Gene Symbol: ninaC
Description: neither inactivation nor afterpotential C
Alias: CG 5125, CG5125, CG54125, CT16120, CT42491, DRONINAC, Dm NinaC, Dmel\CG5125, Myo1B, NINA C, NINAC, Nina C, NinaC, ninac, neither inactivation nor afterpotential C, CG5125-PA, CG5125-PB, CG5125-PC, CG5125-PD, NINAC myosin III, droninac, either inactivation nor afterpotential C, myosin III, myosin-III, neither inactivation Nor afterpotential C, neither inactivation nor after potential C, neither inactivation nor afterpotential-C, ninaC-PA, ninaC-PB, ninaC-PC, ninaC-PD
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Gambis A, Dourlen P, Steller H, Mollereau B. Two-color in vivo imaging of photoreceptor apoptosis and development in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2011;351:128-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The "Tomato/GFP-FLP/FRT" method allows high-throughput, rapid and precise identification of survival and developmental pathways in living adult PRs at single-cell resolution. ..
  2. Kumar J, Ready D. Rhodopsin plays an essential structural role in Drosophila photoreceptor development. Development. 1995;121:4359-70 pubmed
    ..A filamentous cytoskeletal complex that includes F-actin and the unconventional myosin, NINAC, decorates the cytoplasmic surface of these curtains.
  3. Ozaki K, Nagatani H, Ozaki M, Tokunaga F. Maturation of major Drosophila rhodopsin, ninaE, requires chromophore 3-hydroxyretinal. Neuron. 1993;10:1113-9 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we present a novel mechanism of protein regulatory expression; that is, chromophore posttranslationally controls the expression of apoprotein by promoting its maturation. ..
  4. Satoh A, Ready D. Arrestin1 mediates light-dependent rhodopsin endocytosis and cell survival. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1722-33 pubmed
    ..In contrast to a previous report, we do not find a requirement for photoreceptor myosin kinase NINAC in Arr1 or Arr2 translocation...
  5. Porter J, Minke B, Montell C. Calmodulin binding to Drosophila NinaC required for termination of phototransduction. EMBO J. 1995;14:4450-9 pubmed
    The ninaC locus encodes two unconventional myosins, p132 and p174, consisting of fused protein kinase and myosin head domains expressed in Drosophila photoreceptor cells...
  6. Lee S, Xu H, Montell C. Rhodopsin kinase activity modulates the amplitude of the visual response in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11874-9 pubmed
    ..These data point to an evolutionarily conserved role for GPRK1 in modulating the amplitude of the visual response. ..
  7. Mishra M, Oke A, Lebel C, McDonald E, Plummer Z, Cook T, et al. Pph13 and orthodenticle define a dual regulatory pathway for photoreceptor cell morphogenesis and function. Development. 2010;137:2895-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies define a key transcriptional regulatory pathway that is necessary for late Drosophila photoreceptor development and will serve as a basis for better understanding rhabdomeric photoreceptor cell development and function. ..
  8. Mecklenburg K, Takemori N, Komori N, Chu B, Hardie R, Matsumoto H, et al. Retinophilin is a light-regulated phosphoprotein required to suppress photoreceptor dark noise in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2010;30:1238-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Photoreceptors lacking neither inactivation nor afterpotential C (NINAC) myosin III, a motor protein/kinase, also display a similar dark-noise phenotype as the ..
  9. Delpire E. The mammalian family of sterile 20p-like protein kinases. Pflugers Arch. 2009;458:953-67 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of molecular details involved in the activation of the kinases are discussed including autophosphorylation, substrate recognition, autoinhibition, dimerization, and substrate binding. ..

More Information


  1. Xu X, Chien F, Butler A, Salkoff L, Montell C. TRPgamma, a drosophila TRP-related subunit, forms a regulated cation channel with TRPL. Neuron. 2000;26:647-57 pubmed
    ..While TRPL and TRPgamma homomultimers are constitutively active, we demonstrate that TRPL-TRPgamma heteromultimers form a regulated phospholipase C- (PLC-) stimulated channel. ..
  2. Porter J, Hicks J, Williams D, Montell C. Differential localizations of and requirements for the two Drosophila ninaC kinase/myosins in photoreceptor cells. J Cell Biol. 1992;116:683-93 pubmed
    The ninaC gene encodes two retinal specific proteins (p132 and p174) consisting of a protein kinase domain joined to a domain homologous to the head region of the myosin heavy chain...
  3. Harteneck C. Proteins modulating TRP channel function. Cell Calcium. 2003;33:303-10 pubmed
    ..The prototype of calcium-binding protein used for experiments is calmodulin; whether or not calmodulin is also the natural interaction partner of TRP channels is an open question. ..
  4. Hassan J, Busto M, Iyengar B, Campos A. Behavioral characterization and genetic analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster larval response to light as revealed by a novel individual assay. Behav Genet. 2000;30:59-69 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that this response to light can be mediated by rhodopsins other than the blue absorbing Rh1. ..
  5. Stephenson R, O TOUSA J, Scavarda N, Randall L, Pak W. Drosophila mutants with reduced rhodopsin content. Symp Soc Exp Biol. 1983;36:477-501 pubmed
  6. Wang T, Xu H, Oberwinkler J, Gu Y, Hardie R, Montell C. Light activation, adaptation, and cell survival functions of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger CalX. Neuron. 2005;45:367-78 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate the critical role of Ca(2+) for proper signaling and provide genetic evidence that Ca(2+) overload is responsible for a form of retinal degeneration resulting from defects in the TRP channel. ..
  7. Gibson G, Wemple M, van Helden S. Potential variance affecting homeotic Ultrabithorax and Antennapedia phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1999;151:1081-91 pubmed
    ..It is argued that the existence of "potential" variance, which is genetic variation whose effects are not observable in wild-type individuals, is a prerequisite for the uncoupling of genetic from phenotypic divergence. ..
  8. Mecklenburg K, Freed S, Raval M, Quintero O, Yengo C, O Tousa J. Invertebrate and vertebrate class III myosins interact with MORN repeat-containing adaptor proteins. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0122502 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of these two proteins in other cell types showed NINAC myosin III behavior is altered by RTP...
  9. Wright A, Jackson I. Myosin diversity and disease. Trends Genet. 1996;12:206-9 pubmed
  10. Busto M, Iyengar B, Campos A. Genetic dissection of behavior: modulation of locomotion by light in the Drosophila melanogaster larva requires genetically distinct visual system functions. J Neurosci. 1999;19:3337-44 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that this novel visual function depends on the blue-absorbing rhodopsin Rh1 and is specified by the so gene. ..
  11. Han J, Gong P, Reddig K, Mitra M, Guo P, Li H. The fly CAMTA transcription factor potentiates deactivation of rhodopsin, a G protein-coupled light receptor. Cell. 2006;127:847-58 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that calmodulin/CAMTA/Fbxl4 may mediate a long-term feedback regulation of the activity of Ca(2+)-stimulating GPCRs, which could prevent cell damage due to extra Ca(2+) influx. ..
  12. Smith D, Shieh B, Zuker C. Isolation and structure of an arrestin gene from Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:1003-7 pubmed
    ..However, the arrestin gene does not appear to be the ninaD locus, as sequence analysis of three ethylmethane sulfate-induced ninaD mutant alleles reveals no alteration in amino acid sequence. ..
  13. Landry C, Castillo Davis C, Ogura A, Liu J, Hartl D. Systems-level analysis and evolution of the phototransduction network in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3283-8 pubmed
    ..These results provide a preliminary quantification of variation and divergence of gene expression between species in a known gene network and provide a foundation for a system-level understanding of functional and evolutionary change. ..
  14. Scott K, Zuker C. Lights out: deactivation of the phototransduction cascade. Trends Biochem Sci. 1997;22:350-4 pubmed
    ..Here, we focus on phototransduction in Drosophila as a paradigm for the study of deactivation in a complex G-protein-coupled signaling pathway in vivo. ..
  15. Murali T, Pacifico S, Finley R. Integrating the interactome and the transcriptome of Drosophila. BMC Bioinformatics. 2014;15:177 pubmed publisher
    ..This organization implies that tissue or stage specific networks can be best identified from interactome data by using filters designed to include both ubiquitously expressed and specifically expressed genes and proteins. ..
  16. Hofstee C, Henderson S, Hardie R, Stavenga D. Differential effects of ninaC proteins (p132 and p174) on light-activated currents and pupil mechanism in Drosophila photoreceptors. Vis Neurosci. 1996;13:897-906 pubmed
    The Drosophila ninaC locus encodes two retinal specific proteins (p132 and p174) both consisting of a protein kinase joined to a myosin head domain and a C terminal with a calmodulin-binding domain...
  17. Fichelson P, Brigui A, Pichaud F. Orthodenticle and Kruppel homolog 1 regulate Drosophila photoreceptor maturation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7893-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that repression of this transcription factor represents a key step, enabling remodeling and maturation in a wide variety of neurons. ..
  18. Schlotterer C, Ritter R, Harr B, Brem G. High mutation rate of a long microsatellite allele in Drosophila melanogaster provides evidence for allele-specific mutation rates. Mol Biol Evol. 1998;15:1269-74 pubmed
    ..The allele-specific mutation rate of 3.0 x 10(-4) per generation is within the range of mammalian mutation rates. Future microsatellite analyses will have to account for the dramatic differences in allele-specific mutation rates. ..
  19. Taraszka J, Kurulugama R, Sowell R, Valentine S, Koeniger S, Arnold R, et al. Mapping the proteome of Drosophila melanogaster: analysis of embryos and adult heads by LC-IMS-MS methods. J Proteome Res. 2005;4:1223-37 pubmed
    ..All of this information is discussed in terms of the relationship between the predicted genome, and measured transcriptomes and proteomes. Additionally, the merits and weaknesses of current technologies are assessed in some detail. ..
  20. Zelhof A, Koundakjian E, Scully A, Hardy R, Pounds L. Mutation of the photoreceptor specific homeodomain gene Pph13 results in defects in phototransduction and rhabdomere morphogenesis. Development. 2003;130:4383-92 pubmed
    ..In addition, we demonstrate that Pph13 exerts its effect by the regulation of photoreceptor specific gene expression. ..
  21. Hardie R. Phototransduction. The invertebrate enigma. Nature. 1993;366:113-4 pubmed
  22. Li H, Porter J, Montell C. Requirement for the NINAC kinase/myosin for stable termination of the visual cascade. J Neurosci. 1998;18:9601-6 pubmed
    ..In the current work, we show that NINAC p174, which consists of a protein kinase domain joined to the head region of myosin heavy chain, is a ..
  23. Wang T, Wang X, Xie Q, Montell C. The SOCS box protein STOPS is required for phototransduction through its effects on phospholipase C. Neuron. 2008;57:56-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this work demonstrates that a PLCbeta derivative that does not promote TRP channel activation, still contributes to signaling in vivo. ..
  24. Dourlen P, Bertin B, Chatelain G, Robin M, Napoletano F, Roux M, et al. Drosophila fatty acid transport protein regulates rhodopsin-1 metabolism and is required for photoreceptor neuron survival. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002833 pubmed publisher
    ..Reducing Rh1 levels in rh1 mutants or depriving flies of vitamin A rescued photoreceptor cell death in fatp mutant flies. Our results indicate that fatp promotes photoreceptor survival by regulating Rh1 abundance. ..
  25. Steele L, Muir W, Seong K, Valero M, Rangesa M, Sun W, et al. Genome-wide sequencing and an open reading frame analysis of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) susceptible (91-C) and resistant (91-R) Drosophila melanogaster laboratory populations. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e98584 pubmed publisher
  26. Morgan N. The myosin superfamily in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Zool. 1995;273:104-17 pubmed
  27. Montell C, Rubin G. The Drosophila ninaC locus encodes two photoreceptor cell specific proteins with domains homologous to protein kinases and the myosin heavy chain head. Cell. 1988;52:757-72 pubmed
    ..We show that the ninaC gene, originally isolated as a Drosophila visual mutation with an electrophysiological phenotype, encodes two ..
  28. Shieh B, Zhu M. Regulation of the TRP Ca2+ channel by INAD in Drosophila photoreceptors. Neuron. 1996;16:991-8 pubmed
    ..Given the impaired electrophysiology of the InaD mutant, this novel interaction suggests that INAD functions as a regulatory subunit of the TRP Ca2+ channel. ..
  29. Satoh A, Xia H, Yan L, Liu C, Hardie R, Ready D. Arrestin translocation is stoichiometric to rhodopsin isomerization and accelerated by phototransduction in Drosophila photoreceptors. Neuron. 2010;67:997-1008 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that Arr2 translocation in Drosophila photoreceptors is driven by diffusion, but profoundly accelerated by phototransduction and Ca2+ influx. ..
  30. Williams D. Actin filaments and photoreceptor membrane turnover. Bioessays. 1991;13:171-8 pubmed
    ..A simple model is proposed to illustrate how the actin-myosin system of the connecting cilium might function to initiate the morphogenesis of a disk membrane. ..
  31. Baumann O. Spatial pattern of nonmuscle myosin-II distribution during the development of the Drosophila compound eye and implications for retinal morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2004;269:519-33 pubmed
    ..The observation that the myosin-II/F-actin arrays are incomplete or disorganized in R7/R8 and in rhodopsin-1-null R1-6 suggests further that the establishment and stability of this cytoskeletal system depend on rhodopsin-1 expression. ..
  32. Schneuwly S, Burg M, Lending C, Perdew M, Pak W. Properties of photoreceptor-specific phospholipase C encoded by the norpA gene of Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:24314-9 pubmed
  33. Venkatachalam K, Wasserman D, Wang X, Li R, Mills E, Elsaesser R, et al. Dependence on a retinophilin/myosin complex for stability of PKC and INAD and termination of phototransduction. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11337-45 pubmed publisher
    ..of several proteins required for termination, including protein kinase C (PKC), NINAC (neither inactivation nor afterpotential C) p174, which consists of fused protein kinase and myosin domains, and a PDZ (postsynaptic ..
  34. Kunduri G, Yuan C, Parthibane V, Nyswaner K, Kanwar R, Nagashima K, et al. Phosphatidic acid phospholipase A1 mediates ER-Golgi transit of a family of G protein-coupled receptors. J Cell Biol. 2014;206:79-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that a cytosolic protein is necessary for transit of selective transmembrane receptor cargo by the COPII coat for anterograde trafficking. ..
  35. Pak W. Drosophila in vision research. The Friedenwald Lecture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995;36:2340-57 pubmed
  36. Treisman J, Ito N, Rubin G. misshapen encodes a protein kinase involved in cell shape control in Drosophila. Gene. 1997;186:119-25 pubmed
    ..misshapen is also expressed in the embryonic mesoderm, pole plasm and other sites of cell shape change or movement. We propose that msn may act in a signal transduction pathway leading to cytoskeletal re-arrangements. ..
  37. Arnon A, Cook B, Montell C, Selinger Z, Minke B. Calmodulin regulation of calcium stores in phototransduction of Drosophila. Science. 1997;275:1119-21 pubmed
    ..It appears that functional ryanodine-sensitive stores are essential for the photoresponse. Moreover, calcium release from these stores appears to be a component of Drosophila phototransduction, and Ca-CaM regulates this process. ..
  38. Schlotterer C, Agis M. Microsatellite analysis of Drosophila melanogaster populations along a microclimatic contrast at lower Nahel Oren canyon, Mount Carmel, Israel. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:563-8 pubmed
    ..melanogaster populations was low (F(ST) = 0.0012). Also a tree of individuals based on the proportion of shared alleles and a model-based clustering method provided no evidence for population substructuring. ..
  39. Strissel K, Arshavsky V. Myosin III illuminates the mechanism of arrestin translocation. Neuron. 2004;43:2-4 pubmed
    ..They show that arrestin is carried into the light-sensitive microvilli by phosphoinositide-enriched vesicles driven by a myosin motor. ..
  40. Yamashita R, Sellers J, Anderson J. Identification and analysis of the myosin superfamily in Drosophila: a database approach. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2000;21:491-505 pubmed
    ..In the future comparative genomics will hopefully lead to the placement of these myosins into new classes. ..
  41. Shetty K, Kurada P, O Tousa J. Rab6 regulation of rhodopsin transport in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:20425-30 pubmed
    ..These results establish that rhodopsin is transported via a Rab6 regulated pathway and that defects in trafficking pathways lead to retinal degeneration. ..
  42. Cronin M, Diao F, Tsunoda S. Light-dependent subcellular translocation of Gqalpha in Drosophila photoreceptors is facilitated by the photoreceptor-specific myosin III NINAC. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:4797-806 pubmed
    ..of G(q)alpha and provide the first evidence implicating the involvement of the photoreceptor-specific myosin III NINAC in G(q)alpha transport...
  43. Montell C. Drosophila TRP channels. Pflugers Arch. 2005;451:19-28 pubmed
    ..As a result, the repertoire of biological roles attributed to Drosophila TRPs has increased considerably and is likely to lead to many additional surprises over the next few years. ..
  44. Wes P, Xu X, Li H, Chien F, Doberstein S, Montell C. Termination of phototransduction requires binding of the NINAC myosin III and the PDZ protein INAD. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:447-53 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrated that INAD bound directly to the NINAC myosin III, yet the subcellular localization of NINAC was normal in inaD mutants...
  45. Hardie R. Phototransduction in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2001;204:3403-9 pubmed
  46. Baker N, Moses K, Nakahara D, Ellis M, Carthew R, Rubin G. Mutations on the second chromosome affecting the Drosophila eye. J Neurogenet. 1992;8:85-100 pubmed
  47. Ranganathan R, Harris W, Zuker C. The molecular genetics of invertebrate phototransduction. Trends Neurosci. 1991;14:486-93 pubmed
    ..The results of a combination of molecular, genetic, physiological and biochemical studies are beginning to produce a clearer model for the complex mechanisms involved in invertebrate visual transduction. ..
  48. Suh P, Hwang J, Ryu S, Donowitz M, Kim J. The roles of PDZ-containing proteins in PLC-beta-mediated signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;288:1-7 pubmed
    ..E3KARP up-regulates the PLC-beta3 activation coupled to muscarinic receptor. In this review, the role of signaling complexes mediated by PDZ-containing proteins in the regulation of PLC-beta isoforms will be discussed. ..
  49. Lee S, Xu H, Kang L, Amzel L, Montell C. Light adaptation through phosphoinositide-regulated translocation of Drosophila visual arrestin. Neuron. 2003;39:121-32 pubmed
    ..Since phospholipase C activity is required for activation of Drosophila phototransduction, these data point to a dual role of PIs in phototransduction. ..
  50. Xu X, Wes P, Chen H, Li H, Yu M, Morgan S, et al. Retinal targets for calmodulin include proteins implicated in synaptic transmission. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:31297-307 pubmed least in part, by four previously identified calmodulin-binding proteins: the TRP and TRPL ion channels, NINAC and INAD...
  51. Matsumoto H, Isono K, Pye Q, Pak W. Gene encoding cytoskeletal proteins in Drosophila rhabdomeres. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:985-9 pubmed
    The ninaC gene is one of eight nina (neither inactivation nor afterpotential) genes identified from mutations that drastically reduce the amount of rhodopsin in the compound eye of Drosophila melanogaster...
  52. Fanning A, Anderson J. Protein modules as organizers of membrane structure. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1999;11:432-9 pubmed
    ..The organization of these proteins into discreet structures has functional consequences for downstream signaling. ..
  53. Porter J, Yu M, Doberstein S, Pollard T, Montell C. Dependence of calmodulin localization in the retina on the NINAC unconventional myosin. Science. 1993;262:1038-42 pubmed
    ..This calmodulin localization was dependent on the NINAC (neither inactivation nor afterpotential C) unconventional myosins...
  54. Meyer N, Joel Almagor T, Frechter S, Minke B, Huber A. Subcellular translocation of the eGFP-tagged TRPL channel in Drosophila photoreceptors requires activation of the phototransduction cascade. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2592-603 pubmed
    ..we found that endocytosis of TRPL-eGFP occurs independently of dynamin, whereas a mutation of the unconventional myosin III, NINAC, hinders complete translocation of TRPL-eGFP to the cell body...
  55. Steele L, Coates B, Valero M, Sun W, Seong K, Muir W, et al. Selective sweep analysis in the genomes of the 91-R and 91-C Drosophila melanogaster strains reveals few of the 'usual suspects' in dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) resistance. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0123066 pubmed publisher
    ..Except for NinaC and Cyp4g1, none of the identified genes were the 'usual suspects' previously observed to be associated with DDT ..
  56. Porter J, Montell C. Distinct roles of the Drosophila ninaC kinase and myosin domains revealed by systematic mutagenesis. J Cell Biol. 1993;122:601-12 pubmed
    The Drosophila ninaC locus encodes a rhabdomere specific protein (p174) with linked protein kinase and myosin domains, required for a wild-type ERG and to prevent retinal degeneration...
  57. Hicks J, Williams D. Distribution of the myosin I-like ninaC proteins in the Drosophila retina and ultrastructural analysis of mutant phenotypes. J Cell Sci. 1992;101 ( Pt 1):247-54 pubmed
    The Drosophila ninaC gene encodes for two head-specific proteins of 132 kDa and 174 kDa. Their predicted amino acid sequences indicate that they may have myosin I and kinase properties...
  58. Siegfried E, Ambrosio L, Perrimon N. Serine/threonine protein kinases in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 1990;6:357-62 pubmed
    ..This review discusses these recent findings and describes the potential for genetic analyses of kinase activity and signal transduction. ..
  59. Chen C, Buhl E, Xu M, Croset V, Rees J, Lilley K, et al. Drosophila Ionotropic Receptor 25a mediates circadian clock resetting by temperature. Nature. 2015;527:516-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway operates in the absence of known 'hot' and 'cold' sensors in the Drosophila antenna, revealing the existence of novel periphery-to-brain temperature signalling channels. ..
  60. Hardie R, Satoh A, Liu C. Regulation of arrestin translocation by Ca2+ and myosin III in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 2012;32:9205-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In mutants lacking NINAC (calmodulin [CaM] binding myosin III) in the cell body, translocation remained rapid even in Ca(2+)-free solutions...
  61. Chen Z, Chen H, Montell C. TRP and Rhodopsin Transport Depends on Dual XPORT ER Chaperones Encoded by an Operon. Cell Rep. 2015;13:573-584 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work highlights a coordinated network of chaperones required for the biosynthesis of the TRP channel and rhodopsin in Drosophila photoreceptor cells. ..
  62. Saleh M, Tassetto M, Van Rij R, Goic B, Gausson V, Berry B, et al. Antiviral immunity in Drosophila requires systemic RNA interference spread. Nature. 2009;458:346-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, similar to protein-based immunity in vertebrates, the antiviral RNAi response in flies also relies on the systemic spread of a virus-specific immunity signal. ..
  63. Lee S, Montell C. Light-dependent translocation of visual arrestin regulated by the NINAC myosin III. Neuron. 2004;43:95-103 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that the light-dependent translocation of Arr2 into the rhabdomeres requires PI-mediated interactions between Arr2 and the NINAC myosin III.
  64. Sahly I, Schroder W, Zierold K, Minke B. Accumulation of calcium in degenerating photoreceptors of several Drosophila mutants. Vis Neurosci. 1994;11:763-72 pubmed
    ..following strains were studied: retinal degeneration B (rdgB); retinal degeneration C (rdgC); neither inactivation nor afterpotential C (ninaC), and no receptor potential A (norpA)...
  65. Petzoldt A, Coutelis J, Géminard C, Spéder P, Suzanne M, Cerezo D, et al. DE-Cadherin regulates unconventional Myosin ID and Myosin IC in Drosophila left-right asymmetry establishment. Development. 2012;139:1874-84 pubmed publisher
  66. Liu C, Satoh A, Postma M, Huang J, Ready D, Hardie R. Ca2+-dependent metarhodopsin inactivation mediated by calmodulin and NINAC myosin III. Neuron. 2008;59:778-89 pubmed publisher
    ..phosphorylation of rhodopsin or arrestin but was abolished in mutants of calmodulin (CaM) or the CaM-binding myosin III, NINAC...
  67. Frechter S, Elia N, Tzarfaty V, Selinger Z, Minke B. Translocation of Gq alpha mediates long-term adaptation in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 2007;27:5571-83 pubmed
    ..The slow time scale of this adaptation fits well with day/night light intensity changes, because there is no need to maintain single photon sensitivity during daytime. ..
  68. Berg J, Powell B, Cheney R. A millennial myosin census. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:780-94 pubmed
    ..genes including two new myosins-I, three new class II (conventional) myosins, a second member of the class III/ninaC myosins, a gene similar to the class XV deafness myosin, and a novel myosin sharing at most 33% identity with ..
  69. Ng K, Kambara T, Matsuura M, Burke M, Ikebe M. Identification of myosin III as a protein kinase. Biochemistry. 1996;35:9392-9 pubmed
    Drosophila ninaC gene encodes myosin homologous proteins which are classified as myosin III of the myosin superfamily, yet the physiological and biochemical function of myosin III has not characterized...
  70. Goodson H, Spudich J. Molecular evolution of the myosin family: relationships derived from comparisons of amino acid sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:659-63 pubmed
  71. Mismer D, Michael W, Laverty T, Rubin G. Analysis of the promoter of the Rh2 opsin gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1988;120:173-80 pubmed
    ..which is also present in the upstream flanking sequences of two other photoreceptor-specific genes (ninaE and ninaC)...
  72. Lee S, Montell C. Suppression of constant-light-induced blindness but not retinal degeneration by inhibition of the rhodopsin degradation pathway. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2076-85 pubmed
    ..Our results support a model in which visual impairment caused by continuous illumination occurs through an arrestin-dependent pathway that promotes degradation of rhodopsin. ..