ninaE

Summary

Gene Symbol: ninaE
Description: neither inactivation nor afterpotential E
Alias: 143283_at, 1F9, BEST:GH11778, CG4550, DMELRH1, DRh1, Dm Rh1, DmRh1, Dmel\CG4550, FBgn0002940, Nina E, NinaE, RH1, Rh-1, Rh1, Rh1(ninaE), Rh1/ninaE, Rhodopsin-1, opsin, ora, rh1, rh1/ninaE, rhodopsin, neither inactivation nor afterpotential E, CG4550-PA, ninaE-PA, rhodopsin, rhodopsin 1, rhodopsin-1, rhodopsin1
Species: fruit fly
Products:     ninaE

Top Publications

  1. Montell C. TRP trapped in fly signaling web. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1998;8:389-97 pubmed
    In the Drosophila eye, photoactivation of rhodopsin leads to the opening of the light-sensitive cation influx channels TRP and TRPL...
  2. Kiselev A, Socolich M, Vinós J, Hardy R, Zuker C, Ranganathan R. A molecular pathway for light-dependent photoreceptor apoptosis in Drosophila. Neuron. 2000;28:139-52 pubmed
    ..proteins have been implicated in triggering this process, the molecular events relating light activation of rhodopsin to photoreceptor death are yet unclear...
  3. Baker E, Colley N, Zuker C. The cyclophilin homolog NinaA functions as a chaperone, forming a stable complex in vivo with its protein target rhodopsin. EMBO J. 1994;13:4886-95 pubmed
    In Drosophila, biogenesis of the major rhodopsin, Rh1, is dependent on the presence of a photoreceptor cell-specific cyclophilin, NinaA...
  4. Eroglu C, Cronet P, Panneels V, Beaufils P, Sinning I. Functional reconstitution of purified metabotropic glutamate receptor expressed in the fly eye. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:491-6 pubmed
    ..Pure DmGluRA was then reconstituted into liposomes of varying composition. Interestingly, glutamate binding was strictly dependent on the presence of ergosterol. ..
  5. Sarfare S, Ahmad S, Joyce M, Boggess B, O Tousa J. The Drosophila ninaG oxidoreductase acts in visual pigment chromophore production. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:11895-901 pubmed
    The Drosophila ninaG mutant is characterized by low levels of Rh1 rhodopsin, because of the inability to transport this rhodopsin from the endoplasmic reticulum to the rhabdomere...
  6. Wang T, Wang X, Xie Q, Montell C. The SOCS box protein STOPS is required for phototransduction through its effects on phospholipase C. Neuron. 2008;57:56-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this work demonstrates that a PLCbeta derivative that does not promote TRP channel activation, still contributes to signaling in vivo. ..
  7. Midorikawa R, Yamamoto Hino M, Awano W, Hinohara Y, Suzuki E, Ueda R, et al. Autophagy-dependent rhodopsin degradation prevents retinal degeneration in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10703-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Accumulation of activated rhodopsin in some Drosophila mutants leads to retinal degeneration, and although it is known that activated rhodopsin is ..
  8. Kiselev A, Subramaniam S. Activation and regeneration of rhodopsin in the insect visual cycle. Science. 1994;266:1369-73 pubmed
    Light absorption by rhodopsin generates metarhodopsin, which activates heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) in photoreceptor cells of vertebrates and invertebrates...
  9. Kurada P, Tonini T, Serikaku M, Piccini J, O Tousa J. Rhodopsin maturation antagonized by dominant rhodopsin mutants. Vis Neurosci. 1998;15:693-700 pubmed
    ninaE(D1), a dominant allele of the major Drosophila rhodopsin gene, expresses a rhodopsin that is predominantly recovered in a 80-kD complex that likely represents rhodopsin dimers...

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Orem N, Xia L, Dolph P. An essential role for endocytosis of rhodopsin through interaction of visual arrestin with the AP-2 adaptor. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:3141-8 pubmed
    ..degeneration mutants in Drosophila in which the normally transient interaction between arrestin2 (Arr2) and rhodopsin is stabilized and the complexes are rapidly internalized into the cell body by receptor-mediated endocytosis...
  2. Vinós J, Jalink K, Hardy R, Britt S, Zuker C. A G protein-coupled receptor phosphatase required for rhodopsin function. Science. 1997;277:687-90 pubmed
    ..Drosophila RDGC (retinal degeneration C) is a phosphatase required for rhodopsin dephosphorylation in vivo...
  3. Shen W, Kwon Y, Adegbola A, Luo J, Chess A, Montell C. Function of rhodopsin in temperature discrimination in Drosophila. Science. 2011;331:1333-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that mutation of the gene (ninaE) encoding a classical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), Drosophila rhodopsin, eliminates thermotactic discrimination in the comfortable temperature range...
  4. Steele F, O Tousa J. Rhodopsin activation causes retinal degeneration in Drosophila rdgC mutant. Neuron. 1990;4:883-90 pubmed
    ..rdgC photoreceptors with low levels of rhodopsin as a result of vitamin A deprivation or a mutant rhodopsin (ninaE) gene fail to show rdgC-induced degeneration ..
  5. Xiong B, Bayat V, Jaiswal M, Zhang K, Sandoval H, Charng W, et al. Crag is a GEF for Rab11 required for rhodopsin trafficking and maintenance of adult photoreceptor cells. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001438 pubmed publisher
    Rhodopsins (Rhs) are light sensors, and Rh1 is the major Rh in the Drosophila photoreceptor rhabdomere membrane...
  6. Fortini M, Rubin G. Analysis of cis-acting requirements of the Rh3 and Rh4 genes reveals a bipartite organization to rhodopsin promoters in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Dev. 1990;4:444-63 pubmed
    The rhodopsin genes of Drosophila melanogaster are expressed in nonoverlapping subsets of photoreceptor cells within the insect visual system...
  7. Ahmad S, Joyce M, Boggess B, O Tousa J. The role of Drosophila ninaG oxidoreductase in visual pigment chromophore biogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:9205-9 pubmed
    ..an oxidoreductase involved in the biosynthesis of the (3S)-3-hydroxyretinal serving as chromophore for Rh1 rhodopsin and that ninaG mutant flies expressing Rh4 as the major opsin accumulate large amounts of a different retinoid...
  8. Yamaguchi S, Desplan C, Heisenberg M. Contribution of photoreceptor subtypes to spectral wavelength preference in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5634-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Involvement of all photoreceptors [R1-R6, R7, R8 (blue), R8 (green)] distinguishes phototaxis from motion detection that is mediated exclusively by R1-R6. ..
  9. O Tousa J. Requirement of N-linked glycosylation site in Drosophila rhodopsin. Vis Neurosci. 1992;8:385-90 pubmed
    ..a Drosophila mutant, delta Asn20, lacking the N-linked glycosylation site near the amino terminus of the major rhodopsin (Asn20-Gly-Ser changed to Ile-Gly-Ser). Low opsin protein levels are detected in delta Asn20 photoreceptors...
  10. Mismer D, Rubin G. Analysis of the promoter of the ninaE opsin gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1987;116:565-78 pubmed
    ..This gene encodes the major Drosophila melanogaster opsin, the protein component of the primary chromophore of photo-receptor cells R1-R6 of the adult eye...
  11. Lee Y, Shah S, Suzuki E, Zars T, O Day P, Hyde D. The Drosophila dgq gene encodes a G alpha protein that mediates phototransduction. Neuron. 1994;13:1143-57 pubmed
    ..the light-dependent GTP hydrolysis activity associated with Drosophila head membranes in vitro, suggesting that rhodopsin stimulated DGq...
  12. Earl J, Britt S. Expression of Drosophila rhodopsins during photoreceptor cell differentiation: insights into R7 and R8 cell subtype commitment. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:687-94 pubmed
    ..b>Rhodopsin 1 has the earliest onset, followed by Rhodopsins 3, 4, and 5 at approximately the same time, and finally ..
  13. Kurada P, O Tousa J. Retinal degeneration caused by dominant rhodopsin mutations in Drosophila. Neuron. 1995;14:571-9 pubmed
    Dominant mutations of the Drosophila ninaE-encoded rhodopsin are described that reduce the expression of wild-type rhodopsin and cause a slow, age-dependent form of retinal degeneration...
  14. Ellis M, O Neill E, Rubin G. Expression of Drosophila glass protein and evidence for negative regulation of its activity in non-neuronal cells by another DNA-binding protein. Development. 1993;119:855-65 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that nonsensory cells are unable to express certain reporter constructs in response to Glass expression because another DNA-binding factor represses Glass activity in nonsensory cells. ..
  15. Milligan S, Alb J, Elagina R, Bankaitis V, Hyde D. The phosphatidylinositol transfer protein domain of Drosophila retinal degeneration B protein is essential for photoreceptor cell survival and recovery from light stimulation. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:351-63 pubmed
    ..Whereas RdgB-T59E functioned in a dominant manner to significantly reduce steady-state levels of rhodopsin, PITPalpha-RdgB was defective in the ability to recover from prolonged light stimulation and caused ..
  16. Pellikka M, Tanentzapf G, Pinto M, Smith C, McGlade C, Ready D, et al. Crumbs, the Drosophila homologue of human CRB1/RP12, is essential for photoreceptor morphogenesis. Nature. 2002;416:143-9 pubmed
    ..Defects in such scaffolds may contribute to human CRB1-related retinal dystrophies. ..
  17. Raghu P, Coessens E, Manifava M, Georgiev P, Pettitt T, Wood E, et al. Rhabdomere biogenesis in Drosophila photoreceptors is acutely sensitive to phosphatidic acid levels. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:129-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that PA levels are critical for apical membrane transport events required for rhabdomere biogenesis. ..
  18. Zars T, Hyde D. rdgE: a novel retinal degeneration mutation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1996;144:127-38 pubmed
    ..This suggests that degeneration caused the loss of the light response. We determined that the ninaE (rhodopsin) mutation, but not norpA [phospholipase C (PLC)], slowed the rdgE-dependent degeneration...
  19. Wardill T, List O, Li X, Dongre S, McCulloch M, Ting C, et al. Multiple spectral inputs improve motion discrimination in the Drosophila visual system. Science. 2012;336:925-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that inputs from photoreceptors of different spectral sensitivities improve motion discrimination, increasing robustness of perception. ..
  20. Moses K, Rubin G. Glass encodes a site-specific DNA-binding protein that is regulated in response to positional signals in the developing Drosophila eye. Genes Dev. 1991;5:583-93 pubmed
    ..This specificity may represent a regulation of glass protein activity after cells are recruited to the photoreceptor cell fate. ..
  21. Scavarda N, O TOUSA J, Pak W. Drosophila locus with gene-dosage effects on rhodopsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:4441-5 pubmed
    ..of the prolonged depolarizing afterpotential (PDA) in Drosophila melanogaster have been shown to have reduced rhodopsin content in the rhabdomeres of photoreceptor cells...
  22. Chang H, Ready D. Rescue of photoreceptor degeneration in rhodopsin-null Drosophila mutants by activated Rac1. Science. 2000;290:1978-80 pubmed
    b>Rhodopsin is essential for photoreceptor morphogenesis; photoreceptors lacking rhodopsin degenerate in humans, mice, and Drosophila...
  23. Hsu C, Whaley M, Frazer K, Miller D, Mitchell K, Adams S, et al. Limited role of developmental programmed cell death pathways in Drosophila norpA retinal degeneration. J Neurosci. 2004;24:500-7 pubmed
    ..These results establish that the pathways responsible for PCD in development do not play a major role in adult retinal degeneration caused by norpA. ..
  24. Satoh A, O Tousa J, Ozaki K, Ready D. Rab11 mediates post-Golgi trafficking of rhodopsin to the photosensitive apical membrane of Drosophila photoreceptors. Development. 2005;132:1487-97 pubmed
    In developing Drosophila photoreceptors, rhodopsin is trafficked to the rhabdomere, a specialized domain within the apical membrane surface...
  25. Wu S, Mehta S, Pichaud F, Bellen H, Quiocho F. Sec15 interacts with Rab11 via a novel domain and affects Rab11 localization in vivo. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:879-85 pubmed
    ..We show that the C subdomain, mainly via a single helix, is sufficient for Rab binding. ..
  26. Zhu Y, Nern A, Zipursky S, Frye M. Peripheral visual circuits functionally segregate motion and phototaxis behaviors in the fly. Curr Biol. 2009;19:613-9 pubmed publisher
  27. Mecklenburg K, Takemori N, Komori N, Chu B, Hardie R, Matsumoto H, et al. Retinophilin is a light-regulated phosphoprotein required to suppress photoreceptor dark noise in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2010;30:1238-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that RTP is a light-regulated phosphoprotein that organizes rhabdomeric components to suppress random activation of the phototransduction cascade and thus increases the signaling fidelity of dark-adapted photoreceptors. ..
  28. Pak W. Drosophila in vision research. The Friedenwald Lecture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995;36:2340-57 pubmed
    ..In fact, study of the NinaA gene is providing fresh insights not only into the rhodopsin maturation process but also into the role of cyclophilins in general...
  29. Satoh A, Ready D. Arrestin1 mediates light-dependent rhodopsin endocytosis and cell survival. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1722-33 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila norpA and rdgC mutants, endocytosis of abnormally stable complexes of rhodopsin (Rh1) and fly photoreceptor Arrestin2 (Arr2) triggers cell death, implicating Rh1/Arr2-bearing endosomes in pro-..
  30. Mishra M, Oke A, Lebel C, McDonald E, Plummer Z, Cook T, et al. Pph13 and orthodenticle define a dual regulatory pathway for photoreceptor cell morphogenesis and function. Development. 2010;137:2895-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Rh2 and Rh6, and other phototransduction genes, demonstrating that Pph13 and Otd control a distinct subset of Rhodopsin-encoding genes in adult visual systems...
  31. von Lintig J, Dreher A, Kiefer C, Wernet M, Vogt K. Analysis of the blind Drosophila mutant ninaB identifies the gene encoding the key enzyme for vitamin A formation invivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:1130-5 pubmed
    ..In two independent ninaB alleles, we found mutations in the gene encoding the beta,beta-carotene-15,15'-dioxygenase. These mutations lead to a defect in vitamin A formation and are responsible for blindness of these flies. ..
  32. Suzuki E, Hirosawa K. Immunoelectron microscopic study of the opsin distribution in the photoreceptor cells of Drosophila melanogaster. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 1991;40:187-92 pubmed
    Distribution of opsin in the compound eye of Drosophila melanogaster was examined by post-embedding immunoelectron microscopy using a monoclonal antibody against the Drosophila Rh1 opsin and gold-conjugated secondary antibody...
  33. Kumar J, Ready D. Rhodopsin plays an essential structural role in Drosophila photoreceptor development. Development. 1995;121:4359-70 pubmed
    Null mutations of the Drosophila Rh1 rhodopsin gene, ninaE, result in developmental defects in the photosensitive membranes, the rhabdomeres, of compound eye photoreceptors R1-R6...
  34. Hardie R. Phototransduction in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2001;204:3403-9 pubmed
  35. Yamaguchi S, Wolf R, Desplan C, Heisenberg M. Motion vision is independent of color in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4910-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Under these conditions, mutant flies lacking functional rhodopsin in R1-R6 cells do not respond at all...
  36. Kang M, Ryoo H. Suppression of retinal degeneration in Drosophila by stimulation of ER-associated degradation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17043-8 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the rhodopsin gene that disrupt the encoded protein's folding properties are a major cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP)...
  37. Rosenbaum E, Brehm K, Vasiljevic E, Gajeski A, Colley N. Drosophila GPI-mannosyltransferase 2 is required for GPI anchor attachment and surface expression of chaoptin. Vis Neurosci. 2012;29:143-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings on GPI-MT2 provide a mechanistic link between GPI anchor biosynthesis and protein trafficking in Drosophila and shed light on a novel mechanism for inherited retinal degeneration. ..
  38. O Tousa J, Leonard D, Pak W. Morphological defects in oraJK84 photoreceptors caused by mutation in R1-6 opsin gene of Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 1989;6:41-52 pubmed
    ..The other mutation occurs within the ninaE gene, which encodes the species of rhodopsin found in the R1-6 class of photoreceptors...
  39. Fanning A, Anderson J. Protein modules as organizers of membrane structure. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1999;11:432-9 pubmed
    ..The organization of these proteins into discreet structures has functional consequences for downstream signaling. ..
  40. Washburn T, O Tousa J. Molecular defects in Drosophila rhodopsin mutants. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:15464-6 pubmed
    Four well characterized Drosophila rhodopsin (ninaE) mutants possess low levels of rhodopsin in their major class of photoreceptors. The molecular defect present in each strain was determined by isolating and sequencing the mutant genes...
  41. Davidson F, Steller H. Blocking apoptosis prevents blindness in Drosophila retinal degeneration mutants. Nature. 1998;391:587-91 pubmed
    ..We found that retinal cell death in rdgC and ninaE(RH27)/+ flies occurred by apoptosis and was blocked by eye-specific expression of the baculoviral cell survival ..
  42. Salcedo E, Huber A, Henrich S, Chadwell L, Chou W, Paulsen R, et al. Blue- and green-absorbing visual pigments of Drosophila: ectopic expression and physiological characterization of the R8 photoreceptor cell-specific Rh5 and Rh6 rhodopsins. J Neurosci. 1999;19:10716-26 pubmed
    ..The expression of either Rh5 or Rh6 in "blind" ninaE(17) mutant flies, which lack the gene encoding the visual pigment of the R1-R6 cells, fully rescues the light ..
  43. Pichaud F, Desplan C. A new visualization approach for identifying mutations that affect differentiation and organization of the Drosophila ommatidia. Development. 2001;128:815-26 pubmed
    ..We illustrate the power of this detection system using known genetic backgrounds and new mutations that affect ommatidial differentiation, morphology or chirality. ..
  44. Cronin M, Diao F, Tsunoda S. Light-dependent subcellular translocation of Gqalpha in Drosophila photoreceptors is facilitated by the photoreceptor-specific myosin III NINAC. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:4797-806 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that translocation of G(q)alpha requires rhodopsin, but none of the known downstream phototransduction components, suggesting that the signaling pathway triggering ..
  45. Ryoo H, Domingos P, Kang M, Steller H. Unfolded protein response in a Drosophila model for retinal degeneration. EMBO J. 2007;26:242-52 pubmed
    ..xbp1 splicing and hsc3 induction occur in the retina of ninaE(G69D)-/+, a Drosophila model for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP), and reduction of xbp1 gene dosage ..
  46. Hoyer S, Eckart A, Herrel A, Zars T, Fischer S, Hardie S, et al. Octopamine in male aggression of Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2008;18:159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Octopamine, a closely related biogenic amine, has been proposed to have a similar function in arthropods. However, the effect of octopamine on aggressive behavior is little understood...
  47. Venkatachalam K, Wasserman D, Wang X, Li R, Mills E, Elsaesser R, et al. Dependence on a retinophilin/myosin complex for stability of PKC and INAD and termination of phototransduction. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11337-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations that affect termination of the photoresponse typically lead to a reduction in levels of the major rhodopsin (Rh1) to attenuate signaling...
  48. Ozaki K, Nagatani H, Ozaki M, Tokunaga F. Maturation of major Drosophila rhodopsin, ninaE, requires chromophore 3-hydroxyretinal. Neuron. 1993;10:1113-9 pubmed
    b>Opsin expression is extremely suppressed by carotenoid deprivation in Drosophila...
  49. Sheng G, Thouvenot E, Schmucker D, Wilson D, Desplan C. Direct regulation of rhodopsin 1 by Pax-6/eyeless in Drosophila: evidence for a conserved function in photoreceptors. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1122-31 pubmed
    ..this, we present evidence that eyeless (ey), which encodes the Drosophila homolog of Pax-6, directly regulates rhodopsin 1 (rh1) expression in the photoreceptor cells...
  50. Scott K, Sun Y, Beckingham K, Zuker C. Calmodulin regulation of Drosophila light-activated channels and receptor function mediates termination of the light response in vivo. Cell. 1997;91:375-83 pubmed
    ..Our results show that CAM coordinates termination of the light response by modulating receptor and ion channel activity. ..
  51. Katanosaka K, Tokunaga F, Kawamura S, Ozaki K. N-linked glycosylation of Drosophila rhodopsin occurs exclusively in the amino-terminal domain and functions in rhodopsin maturation. FEBS Lett. 1998;424:149-54 pubmed
    Immature Drosophila rhodopsin is N-glycosylated, but undergoes complete deglycosylation during the process of protein maturation...
  52. Lee S, Xu H, Montell C. Rhodopsin kinase activity modulates the amplitude of the visual response in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11874-9 pubmed
    A feature shared between Drosophila rhodopsin and nearly all other G protein-coupled receptors is agonist-dependent protein phosphorylation...
  53. Sprecher S, Pichaud F, Desplan C. Adult and larval photoreceptors use different mechanisms to specify the same Rhodopsin fates. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2182-95 pubmed
    ..Therefore, even though the larval PRs and adult R8 PRs express the same rhodopsins (rh5 and rh6), they use very distinct mechanisms for their specification. ..
  54. Oberegelsbacher C, Schneidler C, Voolstra O, Cerny A, Huber A. The Drosophila TRPL ion channel shares a Rab-dependent translocation pathway with rhodopsin. Eur J Cell Biol. 2011;90:620-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-localization of TRPL and rhodopsin in endocytic particles revealed that TRPL is internalized by a vesicular transport pathway that is also utilized,..
  55. Rosenbaum E, Brehm K, Vasiljevic E, Liu C, Hardie R, Colley N. XPORT-dependent transport of TRP and rhodopsin. Neuron. 2011;72:602-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify XPORT (exit protein of rhodopsin and TRP) as a critical chaperone for TRP and its G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), rhodopsin (Rh1)...
  56. Colley N, Baker E, Stamnes M, Zuker C. The cyclophilin homolog ninaA is required in the secretory pathway. Cell. 1991;67:255-63 pubmed
    In Drosophila, the major rhodopsin Rh1 is synthesized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound ribosomes of the R1-R6 photoreceptor cells and is then transported to the rhabdomeres where it functions in phototransduction...
  57. Arnon A, Cook B, Gillo B, Montell C, Selinger Z, Minke B. Calmodulin regulation of light adaptation and store-operated dark current in Drosophila photoreceptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:5894-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that negative feedback of Ca-CaM on Ca2+ release from ryanodine-sensitive stores mediates light adaptation, is essential for light excitation, and keeps the store-operated inward current under a tight control. ..
  58. Tsunoda S, Sierralta J, Sun Y, Bodner R, Suzuki E, Becker A, et al. A multivalent PDZ-domain protein assembles signalling complexes in a G-protein-coupled cascade. Nature. 1997;388:243-9 pubmed
    ..A picture emerges of a highly organized unit of signalling, a 'transduclisome', with PDZ domains functioning as key elements in the organization of transduction complexes in vivo. ..
  59. Chinchore Y, Mitra A, Dolph P. Accumulation of rhodopsin in late endosomes triggers photoreceptor cell degeneration. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000377 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work using Drosophila as a model system and analysis of specific mutations in human rhodopsin have uncovered a connection between rhodopsin endocytosis and retinal degeneration...
  60. Kinser R, Dolph P. Cathepsin proteases mediate photoreceptor cell degeneration in Drosophila. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;46:655-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The cell death pathway is initiated by the stabilization of complexes between rhodopsin and arrestin which undergo massive endocytosis into the cell body...
  61. Rosenbaum E, Vasiljevic E, Brehm K, Colley N. Mutations in four glycosyl hydrolases reveal a highly coordinated pathway for rhodopsin biosynthesis and N-glycan trimming in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004349 pubmed publisher
    ..The major rhodopsin in Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors, Rh1, is highly unique among glycoproteins, as the N-glycan appears to ..
  62. Papatsenko D, Sheng G, Desplan C. A new rhodopsin in R8 photoreceptors of Drosophila: evidence for coordinate expression with Rh3 in R7 cells. Development. 1997;124:1665-73 pubmed
    ..All cells of the primary system, R1-R6, express the same rhodopsin and are functionally identical. In contrast, the R7 and R8 photoreceptors are different from each other...
  63. Shetty K, Kurada P, O Tousa J. Rab6 regulation of rhodopsin transport in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:20425-30 pubmed
    ..N125I) Rab6 protein in Drosophila photoreceptors to assess the in vivo role of Rab6 in the trafficking of rhodopsin and other proteins...
  64. Alloway P, Dolph P. A role for the light-dependent phosphorylation of visual arrestin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6072-7 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, we found that the Arr2 phosphorylation mutant was still capable of binding to rhodopsin; however, it was unable to release from membranes once rhodopsin had converted back to its inactive form...
  65. Running Deer J, Hurley J, Yarfitz S. G protein control of Drosophila photoreceptor phospholipase C. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:12623-8 pubmed
    ..PLC activation depends on the photoconversion of rhodopsin to metarhodopsin and is reduced in norpAEE5 PLC and ninaEP332 rhodopsin mutants...
  66. Xu X, Choudhury A, Li X, Montell C. Coordination of an array of signaling proteins through homo- and heteromeric interactions between PDZ domains and target proteins. J Cell Biol. 1998;142:545-55 pubmed
    ..The INAD signaling complex also includes rhodopsin, protein kinase C (PKC), and calmodulin, though it is not known whether these proteins bind to INAD...
  67. Acharya U, Patel S, Koundakjian E, Nagashima K, Han X, Acharya J. Modulating sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway rescues photoreceptor degeneration. Science. 2003;299:1740-3 pubmed
    ..Thus, enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism may be suitable targets in the therapeutic management of retinal degeneration. ..
  68. Ahmad S, Natochin M, Artemyev N, O Tousa J. The Drosophila rhodopsin cytoplasmic tail domain is required for maintenance of rhabdomere structure. FASEB J. 2007;21:449-55 pubmed
    The ninaE-encoded Rh1 rhodopsin is the major light-sensitive pigment expressed in Drosophila R1-6 photoreceptor cells...
  69. Acharya J, Dasgupta U, Rawat S, Yuan C, Sanxaridis P, Yonamine I, et al. Cell-nonautonomous function of ceramidase in photoreceptor homeostasis. Neuron. 2008;57:69-79 pubmed publisher
    ..ceramidase, photoreceptors degenerate in a light-dependent manner, are defective in normal endocytic turnover of rhodopsin, and do not respond to light stimulus...
  70. Dourlen P, Bertin B, Chatelain G, Robin M, Napoletano F, Roux M, et al. Drosophila fatty acid transport protein regulates rhodopsin-1 metabolism and is required for photoreceptor neuron survival. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002833 pubmed publisher
    ..young fatp-mutant flies was abnormal with elevated electroretinogram amplitudes associated with high levels of Rhodopsin-1 (Rh1)...
  71. Liu M, Parker L, Wadzinski B, Shieh B. Reversible phosphorylation of the signal transduction complex in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:12194-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, dephosphorylation of INAD and TRP is catalyzed by PP1/PP2A-like enzymes preferentially expressed in photoreceptor cells. ..
  72. Agam K, von Campenhausen M, Levy S, Ben Ami H, Cook B, Kirschfeld K, et al. Metabolic stress reversibly activates the Drosophila light-sensitive channels TRP and TRPL in vivo. J Neurosci. 2000;20:5748-55 pubmed
    ..Effects similar to those found in wild-type flies were also found in mutants with strong defects in rhodopsin, Gq-protein, or phospholipase C, thus indicating that the metabolic stress operates at a late stage of the ..
  73. Strauss R, Renner M, Gotz K. Task-specific association of photoreceptor systems and steering parameters in Drosophila. J Comp Physiol A. 2001;187:617-32 pubmed
    ..or freely walking ninaE17 mutants which cannot synthesize the peripheral retinula cells 1-6 photoreceptor-specific opsin. Retention of about 12% of the normal course control and about 58% of the object fixation in these flies suggests ..
  74. Kosloff M, Elia N, Joel Almagor T, Timberg R, Zars T, Hyde D, et al. Regulation of light-dependent Gqalpha translocation and morphological changes in fly photoreceptors. EMBO J. 2003;22:459-68 pubmed
    ..of Gqalpha to the membrane and suggested that Gqbeta is also needed for efficient activation of Gqalpha by rhodopsin. Our results support the 'two-signal model' hypothesis for membrane targeting in a living organism and ..
  75. Li B, Satoh A, Ready D. Myosin V, Rab11, and dRip11 direct apical secretion and cellular morphogenesis in developing Drosophila photoreceptors. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:659-69 pubmed
    ..We recently showed Drosophila Rab11 is essential for rhodopsin transport in developing photoreceptors and asked here if myosin V and the Drosophila Rab11 interacting protein, ..
  76. Kang M, Chung J, Ryoo H. CDK5 and MEKK1 mediate pro-apoptotic signalling following endoplasmic reticulum stress in an autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa model. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:409-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar mutant alleles of Drosophila Rhodopsin-1 also impose stress on the ER and cause age-related retinal degeneration in that organism...
  77. Voolstra O, Bartels J, Oberegelsbacher C, Pfannstiel J, Huber A. Phosphorylation of the Drosophila transient receptor potential ion channel is regulated by the phototransduction cascade and involves several protein kinases and phosphatases. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73787 pubmed publisher
    ..A candidate screen to identify kinases and phosphatases provided in vivo evidence for an involvement of eye-PKC as well as other kinases and phosphatases in TRP phosphorylation. ..
  78. Huber A, Schulz S, Bentrop J, Groell C, Wolfrum U, Paulsen R. Molecular cloning of Drosophila Rh6 rhodopsin: the visual pigment of a subset of R8 photoreceptor cells. FEBS Lett. 1997;406:6-10 pubmed
    ..for photoreceptor-specifically expressed genes we have isolated and sequenced a cDNA clone encoding the rhodopsin (Rh6) of a subset of R8 photoreceptor cells of the Drosophila compound eye...
  79. Domingos P, Brown S, Barrio R, Ratnakumar K, Frankfort B, Mardon G, et al. Regulation of R7 and R8 differentiation by the spalt genes. Dev Biol. 2004;273:121-33 pubmed
    ..of spalt or senseless is sufficient to induce ectopic rhodopsin 6 expression and partial suppression of rhodopsin 1. We demonstrate that spalt and senseless are part of a genetic network, which regulates rhodopsin 6 and ..
  80. Meyer N, Joel Almagor T, Frechter S, Minke B, Huber A. Subcellular translocation of the eGFP-tagged TRPL channel in Drosophila photoreceptors requires activation of the phototransduction cascade. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2592-603 pubmed
    ..to the cell body in flies carrying severe mutations in essential phototransduction proteins, including rhodopsin, Galphaq, phospholipase Cbeta and the TRP ion channel, or in proteins required for TRP function...
  81. Ahmad S, Natochin M, Barren B, Artemyev N, O Tousa J. Heterologous expression of bovine rhodopsin in Drosophila photoreceptor cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:3722-8 pubmed
    ..Protein expression and cellular location of bovine rhodopsin was assessed by protein blots and immunofluorescence...
  82. Mishra P, Socolich M, Wall M, Graves J, Wang Z, Ranganathan R. Dynamic scaffolding in a G protein-coupled signaling system. Cell. 2007;131:80-92 pubmed
  83. Pollock J, Assaf A, Peretz A, Nichols C, Mojet M, Hardie R, et al. TRP, a protein essential for inositide-mediated Ca2+ influx is localized adjacent to the calcium stores in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 1995;15:3747-60 pubmed
    ..We found that reduction of the microvilli area through genetic dissection with the opsin null mutant, ninaEora, was correlated with a pronounced enhancement of the TRP-dependent inward current relative ..
  84. Chou W, Huber A, Bentrop J, Schulz S, Schwab K, Chadwell L, et al. Patterning of the R7 and R8 photoreceptor cells of Drosophila: evidence for induced and default cell-fate specification. Development. 1999;126:607-16 pubmed
    b>Opsin gene expression in the R7 and R8 photoreceptor cells of the Drosophila compound eye is highly coordinated...
  85. Cronin M, Lieu M, Tsunoda S. Two stages of light-dependent TRPL-channel translocation in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2935-44 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that arrestin2 is required for the rhabdomeric localization and stability of TRPL channels. ..
  86. Voolstra O, Beck K, Oberegelsbacher C, Pfannstiel J, Huber A. Light-dependent phosphorylation of the drosophila transient receptor potential ion channel. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:14275-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Light-dependent changes in the phosphorylation state of this site occurred within minutes. The dephosphorylation of TRP at Ser(936) required activation of the phototransduction cascade. ..
  87. Cao J, Li Y, Xia W, Reddig K, Hu W, Xie W, et al. A Drosophila metallophosphoesterase mediates deglycosylation of rhodopsin. EMBO J. 2011;30:3701-13 pubmed publisher
    ..During the maturation of Rh1 rhodopsin, a Drosophila light receptor, the oligosaccharide chain is trimmed extensively...
  88. Hardie R, Raghu P. Visual transduction in Drosophila. Nature. 2001;413:186-93 pubmed
    ..Analysis in Drosophila has revealed many of the underlying molecular strategies, leading to the discovery and characterization of signalling molecules of widespread importance. ..
  89. Lee S, Montell C. Regulation of the rhodopsin protein phosphatase, RDGC, through interaction with calmodulin. Neuron. 2001;32:1097-106 pubmed
    ..GPCR kinases have been identified, but the only GPCR phosphatase that has been definitively demonstrated is the rhodopsin phosphatase encoded by the rdgC locus of Drosophila...
  90. Pick S, Strauss R. Goal-driven behavioral adaptations in gap-climbing Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1473-8 pubmed
    ..The fact that the adaptations can be impaired separately unveils them as distinct subunits. ..
  91. Sengupta S, Barber T, Xia H, Ready D, Hardie R. Depletion of PtdIns(4,5)P? underlies retinal degeneration in Drosophila trp mutants. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:1247-59 pubmed publisher
    ..which prevent accumulation of MPP-Arr2, namely rearing under red light or eliminating the C-terminal rhodopsin phosphorylation sites, failed to rescue degeneration in trp mutants...
  92. Lee J, Song M, Hong S. Negative regulation of the novel norpA(P24) suppressor, diehard4, in the endo-lysosomal trafficking underlies photoreceptor cell degeneration. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003559 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodopsin has been used as a prototype system to investigate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization and endocytic sorting mechanisms...