Gene Symbol: norpA
Description: no receptor potential A
Alias: CG3620, CdkA, DIP2, Dmel\CG3620, MRE18, NORPA, NorpA, PI-PLC, PLC, PLC-beta, PLCbeta, anon-EST:Posey221, nofC, rof, x12, x13, x16, x24, no receptor potential A, CG3620-PA, CG3620-PB, CG3620-PC, CG3620-PD, CG3620-PE, CG3620-PF, No receptor potential A, eye-specific PLC, mRNA-like ncRNA in embryogenesis 18, no receptor potential, no receptor potentials A, no-receptor potential A, no-receptor-potential A, no-receptor-potential-A, norp A, norpA-PA, norpA-PB, norpA-PC, norpA-PD, norpA-PE, norpA-PF, phospholipase C, phospholipase C-beta, phospholipase C[[beta]], phospholipase cbeta, phospholipase-C
Species: fruit fly
Products:     norpA

Top Publications

  1. Shen W, Kwon Y, Adegbola A, Luo J, Chess A, Montell C. Function of rhodopsin in temperature discrimination in Drosophila. Science. 2011;331:1333-6 pubmed publisher
    ..signaling pathway that includes a heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein), a phospholipase C, and the transient receptor potential TRPA1 channel...
  2. Li H, Montell C. TRP and the PDZ protein, INAD, form the core complex required for retention of the signalplex in Drosophila photoreceptor cells. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:1411-22 pubmed
    ..Other proteins that depend on INAD for localization, phospholipase C and protein kinase C, also mislocalized...
  3. Orem N, Dolph P. Loss of the phospholipase C gene product induces massive endocytosis of rhodopsin and arrestin in Drosophila photoreceptors. Vision Res. 2002;42:497-505 pubmed
    ..One such mutant is in a visual system-specific phospholipase C (PLC). The rhodopsin/arrestin complexes generated in PLC mutants induce massive retinal degeneration...
  4. Sanxaridis P, Cronin M, Rawat S, Waro G, Acharya U, Tsunoda S. Light-induced recruitment of INAD-signaling complexes to detergent-resistant lipid rafts in Drosophila photoreceptors. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007;36:36-46 pubmed
    ..Finally, selective recruitment of phosphorylated, and therefore activatable, eye-PKC to DRM rafts suggests that DRM domains are likely to function in signaling, rather than trafficking. ..
  5. Lima S, Miesenbock G. Remote control of behavior through genetically targeted photostimulation of neurons. Cell. 2005;121:141-52 pubmed
  6. Huber A, Sander P, Gobert A, Bahner M, Hermann R, Paulsen R. The transient receptor potential protein (Trp), a putative store-operated Ca2+ channel essential for phosphoinositide-mediated photoreception, forms a signaling complex with NorpA, InaC and InaD. EMBO J. 1996;15:7036-45 pubmed
    ..studies, we find that Trp is associated into a multiprotein complex with the norpA-encoded phospholipase C, an eye-specific protein kinase C (InaC) and with the InaD protein (InaD)...
  7. Ivanchenko M, Stanewsky R, Giebultowicz J. Circadian photoreception in Drosophila: functions of cryptochrome in peripheral and central clocks. J Biol Rhythms. 2001;16:205-15 pubmed
    ..flies mutant for the cryptochrome gene (cry(b)) and in mutants that lack signaling from the visual photopigments (norpA(P41))...
  8. Pak W. Drosophila in vision research. The Friedenwald Lecture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995;36:2340-57 pubmed
    ..For two of the Drosophila proteins discussed in this article, NorpA and NinaA, related mammalian proteins expressed in photoreceptors have been identified, even though it seemed ..
  9. Kwon Y, Kim S, Ronderos D, Lee Y, Akitake B, Woodward O, et al. Drosophila TRPA1 channel is required to avoid the naturally occurring insect repellent citronellal. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1672-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The TRPA1-dependent aversion to citronellal relies on a G protein (Gq)/phospholipase C (PLC) signaling cascade rather than direct detection of citronellal by TRPA1...

More Information


  1. Yoshioka T, Inoue H, Hotta Y. Absence of phosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase in the head of a Drosophila visual mutant, norpA (no receptor potential A). J Biochem. 1985;97:1251-4 pubmed
    ..phosphodiesterase activity was found to be entirely absent in the head of the Drosophila visual mutant, norpA. It was also demonstrated that the enzyme activity was highly concentrated in the retinular cells of a normal head...
  2. Glaser F, Stanewsky R. Temperature synchronization of the Drosophila circadian clock. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1352-63 pubmed
    ..Further, we show that the phospholipase C encoded by the norpA gene contributes to thermal entrainment, suggesting that a receptor-coupled transduction ..
  3. Alloway P, Dolph P. A role for the light-dependent phosphorylation of visual arrestin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6072-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that the sequestering of arrestin to membranes is a possible mechanism for retinal disease associated with previously identified rhodopsin alleles in humans. ..
  4. Hardie R. Phototransduction in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2001;204:3403-9 pubmed
    ..phosphoinositide pathway, whereby hydrolysis of phosphatidyl inositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) by phospholipase C generates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) and diacyl glycerol (DAG), leading to activation of two ..
  5. Georgiev P, Garcia Murillas I, Ulahannan D, Hardie R, Raghu P. Functional INAD complexes are required to mediate degeneration in photoreceptors of the Drosophila rdgA mutant. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:1373-84 pubmed
    ..We show that InaD suppresses rdgA and that the rescue is correlated with reduced levels of phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta), a key enzyme for TRP channel activation...
  6. Wang T, Wang X, Xie Q, Montell C. The SOCS box protein STOPS is required for phototransduction through its effects on phospholipase C. Neuron. 2008;57:56-68 pubmed publisher
    Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes play roles in a diversity of processes including Drosophila phototransduction. In fly photoreceptor cells, the PLCbeta encoded by norpA is critical for activation of TRP channels...
  7. Huang J, Liu C, Hughes S, Postma M, Schwiening C, Hardie R. Activation of TRP channels by protons and phosphoinositide depletion in Drosophila photoreceptors. Curr Biol. 2010;20:189-97 pubmed publisher
    Phototransduction in microvillar photoreceptors is mediated via G protein-coupled phospholipase C (PLC), but how PLC activation leads to the opening of the light-sensitive TRPC channels (TRP and TRPL) remains unresolved...
  8. Inoue H, Yoshioka T, Hotta Y. Membrane-associated phospholipase C of Drosophila retina. J Biochem. 1988;103:91-4 pubmed
    b>Phospholipase C activities against phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol have been examined using head homogenate of Drosophila visual mutants. In many mutants the enzyme activities were found to be reduced...
  9. Bellmann D, Richardt A, Freyberger R, Nuwal N, Schwarzel M, Fiala A, et al. Optogenetically Induced Olfactory Stimulation in Drosophila Larvae Reveals the Neuronal Basis of Odor-Aversion behavior. Front Behav Neurosci. 2010;4:27 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that activation of Pacalpha expressing ORNs bearing the receptors Or33b or Or45a in blind norpA mutant larvae induces a repellent behavior away from the light...
  10. Schneuwly S, Burg M, Lending C, Perdew M, Pak W. Properties of photoreceptor-specific phospholipase C encoded by the norpA gene of Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:24314-9 pubmed strongly support the previous suggestion that the norpA gene encodes the major phosphoinositol-specific phospholipase C in the photoreceptors...
  11. Wang T, Jiao Y, Montell C. Dissecting independent channel and scaffolding roles of the Drosophila transient receptor potential channel. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:685-94 pubmed
    ..This retinal degeneration was greatly suppressed by elimination of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, CalX, indicating that the cell death was due primarily to deficient Ca(2+) entry rather than disruption of the TRP-anchoring function. ..
  12. Lee K, Kim S, Kim E, Ha E, You H, Kim B, et al. Bacterial-derived uracil as a modulator of mucosal immunity and gut-microbe homeostasis in Drosophila. Cell. 2013;153:797-811 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that bacteria with distinct abilities to activate uracil-induced gut inflammation, in terms of intensity and duration, act as critical factors that determine homeostasis or pathogenesis in gut-microbe interactions. ..
  13. Voolstra O, Bartels J, Oberegelsbacher C, Pfannstiel J, Huber A. Phosphorylation of the Drosophila transient receptor potential ion channel is regulated by the phototransduction cascade and involves several protein kinases and phosphatases. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73787 pubmed publisher
    ..A candidate screen to identify kinases and phosphatases provided in vivo evidence for an involvement of eye-PKC as well as other kinases and phosphatases in TRP phosphorylation. ..
  14. Pearn M, Randall L, Shortridge R, Burg M, Pak W. Molecular, biochemical, and electrophysiological characterization of Drosophila norpA mutants. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:4937-45 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, the phototransduction cascade is mediated by a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) encoded by the norpA gene...
  15. McKay R, Chen D, Miller K, Kim S, Stark W, Shortridge R. Phospholipase C rescues visual defect in norpA mutant of Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:13271-6 pubmed
    ..The norpA gene has been proposed to encode phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC), which enzymes play a pivotal role in one of the largest classes of signaling pathways known...
  16. van Huizen R, Miller K, Chen D, Li Y, Lai Z, Raab R, et al. Two distantly positioned PDZ domains mediate multivalent INAD-phospholipase C interactions essential for G protein-coupled signaling. EMBO J. 1998;17:2285-97 pubmed
    ..display mislocalization of signaling molecules of phototransduction which include the essential effector, phospholipase C-beta (PLC-beta), which is also known as NORPA...
  17. Carlson J. Olfaction in Drosophila: from odor to behavior. Trends Genet. 1996;12:175-80 pubmed
    ..Genetic and molecular analyses of the Drosophila olfactory system have identified some of its molecular components, and have revealed some principles of its function and organization. ..
  18. Bähner M, Frechter S, Da Silva N, Minke B, Paulsen R, Huber A. Light-regulated subcellular translocation of Drosophila TRPL channels induces long-term adaptation and modifies the light-induced current. Neuron. 2002;34:83-93 pubmed
    ..Thus, TRPL translocation represents a novel mechanism to fine tune visual responses. ..
  19. Masai I, Hotta Y. Genomic organization of a Drosophila phospholipase C, norpA, and molecular lesions in two temperature-sensitive mutants. J Biochem. 1991;109:867-71 pubmed
    The Drosophila mutant no receptor potential A (norpA) is the phototransduction-defective mutant which lacks phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity...
  20. Huber A, Sander P, Bahner M, Paulsen R. The TRP Ca2+ channel assembled in a signaling complex by the PDZ domain protein INAD is phosphorylated through the interaction with protein kinase C (ePKC). FEBS Lett. 1998;425:317-22 pubmed
    ..which use a phospholipase C-mediated signal transduction cascade harbor a signaling complex in which the phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta), the light-activated Ca2+ channel TRP, and an eye-specific protein kinase C (ePKC) are clustered ..
  21. Wang N, Leung H, Pak W, Carl Y, Wadzinski B, Shieh B. Role of protein phosphatase 2A in regulating the visual signaling in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:1444-51 pubmed publisher
    ..failed to modify the severe deactivation of norpA(P16), indicating that MTS does not modulate NORPA (no receptor potential A) (PLCbeta)...
  22. Peretz A, Suss Toby E, Rom Glas A, Arnon A, Payne R, Minke B. The light response of Drosophila photoreceptors is accompanied by an increase in cellular calcium: effects of specific mutations. Neuron. 1994;12:1257-67 pubmed
    ..Fluo-3-loaded norpA mutant photoreceptors, which lack a light-activated phospholipase C, generated no light-evoked inward current and no Ca2+ signal...
  23. Lee S, Montell C. Suppression of constant-light-induced blindness but not retinal degeneration by inhibition of the rhodopsin degradation pathway. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2076-85 pubmed
    ..Our results support a model in which visual impairment caused by continuous illumination occurs through an arrestin-dependent pathway that promotes degradation of rhodopsin. ..
  24. Kinser R, Dolph P. Cathepsin proteases mediate photoreceptor cell degeneration in Drosophila. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;46:655-62 pubmed publisher
    ..form of degeneration is displayed in several Drosophila mutant lines including flies lacking the eye-specific PLC (norpA)...
  25. Kurada P, O Tousa J. Retinal degeneration caused by dominant rhodopsin mutations in Drosophila. Neuron. 1995;14:571-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, these dominant rhodopsin mutations suppress the rapid degeneration seen in rdgC and norpA flies, indicating that high levels of rhodopsin are required.
  26. Xu X, Choudhury A, Li X, Montell C. Coordination of an array of signaling proteins through homo- and heteromeric interactions between PDZ domains and target proteins. J Cell Biol. 1998;142:545-55 pubmed, coordinates a signaling complex by binding directly to the light-sensitive ion channel, TRP, and to phospholipase C (PLC)...
  27. Lee J, Song M, Hong S. Negative regulation of the novel norpA(P24) suppressor, diehard4, in the endo-lysosomal trafficking underlies photoreceptor cell degeneration. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003559 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the molecular basis of rhodopsin accumulation remains elusive. We found that the novel norpA(P24) suppressor, diehard4, is responsible for the inability of endo-lysosomal rhodopsin trafficking and retinal ..
  28. Chyb S, Raghu P, Hardie R. Polyunsaturated fatty acids activate the Drosophila light-sensitive channels TRP and TRPL. Nature. 1999;397:255-9 pubmed
    Phototransduction in invertebrate microvillar photoreceptors is thought to be mediated by the activation of phospholipase C (PLC), but how this leads to gating of the light-sensitive channels is unknown...
  29. Tsunoda S, Sun Y, Suzuki E, Zuker C. Independent anchoring and assembly mechanisms of INAD signaling complexes in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 2001;21:150-8 pubmed
    ..INAD organizes the phototransduction cascade into a macromolecular signaling complex containing the effector PLC, the light-activated TRP channels, and a regulatory PKC...
  30. Klarsfeld A, Malpel S, Michard Vanhée C, Picot M, Chélot E, Rouyer F. Novel features of cryptochrome-mediated photoreception in the brain circadian clock of Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2004;24:1468-77 pubmed
  31. Garcia Murillas I, Pettitt T, Macdonald E, Okkenhaug H, Georgiev P, Trivedi D, et al. lazaro encodes a lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase that regulates phosphatidylinositol turnover during Drosophila phototransduction. Neuron. 2006;49:533-46 pubmed Drosophila phototransduction is the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate PI(4,5)P2 by phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta) to generate a second messenger that opens the light-activated channels TRP and TRPL...
  32. Suh G, Ben Tabou de Leon S, Tanimoto H, Fiala A, Benzer S, Anderson D. Light activation of an innate olfactory avoidance response in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2007;17:905-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, avoidance behavior appears hardwired into the olfactory circuitry that detects CO2 in Drosophila. ..
  33. Running Deer J, Hurley J, Yarfitz S. G protein control of Drosophila photoreceptor phospholipase C. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:12623-8 pubmed
    Light stimulates phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate phospholipase C (PLC) activity in Drosophila photoreceptors...
  34. Harris W, Stark W. Hereditary retinal degeneration in Drosophila melanogaster. A mutant defect associated with the phototransduction process. J Gen Physiol. 1977;69:261-91 pubmed rearing the flies in the dark or by blocking the receptor potential with a no-receptor-potential mutation, norpA. Vitamin A deprivation and genetic elimination of the lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase alsoprotect the ..
  35. Inoue H, Yoshioka T, Hotta Y. A genetic study of inositol trisphosphate involvement in phototransduction using Drosophila mutants. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1985;132:513-9 pubmed
    ..activity was found to be almost absent in the compound eyes of Drosophila visual mutant, norpA (no receptor potentials A)...
  36. Ha E, Lee K, Park S, Kim S, Nam H, Lee H, et al. Regulation of DUOX by the Galphaq-phospholipase Cbeta-Ca2+ pathway in Drosophila gut immunity. Dev Cell. 2009;16:386-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that phospholipase C-beta (PLCbeta) signaling modulates dual oxidase (DUOX) activity to produce microbicidal reactive oxygen ..
  37. Helfrich Forster C, Winter C, Hofbauer A, Hall J, Stanewsky R. The circadian clock of fruit flies is blind after elimination of all known photoreceptors. Neuron. 2001;30:249-61 pubmed
    ..This entrainment is completely abolished in glass(60j) cry(b) double mutants, which lack all known external and internal eye structures in addition to being devoid of cryptochrome. ..
  38. Hardie R, Raghu P. Visual transduction in Drosophila. Nature. 2001;413:186-93 pubmed
    ..Analysis in Drosophila has revealed many of the underlying molecular strategies, leading to the discovery and characterization of signalling molecules of widespread importance. ..
  39. Alloway P, Howard L, Dolph P. The formation of stable rhodopsin-arrestin complexes induces apoptosis and photoreceptor cell degeneration. Neuron. 2000;28:129-38 pubmed
    ..We propose that an identical mechanism may be responsible for the pathology found in a subset of human retinal degenerative disorders. ..
  40. Agam K, von Campenhausen M, Levy S, Ben Ami H, Cook B, Kirschfeld K, et al. Metabolic stress reversibly activates the Drosophila light-sensitive channels TRP and TRPL in vivo. J Neurosci. 2000;20:5748-55 pubmed those found in wild-type flies were also found in mutants with strong defects in rhodopsin, Gq-protein, or phospholipase C, thus indicating that the metabolic stress operates at a late stage of the phototransduction cascade...
  41. Ha E, Lee K, Seo Y, Kim S, Lim J, Oh B, et al. Coordination of multiple dual oxidase-regulatory pathways in responses to commensal and infectious microbes in drosophila gut. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:949-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the coordinated regulation of DUOX enables the host to achieve gut-microbe homeostasis by efficiently combating infection while tolerating commensal microbes. ..
  42. Sawin McCormack E, Sokolowski M, Campos A. Characterization and genetic analysis of Drosophila melanogaster photobehavior during larval development. J Neurogenet. 1995;10:119-35 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the transition from negative phototaxis toward photoneutral behavior characteristic of the wandering third instar larva requires vision. ..
  43. Suri V, Qian Z, Hall J, Rosbash M. Evidence that the TIM light response is relevant to light-induced phase shifts in Drosophila melanogaster. Neuron. 1998;21:225-34 pubmed
    ..Analysis of dose response of TIM disappearance in a variety of mutant genotypes suggests cell-autonomous light responses that are largely independent of the canonical visual transduction pathway. ..
  44. Montell C. TRP trapped in fly signaling web. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1998;8:389-97 pubmed
    ..The INAD complex does not appear to be a particle, but a massive signaling web composed of an INAD polymer with which some of the target proteins associate through complex multivalent interactions. ..
  45. Cook B, Bar Yaacov M, Cohen Ben Ami H, Goldstein R, Paroush Z, Selinger Z, et al. Phospholipase C and termination of G-protein-mediated signalling in vivo. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:296-301 pubmed
    In Drosophila photoreceptors, phospholipase C (PLC) and other signalling components form multiprotein structures through the PDZ scaffold protein INAD...
  46. Tsunoda S, Sierralta J, Sun Y, Bodner R, Suzuki E, Becker A, et al. A multivalent PDZ-domain protein assembles signalling complexes in a G-protein-coupled cascade. Nature. 1997;388:243-9 pubmed
    ..of the phototransduction cascade, including the principal light-activated ion channels, the effector phospholipase C-beta and protein kinase C...
  47. Adamski F, Zhu M, Bahiraei F, Shieh B. Interaction of eye protein kinase C and INAD in Drosophila. Localization of binding domains and electrophysiological characterization of a loss of association in transgenic flies. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:17713-9 pubmed
    ..eye-PKC, NORPA (phospholipase Cbeta), and transient-receptor-potential (TRP) (calcium channel) are integral components of a signal transduction ..
  48. Bloomquist B, Shortridge R, Schneuwly S, Perdew M, Montell C, Steller H, et al. Isolation of a putative phospholipase C gene of Drosophila, norpA, and its role in phototransduction. Cell. 1988;54:723-33 pubmed
    ..Recent biochemical analyses have shown that norpA mutants lack phospholipase C (PLC) activity in the eye...
  49. LaLonde M, Janssens H, Rosenbaum E, Choi S, Gergen J, Colley N, et al. Regulation of phototransduction responsiveness and retinal degeneration by a phospholipase D-generated signaling lipid. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:471-9 pubmed
    Drosophila melanogaster phototransduction proceeds via a phospholipase C (PLC)-triggered cascade of phosphatidylinositol (PI) lipid modifications, many steps of which remain undefined...
  50. Lee S, Xu H, Montell C. Rhodopsin kinase activity modulates the amplitude of the visual response in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11874-9 pubmed
    ..These data point to an evolutionarily conserved role for GPRK1 in modulating the amplitude of the visual response. ..
  51. Acharya U, Patel S, Koundakjian E, Nagashima K, Han X, Acharya J. Modulating sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway rescues photoreceptor degeneration. Science. 2003;299:1740-3 pubmed
    ..Targeted expression of Drosophila neutral ceramidase rescued retinal degeneration in arrestin and phospholipase C mutants...
  52. Shieh B, Zhu M, Lee J, Kelly I, Bahiraei F. Association of INAD with NORPA is essential for controlled activation and deactivation of Drosophila phototransduction in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:12682-7 pubmed
    Visual transduction in Drosophila is a G protein-coupled phospholipase C-mediated process that leads to depolarization via activation of the transient receptor potential (TRP) calcium channel...
  53. Raghu P, Coessens E, Manifava M, Georgiev P, Pettitt T, Wood E, et al. Rhabdomere biogenesis in Drosophila photoreceptors is acutely sensitive to phosphatidic acid levels. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:129-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that PA levels are critical for apical membrane transport events required for rhabdomere biogenesis. ..
  54. Kimple M, Siderovski D, Sondek J. Functional relevance of the disulfide-linked complex of the N-terminal PDZ domain of InaD with NorpA. EMBO J. 2001;20:4414-22 pubmed
    In Drosophila, phototransduction is mediated by G(q)-activation of phospholipase C and is a well studied model system for understanding the kinetics of signal initiation, propagation and termination controlled by G proteins...
  55. Chinchore Y, Mitra A, Dolph P. Accumulation of rhodopsin in late endosomes triggers photoreceptor cell degeneration. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000377 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data implicate buildup of rhodopsin in the late endosomal system as a novel trigger of death of photoreceptor neurons. ..
  56. Rosenbaum E, Hardie R, Colley N. Calnexin is essential for rhodopsin maturation, Ca2+ regulation, and photoreceptor cell survival. Neuron. 2006;49:229-41 pubmed
    ..Our results illustrate a critical role for calnexin in Rh1 maturation and Ca2+ regulation and provide genetic evidence that defects in calnexin lead to retinal degeneration. ..
  57. Lee S, Xu H, Kang L, Amzel L, Montell C. Light adaptation through phosphoinositide-regulated translocation of Drosophila visual arrestin. Neuron. 2003;39:121-32 pubmed
    ..Since phospholipase C activity is required for activation of Drosophila phototransduction, these data point to a dual role of PIs ..
  58. Sengupta S, Barber T, Xia H, Ready D, Hardie R. Depletion of PtdIns(4,5)P? underlies retinal degeneration in Drosophila trp mutants. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:1247-59 pubmed publisher
    ..following hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P?] by the key effector enzyme phospholipase C (PLC)...
  59. Zuker C. The biology of vision of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:571-6 pubmed
    ..In contrast, activation of invertebrate photoreceptors, like Drosophila, leads to stimulation of phospholipase C and the generation of a depolarizing receptor potential...
  60. Stanewsky R, Kaneko M, Emery P, Beretta B, Wager Smith K, Kay S, et al. The cryb mutation identifies cryptochrome as a circadian photoreceptor in Drosophila. Cell. 1998;95:681-92 pubmed
    ..cryb flies are rhythmic in constant darkness, correlating with robust PER and TIM cycling in certain pacemaker neurons. ..
  61. Barth M, Hirsch H, Meinertzhagen I, Heisenberg M. Experience-dependent developmental plasticity in the optic lobe of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurosci. 1997;17:1493-504 pubmed
    ..Dark-rearing for 1 d or more at any stage during that period decreases its volume to the level of flies raised in constant darkness. A lamina that is once reduced in size seems not to recover. ..
  62. Kosloff M, Elia N, Joel Almagor T, Timberg R, Zars T, Hyde D, et al. Regulation of light-dependent Gqalpha translocation and morphological changes in fly photoreceptors. EMBO J. 2003;22:459-68 pubmed
  63. Peng L, Popescu D, Wang N, Shieh B. Anchoring TRP to the INAD macromolecular complex requires the last 14 residues in its carboxyl terminus. J Neurochem. 2008;104:1526-35 pubmed
    ..We conclude that TRP associates with INAD via its last 14 residues to facilitate its regulation by eye-PKC that fine-tunes the visual signaling. ..
  64. Zerr D, Hall J, Rosbash M, Siwicki K. Circadian fluctuations of period protein immunoreactivity in the CNS and the visual system of Drosophila. J Neurosci. 1990;10:2749-62 pubmed
    ..These genetic and environmental manipulations affected the expression of the per protein in ways that usually parallelled their effects on circadian behaviors. ..
  65. Emery P, Stanewsky R, Helfrich Forster C, Emery Le M, Hall J, Rosbash M. Drosophila CRY is a deep brain circadian photoreceptor. Neuron. 2000;26:493-504 pubmed
    ..These brain neurons therefore contain an identified deep brain photoreceptor, as well as the other circadian elements: a central pace-maker and a behavioral output system. ..
  66. Pollock V, Radford J, Pyne S, Hasan G, Dow J, Davies S. NorpA and itpr mutants reveal roles for phospholipase C and inositol (1,4,5)- trisphosphate receptor in Drosophila melanogaster renal function. J Exp Biol. 2003;206:901-11 pubmed
    Mutants of norpA, encoding phospholipase C beta (PLC beta), and itpr, encoding inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R), both attenuate response to diuretic peptides of Drosophila melanogaster renal (Malpighian) tubules...
  67. Wang T, Montell C. Rhodopsin formation in Drosophila is dependent on the PINTA retinoid-binding protein. J Neurosci. 2005;25:5187-94 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our data implicate Drosophila retinal pigment cells as functioning in the conversion of dietary all-trans-retinol to 11-cis-retinal and suggest that these cells are the closest invertebrate equivalent to the RPE. ..
  68. Rosenbaum E, Brehm K, Vasiljevic E, Liu C, Hardie R, Colley N. XPORT-dependent transport of TRP and rhodopsin. Neuron. 2011;72:602-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify XPORT as a molecular chaperone and provide a mechanistic link between TRP channels and their GPCRs during biosynthesis and transport. ..
  69. Hardie R, Gu Y, Martin F, Sweeney S, Raghu P. In vivo light-induced and basal phospholipase C activity in Drosophila photoreceptors measured with genetically targeted phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-sensitive ion channels (Kir2.1). J Biol Chem. 2004;279:47773-82 pubmed
    ..Light resulted in the effective depletion of PIP(2) by phospholipase C (PLC) in approximately three or four microvilli per absorbed photon at rates exceeding approximately 150% of ..
  70. Matsumoto H, O Tousa J, Pak W. Light-induced modification of Drosophila retinal polypeptides in vivo. Science. 1982;217:839-41 pubmed reversibly changes the isoelectric points of three classes of polypeptides specific for the photoreceptor layer and (ii) that the norpA mutation, which prevents the generation of the receptor potential, blocks the modifications.
  71. Wang T, Jiao Y, Montell C. Dissection of the pathway required for generation of vitamin A and for Drosophila phototransduction. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:305-16 pubmed
  72. Lee Y, Shah S, Suzuki E, Zars T, O Day P, Hyde D. The Drosophila dgq gene encodes a G alpha protein that mediates phototransduction. Neuron. 1994;13:1143-57 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that DGq1 mediates the stimulation by light-activated rhodopsin of the norpA-encoded phospholipase C in the visual transduction cascade.
  73. Liu M, Parker L, Wadzinski B, Shieh B. Reversible phosphorylation of the signal transduction complex in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:12194-9 pubmed
    In the Drosophila visual cascade, the transient receptor potential (TRP) calcium channel, phospholipase Cbeta (no-receptor-potential A), and an eye-specific isoform of protein kinase C (eye-PKC) comprise a multimolecular signaling ..
  74. Niemeyer B, Suzuki E, Scott K, Jalink K, Zuker C. The Drosophila light-activated conductance is composed of the two channels TRP and TRPL. Cell. 1996;85:651-9 pubmed
    ..a G protein-coupled, calcium-regulated signaling cascade that serves as a model system for the dissection of phospholipase C (PLC) signaling in vivo...
  75. Kim S, Lee Y, Akitake B, Woodward O, Guggino W, Montell C. Drosophila TRPA1 channel mediates chemical avoidance in gustatory receptor neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8440-5 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian sweet, bitter, and umami taste is mediated by a single transduction pathway that includes a phospholipase C (PLC)beta and one cation channel, TRPM5...
  76. Raghu P, Usher K, Jonas S, Chyb S, Polyanovsky A, Hardie R. Constitutive activity of the light-sensitive channels TRP and TRPL in the Drosophila diacylglycerol kinase mutant, rdgA. Neuron. 2000;26:169-79 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that early degeneration in rdgA is caused by uncontrolled Ca2+ influx and support the proposal that diacylglycerol or its metabolites are messengers of excitation in Drosophila photoreceptors. ..
  77. Venkatachalam K, Wasserman D, Wang X, Li R, Mills E, Elsaesser R, et al. Dependence on a retinophilin/myosin complex for stability of PKC and INAD and termination of phototransduction. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11337-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the slower termination of the photoresponse in retin(1) resulted from a requirement for the Retin/NINAC complex for stability of INAD and PKC. ..
  78. Collins B, Rosato E, Kyriacou C. Seasonal behavior in Drosophila melanogaster requires the photoreceptors, the circadian clock, and phospholipase C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1945-50 pubmed
    ..During the course of this study, we observed that a mutation in the no-receptor-potential-A(P41) (norpA(P41)) gene, which encodes phospholipase-C, generated an extremely high level of 3' splicing...
  79. Fanning A, Anderson J. Protein modules as organizers of membrane structure. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1999;11:432-9 pubmed
    ..The organization of these proteins into discreet structures has functional consequences for downstream signaling. ..
  80. Dolezelova E, Dolezel D, Hall J. Rhythm defects caused by newly engineered null mutations in Drosophila's cryptochrome gene. Genetics. 2007;177:329-45 pubmed
    ..Because some norpAP24 cry0 individuals can resynchronize to novel photic regimes, an as-yet undetermined light-input route exists in Drosophila. ..
  81. Hardie R, Martin F, Chyb S, Raghu P. Rescue of light responses in the Drosophila "null" phospholipase C mutant, norpAP24, by the diacylglycerol kinase mutant, rdgA, and by metabolic inhibition. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:18851-8 pubmed
    Light responses in Drosophila are reportedly abolished in severe mutants of the phospholipase C (PLC) gene, norpA...