ localization that provides new insights into the organization of the SJ...
  9. Dunlop J, Morin X, Corominas M, Serras F, Tear G. glaikit is essential for the formation of epithelial polarity and neuronal development. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2039-45 pubmed
    ..A mutation in the human homolog of gkt causes the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia with neuropathy (SCAN1), making it possible that a failure of membrane protein localization is a cause of this disease. ..
  10. Stork T, Engelen D, Krudewig A, Silies M, Bainton R, Klämbt C. Organization and function of the blood-brain barrier in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:587-97 pubmed publisher
  11. Banerjee S, Pillai A, Paik R, Li J, Bhat M. Axonal ensheathment and septate junction formation in the peripheral nervous system of Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2006;26:3319-29 pubmed
    ..SJs are formed between the inner and outer glial membranes. We also show that Neurexin IV, Contactin, and Neuroglian are coexpressed in the peripheral glial membranes and that these proteins exist as a complex in the Drosophila ..
  12. Islam R, Wei S, Chiu W, Hortsch M, Hsu J. Neuroglian activates Echinoid to antagonize the Drosophila EGF receptor signaling pathway. Development. 2003;130:2051-9 pubmed
    ..functions as a homophilic adhesion molecule and also engages in a heterophilic trans-interaction with Drosophila Neuroglian (Nrg), an L1-type CAM...
  13. Yamamoto M, Ueda R, Takahashi K, Saigo K, Uemura T. Control of axonal sprouting and dendrite branching by the Nrg-Ank complex at the neuron-glia interface. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1678-83 pubmed
    ..One of them was Neuroglian (Nrg), a member of the Ig superfamily ; Nrg and vertebrate L1-family molecules have been implicated in various ..
  14. Llimargas M, Strigini M, Katidou M, Karagogeos D, Casanova J. Lachesin is a component of a septate junction-based mechanism that controls tube size and epithelial integrity in the Drosophila tracheal system. Development. 2004;131:181-90 pubmed
    ..In addition, mutations in genes encoding other components of the SJs produce a similar tracheal phenotype. These results point out a new role of the SJs in morphogenesis regulating cell adhesion and cell size. ..
  15. Jenkins S, Kizhatil K, Kramarcy N, Sen A, Sealock R, Bennett V. FIGQY phosphorylation defines discrete populations of L1 cell adhesion molecules at sites of cell-cell contact and in migrating neurons. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:3823-35 pubmed
  16. Martin V, Mrkusich E, Steinel M, Rice J, Merritt D, Whitington P. The L1-type cell adhesion molecule Neuroglian is necessary for maintenance of sensory axon advance in the Drosophila embryo. Neural Dev. 2008;3:10 pubmed publisher
    ..system of the Drosophila embryo to shed light on the mechanism by which the L1-type cell adhesion molecule Neuroglian regulates axon growth...
  17. Hortsch M, Homer D, Malhotra J, Chang S, Frankel J, Jefford G, et al. Structural requirements for outside-in and inside-out signaling by Drosophila neuroglian, a member of the L1 family of cell adhesion molecules. J Cell Biol. 1998;142:251-61 pubmed
    Expression of the Drosophila cell adhesion molecule neuroglian in S2 cells leads to cell aggregation and the intracellular recruitment of ankyrin to cell contact sites...
  18. Hall S, Bieber A. Mutations in the Drosophila neuroglian cell adhesion molecule affect motor neuron pathfinding and peripheral nervous system patterning. J Neurobiol. 1997;32:325-40 pubmed
    ..identified and characterized three embryonic lethal mutations that alter or abolish expression of Drosophila Neuroglian and have used these mutations to analyze Neuroglian function during development...
  19. Jefford G, Dubreuil R. Receptor clustering drives polarized assembly of ankyrin. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:27726-32 pubmed
    Expression of the L1 family cell adhesion molecule neuroglian in Drosophila S2 cells leads to cell aggregation and polarized ankyrin accumulation at sites of cell-cell contact...
  20. Enneking E, Kudumala S, Moreno E, Stephan R, Boerner J, Godenschwege T, et al. Transsynaptic coordination of synaptic growth, function, and stability by the L1-type CAM Neuroglian. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001537 pubmed publisher
    ..In an unbiased RNAi screen we identified the Drosophila L1-type CAM Neuroglian (Nrg) as a central coordinator of synapse growth, function, and stability...
  21. Pielage J, Fetter R, Davis G. Presynaptic spectrin is essential for synapse stabilization. Curr Biol. 2005;15:918-28 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that presynaptic spectrin functions as an essential presynaptic scaffold that may link synaptic cell adhesion with the stabilization of the underlying microtubule cytoskeleton. ..
  22. Koushika S, Lisbin M, White K. ELAV, a Drosophila neuron-specific protein, mediates the generation of an alternatively spliced neural protein isoform. Curr Biol. 1996;6:1634-41 pubmed
    ..lack of ELAV corresponded with a decrease in the immunohistochemical signal of the neural-specific isoform of Neuroglian, which is generated by alternative splicing...
  23. Gibson W, Veldhuis J, Rubinstein B, Cartwright H, Perrimon N, Brodland G, et al. Control of the mitotic cleavage plane by local epithelial topology. Cell. 2011;144:427-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that local epithelial topology is a key determinant of cleavage-plane orientation, and that cleavage-plane bias may be a widespread property of polygonal cell sheets in plants and animals. ..
  24. Godenschwege T, Murphey R. Genetic interaction of Neuroglian and Semaphorin1a during guidance and synapse formation. J Neurogenet. 2009;23:147-55 pubmed publisher
    We have previously demonstrated a function for Neuroglian and Semaphorin1a in Drosophila giant fiber circuit formation...
  25. Laprise P, Lau K, Harris K, Silva Gagliardi N, Paul S, Beronja S, et al. Yurt, Coracle, Neurexin IV and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase form a novel group of epithelial polarity proteins. Nature. 2009;459:1141-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that the mammalian Yrt orthologue EPB41L5 (also known as YMO1 and Limulus) is required for lateral membrane formation, indicating a conserved function of Yrt proteins in epithelial polarity. ..
  26. Islam R, Kristiansen L, Romani S, Garcia Alonso L, Hortsch M. Activation of EGF receptor kinase by L1-mediated homophilic cell interactions. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:2003-12 pubmed
    ..Here we report that gain-of-function conditions of the Drosophila L1-type CAM Neuroglian result in profound sensory axon pathfinding defects in the developing Drosophila wing...
  27. Renn S, Armstrong J, Yang M, Wang Z, An X, Kaiser K, et al. Genetic analysis of the Drosophila ellipsoid body neuropil: organization and development of the central complex. J Neurobiol. 1999;41:189-207 pubmed
    ..The experiments performed here demonstrate the degree of resolution possible from the analysis of enhancer-trap lines and form a useful library of tools for future structure/function studies of the ellipsoid body. ..
  28. Oshima K, Fehon R. Analysis of protein dynamics within the septate junction reveals a highly stable core protein complex that does not include the basolateral polarity protein Discs large. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:2861-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that formation of a stable SJ core complex is separable from its proper subcellular localization, and provide new insights into the complex processes that regulate epithelial polarity and assembly of the SJ. ..
  29. Caruana G. Genetic studies define MAGUK proteins as regulators of epithelial cell polarity. Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46:511-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, our recent genetic analysis of mouse Dlg, in combination with genetic and biochemical studies of Lin-2/CASK by others suggests a model placing Dlg and Lin-2/CASK within the same developmental pathway. ..
  30. Koushika S, Soller M, White K. The neuron-enriched splicing pattern of Drosophila erect wing is dependent on the presence of ELAV protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:1836-45 pubmed
    ..Additionally, we report that ELAV promotes a neuron-enriched splice isoform of Drosophila armadillo transcript. ELAV, however, is not involved in all neuron-enriched splice events. ..
  31. Boerner J, GODENSCHWEGE T. Application for the Drosophila ventral nerve cord standard in neuronal circuit reconstruction and in-depth analysis of mutant morphology. J Neurogenet. 2010;24:158-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors find quantitative and qualitative differences when they compared the Giant Fibers of two different neuroglian alleles, nrg(849) and nrg(G00305), using the averaged wild-type GFS in the standard VNC as a reference.
  32. Hortsch M, Bieber A, Patel N, Goodman C. Differential splicing generates a nervous system-specific form of Drosophila neuroglian. Neuron. 1990;4:697-709 pubmed
    We recently described the characterization and cloning of Drosophila neuroglian, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily...
  33. Lisbin M, Qiu J, White K. The neuron-specific RNA-binding protein ELAV regulates neuroglian alternative splicing in neurons and binds directly to its pre-mRNA. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2546-61 pubmed
    ..neural-specific protein, ELAV, has been shown to regulate the neural-specific splicing of three genes: neuroglian (nrg), erect wing, and armadillo...
  34. Hortsch M, Wang Y, Marikar Y, Bieber A. The cytoplasmic domain of the Drosophila cell adhesion molecule neuroglian is not essential for its homophilic adhesive properties in S2 cells. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:18809-17 pubmed
    Drosophila neuroglian is a transmembrane glycoprotein that has strong structural and sequence homology to the vertebrate L1 gene family of cell adhesion molecules (Bieber, A.J., Snow, P.M., Hortsch, M., Patel, N.H., Jacobs, J.R...
  35. Nagaraj K, Kristiansen L, Skrzynski A, Castiella C, Garcia Alonso L, Hortsch M. Pathogenic human L1-CAM mutations reduce the adhesion-dependent activation of EGFR. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:3822-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Either by reducing or abolishing L1-CAM protein expression, by interfering with L1-CAM's cell surface expression, by reducing L1-CAM's adhesive ability or by impeding further downstream adhesion-dependent signaling processes. ..
  36. Tiklová K, Senti K, Wang S, Gräslund A, Samakovlis C. Epithelial septate junction assembly relies on melanotransferrin iron binding and endocytosis in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:1071-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse MTf complements the defects of Drosophila MTf mutants. Drosophila provides the first genetic model for the functional dissection of MTf in epithelial junction assembly and morphogenesis. ..
  37. Bieber A, Snow P, Hortsch M, Patel N, Jacobs J, Traquina Z, et al. Drosophila neuroglian: a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily with extensive homology to the vertebrate neural adhesion molecule L1. Cell. 1989;59:447-60 pubmed
    Drosophila neuroglian is an integral membrane glycoprotein that is expressed on a variety of cell types in the Drosophila embryo, including expression on a large subset of glial and neuronal cell bodies in the central and peripheral ..
  38. Schulte J, Charish K, Que J, Ravn S, MacKinnon C, Auld V. Gliotactin and Discs large form a protein complex at the tricellular junction of polarized epithelial cells in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4391-401 pubmed
    ..Finally this work supports a model where Gliotactin and Dlg are components of a larger protein complex that links the converging SJs with the TCJ to create the transepithelial barrier. ..
  39. Dubreuil R, MacVicar G, Dissanayake S, Liu C, Homer D, Hortsch M. Neuroglian-mediated cell adhesion induces assembly of the membrane skeleton at cell contact sites. J Cell Biol. 1996;133:647-55 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that neuroglian, a cell adhesion molecule related to L1 and neurofascin, can transmit positional information directly to ankyrin ..
  40. Vallejo Y, Hortsch M, Dubreuil R. Ethanol does not inhibit the adhesive activity of Drosophila neuroglian or human L1 in Drosophila S2 tissue culture cells. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:12244-7 pubmed
    ..relevant concentrations of ethanol on the aggregation of Drosophila S2 cells that expressed either neuroglian (the Drosophila homolog of L1) or human L1...
  41. Faivre Sarrailh C, Banerjee S, Li J, Hortsch M, Laval M, Bhat M. Drosophila contactin, a homolog of vertebrate contactin, is required for septate junction organization and paracellular barrier function. Development. 2004;131:4931-42 pubmed
    ..We show that CONT, Neuroglian (NRG) (Drosophila homolog of NF-155) and NRX IV are interdependent for their SJ localization and these proteins ..
  42. Bouley M, Tian M, Paisley K, Shen Y, Malhotra J, Hortsch M. The L1-type cell adhesion molecule neuroglian influences the stability of neural ankyrin in the Drosophila embryo but not its axonal localization. J Neurosci. 2000;20:4515-23 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila L1-type protein neuroglian interacts with products from both Drosophila ankyrin genes...
  43. Baumann O. Posterior midgut epithelial cells differ in their organization of the membrane skeleton from other drosophila epithelia. Exp Cell Res. 2001;270:176-87 pubmed
    ..The presumptive ankyrin-binding proteins neuroglian and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, however, do not colocalize with ankyrin...
  44. Teng D, Chen C, Hurley J. A highly conserved homologue of bovine neurocalcin in Drosophila melanogaster is a Ca(2+)-binding protein expressed in neuronal tissues. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:31900-7 pubmed
    ..The nca locus maps to or near 76F on the Drosophila third chromosome. ..
  45. Silies M, Klämbt C. APC/C(Fzr/Cdh1)-dependent regulation of cell adhesion controls glial migration in the Drosophila PNS. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:1357-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This represents a simple mechanism by which a subcellular gradient of adhesiveness can coordinate glial migration with axonal growth...
  46. Pereanu W, Kumar A, Jennett A, Reichert H, Hartenstein V. Development-based compartmentalization of the Drosophila central brain. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:2996-3023 pubmed publisher
  47. Wong D, Lovick J, Ngo K, Borisuthirattana W, Omoto J, Hartenstein V. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: II. Identification of lineage projection patterns based on MARCM clones. Dev Biol. 2013;384:258-89 pubmed publisher
    ..It also represents a step towards the goal to establish, for each lineage, the link between its mature anatomical and functional phenotype, and the genetic make-up of the neuroblast it descends from. ..
  48. Shirangi T, Stern D, Truman J. Motor control of Drosophila courtship song. Cell Rep. 2013;5:678-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, individual wing motor pathways can control separate aspects of courtship song and may provide a "modular" anatomical substrate for the evolution of diverse songs. ..
  49. Petrovic M, Hummel T. Temporal identity in axonal target layer recognition. Nature. 2008;456:800-3 pubmed publisher
  50. Derome N, M tayer K, Montchamp Moreau C, Veuille M. Signature of selective sweep associated with the evolution of sex-ratio drive in Drosophila simulans. Genetics. 2004;166:1357-66 pubmed
    ..Using sequence polymorphism at the Nrg locus, we showed that sex-ratio has induced a strong selective sweep in populations from Madagascar and Réunion, ..
  51. Klueg K, Parody T, Muskavitch M. Complex proteolytic processing acts on Delta, a transmembrane ligand for Notch, during Drosophila development. Mol Biol Cell. 1998;9:1709-23 pubmed
    ..Cell culture experiments imply that full-length Delta is taken up by Notch-expressing cells. We present evidence that suggests this uptake occurs by a nonphagocytic mechanism. ..
  52. Bayraktar J, Zygmunt D, Carthew R. Par-1 kinase establishes cell polarity and functions in Notch signaling in the Drosophila embryo. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:711-21 pubmed
    ..Epistasis analysis indicates that Par-1 functions upstream of Notch and is critical for proper localization of the Notch ligand Delta. ..
  53. King R, Mohler D, Riley S, Storto P, Nicolazzo P. Complementation between alleles at the ovarian tumor locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Genet. 1986;7:1-20 pubmed
  54. Sanchez Garcia J, Arbelaez D, Jensen K, Rincon Limas D, Fernandez Funez P. Polar substitutions in helix 3 of the prion protein produce transmembrane isoforms that disturb vesicle trafficking. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:4253-66 pubmed publisher
  55. Harris K, Zhang Y, Piccioli Z, Perrimon N, Littleton J. The postsynaptic t-SNARE Syntaxin 4 controls traffic of Neuroligin 1 and Synaptotagmin 4 to regulate retrograde signaling. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest a conserved postsynaptic SNARE machinery controls multiple aspects of retrograde signaling and cargo trafficking within the postsynaptic compartment. ..
  56. Chen W, Hing H. The L1-CAM, Neuroglian, functions in glial cells for Drosophila antennal lobe development. Dev Neurobiol. 2008;68:1029-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that Neuroglian (Nrg), the Drosophila homolog of the vertebrate cell adhesion molecule, L1, is expressed and functions in the ..
  57. Andrenacci D, Grimaldi M, Panetta V, Riano E, Rugarli E, Graziani F. Functional dissection of the Drosophila Kallmann's syndrome protein DmKal-1. BMC Genet. 2006;7:47 pubmed
    ..These analyses also suggest that the FnIII repeats have a main and specific role, while the WAP domain might have only a modulator role, strictly connected to that of the fibronectins. ..
  58. Sprecher S, Cardona A, Hartenstein V. The Drosophila larval visual system: high-resolution analysis of a simple visual neuropil. Dev Biol. 2011;358:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We further track the larval optic neuropil through development from first larval instar to its location in the adult brain as the accessory medulla. ..
  59. Seisenbacher G, Hafen E, Stocker H. MK2-dependent p38b signalling protects Drosophila hindgut enterocytes against JNK-induced apoptosis under chronic stress. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002168 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the p38/MK2 complex ensures homeostasis of the hindgut epithelium by counteracting JNK-mediated apoptosis of the enterocytes upon chronic stress...
  60. Osterfield M, Du X, Schupbach T, Wieschaus E, Shvartsman S. Three-dimensional epithelial morphogenesis in the developing Drosophila egg. Dev Cell. 2013;24:400-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Computational modeling shows that this mechanism could explain the main features of tissue deformation and cell rearrangements observed during three-dimensional morphogenesis. ..
  61. Huber A, Wang Y, Bieber A, Bjorkman P. Crystal structure of tandem type III fibronectin domains from Drosophila neuroglian at 2.0 A. Neuron. 1994;12:717-31 pubmed
    ..crystal structure of two adjacent fibronectin type III repeats from the Drosophila neural cell adhesion molecule neuroglian. Each domain consists of two antiparallel beta sheets and is folded topologically identically to single ..
  62. Zhao G, Hortsch M. Ligation of 5' DNA overhangs to 3' DNA overhangs using short single-stranded oligonucleotide linkers. Biotechniques. 1997;23:418-20 pubmed
  63. Cornbrooks C, Bland C, Williams D, Truman J, Rand M. Delta expression in post-mitotic neurons identifies distinct subsets of adult-specific lineages in Drosophila. Dev Neurobiol. 2007;67:23-38 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these data reveal a fundamental pattern of Delta expression that is indicative of an underlying developmental program that confers identity to adult lineage neurons. ..
  64. Luque C, Milan M. Growth control in the proliferative region of the Drosophila eye-head primordium: the elbow-noc gene complex. Dev Biol. 2007;301:327-39 pubmed
    ..Thus, tight regulation of the size of the eye-head primordium by elbow and no ocelli is crucial for proper fate specification and generation of the adult structures. ..