Gene Symbol: nmo
Description: nemo
Alias: CG7892, Dmel\CG7892, NEMO, NEMO/NLK, NLK, Nemo, Nlk, Nmo, ORE-6, adk, adk1, anon-EST:Gibbs3, anon-EST:Liang-2.43, anon-WO0118547.332, anon-WO0140519.256, anon-WO0172774.138, clone 2.43, nemo, CG7892-PA, CG7892-PB, CG7892-PC, CG7892-PE, CG7892-PF, CG7892-PG, CG7892-PH, NEMO, Nemo-like kinase, adirondack, dNEMO, nmo-PA, nmo-PB, nmo-PC, nmo-PE, nmo-PF, nmo-PG, nmo-PH
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Clandinin T, Zipursky S. Afferent growth cone interactions control synaptic specificity in the Drosophila visual system. Neuron. 2000;28:427-36 pubmed
    ..The orientation of the projections is controlled both by the spatial arrangement of R cells in the retina and by cues in the target. ..
  2. Brown K, Freeman M. Egfr signalling defines a protective function for ommatidial orientation in the Drosophila eye. Development. 2003;130:5401-12 pubmed
    ..rotate through 90 degrees, a process dependent on planar cell polarity and rotation-specific factors such as Nemo and Scabrous...
  3. Verheyen E, Mirkovic I, MacLean S, Langmann C, Andrews B, MacKinnon C. The tissue polarity gene nemo carries out multiple roles in patterning during Drosophila development. Mech Dev. 2001;101:119-32 pubmed
    Drosophila nemo was first identified as a gene required for tissue polarity during ommatidial development. We have extended the analysis of nemo and found that it participates in multiple developmental processes...
  4. Mirkovic I, Mlodzik M. Cooperative activities of drosophila DE-cadherin and DN-cadherin regulate the cell motility process of ommatidial rotation. Development. 2006;133:3283-93 pubmed
    ..A similar input into mammalian E- and N-cadherins might function in the progression of diseases such as metastatic ovarian cancer. ..
  5. Schneider C, Will C, BROSIUS J, Frilander M, Luhrmann R. Identification of an evolutionarily divergent U11 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:9584-9 pubmed
    ..A comparison of U11 snRNAs that we have identified from vertebrates, plants, and insects, suggests that an evolutionarily divergent U11 snRNA may be unique to Drosophila and not characteristic of insects in general. ..
  6. Mirkovic I, Charish K, Gorski S, McKnight K, Verheyen E. Drosophila nemo is an essential gene involved in the regulation of programmed cell death. Mech Dev. 2002;119:9-20 pubmed
    b>Nemo-like kinases define a novel family of serine/threonine kinases that are involved in integrating multiple signaling pathways...
  7. Zheng L, Zhang J, Carthew R. frizzled regulates mirror-symmetric pattern formation in the Drosophila eye. Development. 1995;121:3045-55 pubmed
    ..Equator-outwards progression of elav expression and expression of the nemo gene in the morphogenetic furrow are regulated by frizzled, which itself is dynamically expressed about the ..
  8. Zeng Y, Rahnama M, Wang S, Sosu Sedzorme W, Verheyen E. Drosophila Nemo antagonizes BMP signaling by phosphorylation of Mad and inhibition of its nuclear accumulation. Development. 2007;134:2061-71 pubmed
    Drosophila Nemo is the founding member of the Nemo-like kinase (Nlk) family of serine/threonine protein kinases that are involved in several Wnt signal transduction pathways...
  9. Fiehler R, Wolff T. Nemo is required in a subset of photoreceptors to regulate the speed of ommatidial rotation. Dev Biol. 2008;313:533-44 pubmed
    ..This process was proposed to take place in two 45 degrees steps, with the second under control of the gene nemo (nmo), a serine/threonine kinase...

More Information


  1. Choi K, Benzer S. Rotation of photoreceptor clusters in the developing Drosophila eye requires the nemo gene. Cell. 1994;78:125-36 pubmed
    ..In the mutant nemo (nmo), there is an initial turning of approximately 45 degrees, but further rotation is blocked...
  2. Zeng Y, Verheyen E. Nemo is an inducible antagonist of Wingless signaling during Drosophila wing development. Development. 2004;131:2911-20 pubmed
    ..Wnt/Wg signals are crucial across species in many developmental patterning events. We report that Drosophila nemo (nmo) acts as an intracellular feedback inhibitor of Wingless (Wg) and that it is a novel Wg target gene...
  3. Fiehler R, Wolff T. Drosophila Myosin II, Zipper, is essential for ommatidial rotation. Dev Biol. 2007;310:348-62 pubmed
    ..Finally, cell death genes and canonical Wnt signaling pathway members genetically modify the zip phenotype. ..
  4. Chou Y, Chien C. Scabrous controls ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila compound eye. Dev Cell. 2002;3:839-50 pubmed
    ..Scabrous functions nonautonomously to control the stop of ommatidial rotation by suppressing nemo activity in the second 45 degrees rotation...
  5. Mirkovic I, Gault W, Rahnama M, Jenny A, Gaengel K, Bessette D, et al. Nemo kinase phosphorylates ?-catenin to promote ommatidial rotation and connects core PCP factors to E-cadherin-?-catenin. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:665-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The Nemo kinase (Nlk in vertebrates) has also been linked to cell-motility regulation and ommatidial rotation but its ..
  6. Bonini N, Choi K. Early decisions in Drosophila eye morphogenesis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1995;5:507-15 pubmed
    ..Progress has been made in the study of the coordination between cell cycle control and cell differentiation, as well as in the genetic control of morphogenetic movements within the developing eye disc. ..
  7. Wu J, Jenny A, Mirkovic I, Mlodzik M. Frizzled-Dishevelled signaling specificity outcome can be modulated by Diego in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2008;125:30-42 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that Dgo sequesters Dsh to a functionally distinct Fz/PCP signaling compartment within the cell. ..
  8. Praveen K, Wen Y, Matera A. A Drosophila model of spinal muscular atrophy uncouples snRNP biogenesis functions of survival motor neuron from locomotion and viability defects. Cell Rep. 2012;1:624-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have major implications for SMA etiology because they show that SMN's role in snRNP biogenesis can be uncoupled from the organismal viability and locomotor defects. ..
  9. Fanara J, Robinson K, Rollmann S, Anholt R, Mackay T. Vanaso is a candidate quantitative trait gene for Drosophila olfactory behavior. Genetics. 2002;162:1321-8 pubmed
  10. Kim S, Kim Y, Lee J, Chung J. Regulation of FOXO1 by TAK1-Nemo-like kinase pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:8122-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase (TAK1)-Nemo-like kinase (NLK) pathway negatively regulates FOXO1...
  11. Strutt D. Frizzled signalling and cell polarisation in Drosophila and vertebrates. Development. 2003;130:4501-13 pubmed
    ..This review discusses recent findings regarding non-canonical Frizzled signalling and cell polarisation. ..
  12. Sass G, Ostrow B. Disruption of the protein kinase N gene of drosophila melanogaster results in the recessive delorean allele (pkndln) with a negative impact on wing morphogenesis. G3 (Bethesda). 2014;4:643-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis of genetic interactions with basket and nemo reflects an involvement of pkn and Jun-terminal kinase signaling in common processes during wing differentiation ..
  13. Zeng Y, Rahnama M, Wang S, Lee W, Verheyen E. Inhibition of Drosophila Wg signaling involves competition between Mad and Armadillo/beta-catenin for dTcf binding. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3893 pubmed publisher
  14. Mahesh G, Jeong E, Ng F, Liu Y, Gunawardhana K, Houl J, et al. Phosphorylation of the transcription activator CLOCK regulates progression through a ? 24-h feedback loop to influence the circadian period in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:19681-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that CLK phosphorylation influences the circadian period by regulating CLK activity and progression through the feedback loop. ..
  15. Mihaly J, Kockel L, Gaengel K, Weber U, Bohmann D, Mlodzik M. The role of the Drosophila TAK homologue dTAK during development. Mech Dev. 2001;102:67-79 pubmed
    ..kinase (TAK) it has, however, subsequently been demonstrated to signal through p38, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Nemo types of MAP kinases, and the NFkappaB inducing kinase...
  16. Fanto M, Weber U, Strutt D, Mlodzik M. Nuclear signaling by Rac and Rho GTPases is required in the establishment of epithelial planar polarity in the Drosophila eye. Curr Biol. 2000;10:979-88 pubmed
    ..Rac is specifically required downstream of Dsh in the Fz pathway. It functions upstream or in parallel to RhoA and both signal to the nucleus, through distinct effectors, to establish planar polarity in the Drosophila eye. ..
  17. Lin C, Mount S, Jarmołowski A, Makałowski W. Evolutionary dynamics of U12-type spliceosomal introns. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:47 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of U12 introns or the genes containing them is more common than conversion to the U2-type. The degeneracy of U12-type terminal dinucleotides among natural U12-type introns is higher than previously thought. ..
  18. Braid L, Lee W, Uetrecht A, Swarup S, Papaianni G, Heiler A, et al. Nemo phosphorylates Even-skipped and promotes Eve-mediated repression of odd-skipped in even parasegments during Drosophila embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;343:178-89 pubmed publisher
    Drosophila nemo (nmo) and other Nemo-like kinase family members (Nlks) are well-established key regulators of numerous conserved signaling pathways, such as Wg and BMP...
  19. Shen J, Curtis C, Tavare S, Tower J. A screen of apoptosis and senescence regulatory genes for life span effects when over-expressed in Drosophila. Aging (Albany NY). 2009;1:191-211 pubmed
  20. Liu X, Lengyel J. Drosophila arc encodes a novel adherens junction-associated PDZ domain protein required for wing and eye development. Dev Biol. 2000;221:419-34 pubmed
    ..Misexpression of arc in the eye imaginal discs results in rough and larger eyes with fused ommatidia. We propose that arc affects eye development by modulating adherens junctions of the developing ommatidium. ..
  21. Gersten M, Zhou D, Azad P, Haddad G, Subramaniam S. Wnt pathway activation increases hypoxia tolerance during development. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e103292 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that a previously unsuspected major developmental pathway, Wnt, plays a significant role in hypoxia tolerance. ..
  22. Peifer M. Signal transduction. Neither straight nor narrow. Nature. 1999;400:213-5 pubmed
  23. Strutt D, Weber U, Mlodzik M. The role of RhoA in tissue polarity and Frizzled signalling. Nature. 1997;387:292-5 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with a Fz/RhoA signalling cascade analogous to the yeast pheromone signalling pathway and that proposed for activation of the serum response factor (SRF) in vertebrate cells. ..
  24. Akira S, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O. Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell. 2006;124:783-801 pubmed
    ..New insights into innate immunity are changing the way we think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity. ..
  25. Lotti F, Imlach W, Saieva L, Beck E, Hao L, Li D, et al. An SMN-dependent U12 splicing event essential for motor circuit function. Cell. 2012;151:440-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings directly link defective splicing of critical neuronal genes induced by SMN deficiency to motor circuit dysfunction, establishing a molecular framework for the selective pathology of SMA. ..
  26. Muñoz Soriano V, Belacortu Y, Paricio N. Planar cell polarity signaling in collective cell movements during morphogenesis and disease. Curr Genomics. 2012;13:609-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, new discoveries about the contribution of this pathway to collective cell movements could provide new potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for these disorders. ..
  27. Fernandes V, Panchapakesan S, Braid L, Verheyen E. Nemo promotes Notch-mediated lateral inhibition downstream of proneural factors. Dev Biol. 2014;392:334-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify nemo (nmo) as a target of members of both Drosophila Atonal and Achaete-Scute proneural factor families and find that ..
  28. Agi E, Langen M, Altschuler S, Wu L, Zimmermann T, Hiesinger P. The evolution and development of neural superposition. J Neurogenet. 2014;28:216-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our goal is to identify in what way the special case of neural superposition can help us answer more general questions about the evolution and development of genetically "hard-wired" synaptic connectivity in the brain. ..
  29. Dollar G, Gombos R, Barnett A, Sanchez Hernandez D, Maung S, Mihály J, et al. Unique and Overlapping Functions of Formins Frl and DAAM During Ommatidial Rotation and Neuronal Development in Drosophila. Genetics. 2016;202:1135-51 pubmed publisher
    ..It furthermore highlights the importance and complexity of formin-dependent cytoskeletal regulation in multiple organs and developmental contexts. ..
  30. Gubb D. Cellular polarity, mitotic synchrony and axes of symmetry during growth. Where does the information come from?. Int J Dev Biol. 1998;42:369-77 pubmed
    ..The polarity patterns observed in adult cuticular bristles and hairs reflect accurate control of the shape of terminally differentiating cells rather than fine-grained positional information. ..
  31. Yu W, Houl J, Hardin P. NEMO kinase contributes to core period determination by slowing the pace of the Drosophila circadian oscillator. Curr Biol. 2011;21:756-61 pubmed publisher
    ..alter circadian behavior via clock cell-directed RNA interference (RNAi) and identified the proline-directed kinase nemo (nmo) as a novel component of the circadian oscillator...
  32. Datta R, Cruickshank T, Kumar J. Differential selection within the Drosophila retinal determination network and evidence for functional divergence between paralog pairs. Evol Dev. 2011;13:58-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that sequence divergence between paralogs and selection signatures can be used as a reasonable predictor of functional changes in rapidly evolving motifs. ..
  33. Sulkowski M, Han T, Ott C, Wang Q, Verheyen E, Lippincott Schwartz J, et al. A Novel, Noncanonical BMP Pathway Modulates Synapse Maturation at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005810 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, BMP pathway may monitor synapse activity then function to adjust synapse growth and maturation during development. ..
  34. Merino C, Penney J, González M, Tsurudome K, Moujahidine M, O Connor M, et al. Nemo kinase interacts with Mad to coordinate synaptic growth at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:713-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that the Nemo (Nmo) kinase modulates BMP signaling in motor neurons...
  35. Braid L, Verheyen E. Drosophila nemo promotes eye specification directed by the retinal determination gene network. Genetics. 2008;180:283-99 pubmed publisher
    Drosophila nemo (nmo) is the founding member of the Nemo-like kinase (Nlk) family of serine-threonine kinases. Previous work has characterized nmo's role in planar cell polarity during ommatidial patterning...
  36. Lee W, Swarup S, Chen J, Ishitani T, Verheyen E. Homeodomain-interacting protein kinases (Hipks) promote Wnt/Wg signaling through stabilization of beta-catenin/Arm and stimulation of target gene expression. Development. 2009;136:241-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We observe similar molecular interactions between Lef1/beta-catenin and vertebrate Hipk2, suggesting a direct and conserved role for Hipk proteins in promoting Wnt signaling. ..
  37. Sawamoto K, Yamada C, Kishida S, Hirota Y, Taguchi A, Kikuchi A, et al. Ectopic expression of constitutively activated Ral GTPase inhibits cell shape changes during Drosophila eye development. Oncogene. 1999;18:1967-74 pubmed
    ..In addition, the phenotype was synergistically enhanced by the coexpression of RhoA. These results suggest that Ral functions to control the cytoskeletal structure required for cell shape changes during Drosophila development. ..
  38. Kallsen K, Zehethofer N, Abdelsadik A, Lindner B, Kabesch M, Heine H, et al. ORMDL deregulation increases stress responses and modulates repair pathways in Drosophila airways. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136:1105-8 pubmed publisher
  39. Mlodzik M. Spiny legs and prickled bodies: new insights and complexities in planar polarity establishment. Bioessays. 2000;22:311-5 pubmed
    ..Pk might serve a scaffolding function involved in assembling a protein complex required for planar polarity establishment. ..
  40. Kortenjann M, Wehrle C, Nehls M, Boehm T. Only one nemo-like kinase gene homologue in invertebrate and mammalian genomes. Gene. 2001;278:161-5 pubmed
    The nemo-like kinase (Nlk) connects the MAP kinase and Wnt signalling pathways...
  41. Ju H, Kokubu H, Todd T, Kahle J, Kim S, Richman R, et al. Polyglutamine disease toxicity is regulated by Nemo-like kinase in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1. J Neurosci. 2013;33:9328-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report on several lines of evidence demonstrating that Nemo-like kinase (NLK) is a key molecule modulating disease toxicity in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), a disease ..
  42. Maia R, Valente V, Cunha M, Sousa J, Araujo D, Silva W, et al. Identification of unannotated exons of low abundance transcripts in Drosophila melanogaster and cloning of a new serine protease gene upregulated upon injury. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:249 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the computational identification and manual inspection are not sufficient to annotate a genome in the absence of experimentally derived data. ..
  43. Muñoz Soriano V, Ruiz C, Perez Alonso M, Mlodzik M, Paricio N. Nemo regulates cell dynamics and represses the expression of miple, a midkine/pleiotrophin cytokine, during ommatidial rotation. Dev Biol. 2013;377:113-25 pubmed publisher
    ..One of them is nemo (nmo), which encodes a MAP-like protein kinase that regulates the rate of rotation throughout the entire process, ..
  44. Bergwitz C, Wee M, Sinha S, Huang J, Derobertis C, Mensah L, et al. Genetic determinants of phosphate response in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56753 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a number of candidate genes potentially important for the cellular response to phosphate. Evaluation of 51 genes in live flies revealed some that affect larval development, adult life span and hemolymph phosphate levels. ..
  45. Wilder J, Diaz T, O Neill R, Kenney J, Hollocher H. Characterization and isolation of novel microsatellites from the Drosophila dunni subgroup. Genet Res. 2002;80:177-85 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that Drosophila microsatellite loci are quite short lived over evolutionary timescales relative to many other taxa. ..
  46. Montrasio S, Mlodzik M, Fanto M. A new allele uncovers the role of echinus in the control of ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2936-42 pubmed
  47. Silverman N, Zhou R, Stoven S, Pandey N, Hultmark D, Maniatis T. A Drosophila IkappaB kinase complex required for Relish cleavage and antibacterial immunity. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2461-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, a yet to be identified IkappaB kinase complex must be required for Rel protein activation via the Toll signaling pathway. ..
  48. Morillo S, Braid L, Verheyen E, Rebay I. Nemo phosphorylates Eyes absent and enhances output from the Eya-Sine oculis transcriptional complex during Drosophila retinal determination. Dev Biol. 2012;365:267-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous genetic studies have shown that nemo (nmo), a gene encoding a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase, can promote retinal specification through ..
  49. Abruzzi K, Rodriguez J, Menet J, Desrochers J, Zadina A, Luo W, et al. Drosophila CLOCK target gene characterization: implications for circadian tissue-specific gene expression. Genes Dev. 2011;25:2374-86 pubmed publisher
    ..CLK has specific targets in different tissues, implying that important CLK partner proteins and/or mechanisms contribute to gene-specific and tissue-specific regulation. ..
  50. Toma D, White K, Hirsch J, Greenspan R. Identification of genes involved in Drosophila melanogaster geotaxis, a complex behavioral trait. Nat Genet. 2002;31:349-53 pubmed
    ..We have thus determined the identities of several genes that contribute to the complex, polygenic behavior of geotaxis. ..
  51. Meinertzhagen I. Wiring the fly's eye. Neuron. 2000;28:310-3 pubmed
  52. Todd T, Kokubu H, Miranda H, Cortes C, La Spada A, Lim J. Nemo-like kinase is a novel regulator of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. elife. 2015;4:e08493 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we present evidence that Nemo-like kinase (NLK) promotes disease pathogenesis across multiple SBMA model systems...
  53. Shulman J, Perrimon N, Axelrod J. Frizzled signaling and the developmental control of cell polarity. Trends Genet. 1998;14:452-8 pubmed
    ..Recently described examples from the nematode and frog suggest that the developmental control of cell polarity by FZ receptors might represent a functionally conserved signaling mechanism. ..
  54. Chiu J, Ko H, Edery I. NEMO/NLK phosphorylates PERIOD to initiate a time-delay phosphorylation circuit that sets circadian clock speed. Cell. 2011;145:357-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylation by the NEMO/NLK kinase at the "per-short" domain on PER stimulates phosphorylation by DOUBLETIME (DBT/CK1?/?) at ..