Gene Symbol: Nelf-E
Description: Negative elongation factor E
Alias: CG5994, Dmel\CG5994, NELF, NELF-E, Nelf-e, NelfE, anon-66Da, cg5994, dNelf-E, negative elongation factor E, CG5994-PA, Nelf-E-PA, anonymous-66Da, negative elongation factor
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Nelf-E

Top Publications

  1. Lee C, Li X, Hechmer A, Eisen M, Biggin M, Venters B, et al. NELF and GAGA factor are linked to promoter-proximal pausing at many genes in Drosophila. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:3290-300 pubmed publisher
    ..b>NELF causes Pol II to pause in the promoter-proximal region of the hsp70 gene in Drosophila melanogaster...
  2. Jennings B. Pausing for thought: disrupting the early transcription elongation checkpoint leads to developmental defects and tumourigenesis. Bioessays. 2013;35:553-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of these mutations has revealed that control of transcriptional pausing is critical for a diverse range of biological pathways essential for animal development and survival. ..
  3. Missra A, Gilmour D. Interactions between DSIF (DRB sensitivity inducing factor), NELF (negative elongation factor), and the Drosophila RNA polymerase II transcription elongation complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11301-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Negative elongation factor (NELF) and 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF) are involved in pausing RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) in the promoter-proximal region of the hsp70 gene in Drosophila, ..
  4. Gilchrist D, dos Santos G, Fargo D, Xie B, Gao Y, Li L, et al. Pausing of RNA polymerase II disrupts DNA-specified nucleosome organization to enable precise gene regulation. Cell. 2010;143:540-51 pubmed publisher
  5. Wu C, Lee C, Fan R, Smith M, Yamaguchi Y, Handa H, et al. Molecular characterization of Drosophila NELF. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:1269-79 pubmed
    b>NELF and DSIF act together to inhibit transcription elongation in vitro, and are implicated in causing promoter proximal pausing on the hsp70 gene in Drosophila. Here, further characterization of Drosophila NELF is provided...
  6. Muse G, Gilchrist D, Nechaev S, Shah R, Parker J, Grissom S, et al. RNA polymerase is poised for activation across the genome. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1507-11 pubmed
    ..This finding indicates a role for regulation of polymerase elongation in the transcriptional responses to dynamic environmental and developmental cues. ..
  7. Core L, Waterfall J, Gilchrist D, Fargo D, Kwak H, Adelman K, et al. Defining the status of RNA polymerase at promoters. Cell Rep. 2012;2:1025-35 pubmed publisher
    ..polymerases are inhibited from further elongation by detergent-sensitive factors, and knockdown of negative elongation factor, NELF, reduces their levels...
  8. Wu C, Yamaguchi Y, Benjamin L, Horvat Gordon M, Washinsky J, Enerly E, et al. NELF and DSIF cause promoter proximal pausing on the hsp70 promoter in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1402-14 pubmed
    b>NELF and DSIF collaborate to inhibit elongation by RNA polymerase IIa in extracts from human cells...
  9. Wang X, Hang S, Prazak L, Gergen J. NELF potentiates gene transcription in the Drosophila embryo. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11498 pubmed publisher
    ..genes that are subject to developmental regulation of transcriptional elongation is association of the negative elongation factor NELF with the paused RNA polymerase complex...

More Information


  1. Wang X, Lee C, Gilmour D, Gergen J. Transcription elongation controls cell fate specification in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1031-6 pubmed slp1-repressed cells and pauses downstream from the promoter in a complex that includes the negative elongation factor NELF...
  2. Adelman K, Kennedy M, Nechaev S, Gilchrist D, Muse G, Chinenov Y, et al. Immediate mediators of the inflammatory response are poised for gene activation through RNA polymerase II stalling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..resting macrophages, but stalls near the promoter until LPS triggers rapid and transient release of the negative elongation factor (NELF) complex and productive elongation...
  3. Tsai S, Chang Y, Swamy K, Chiang R, Huang D. GAGA factor, a positive regulator of global gene expression, modulates transcriptional pausing and organization of upstream nucleosomes. Epigenetics Chromatin. 2016;9:32 pubmed publisher
    ..we detect significant genetic interactions between GAF and the nucleosome remodeler NURF, the pausing factor NELF, and BAB1 whose binding sites are enriched specifically in genes displaying GAF-dependent pausing...
  4. Saebøe Larssen S, Urbanczyk Mohebi B, Lambertsson A. The Drosophila ribosomal protein L14-encoding gene, identified by a novel Minute mutation in a dense cluster of previously undescribed genes in cytogenetic region 66D. Mol Gen Genet. 1997;255:141-51 pubmed
    ..P¿lacW¿ M(3)66D1 joins a growing list of Minute mutations associated with ribosomal protein-haploinsufficiency. ..
  5. Harvey R, Schuster E, Jennings B. Pleiohomeotic interacts with the core transcription elongation factor Spt5 to regulate gene expression in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70184 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that Pho can interact with Spt5 to regulate transcription elongation in a gene specific manner. ..
  6. Li J, Liu Y, Rhee H, Ghosh S, Bai L, Pugh B, et al. Kinetic competition between elongation rate and binding of NELF controls promoter-proximal pausing. Mol Cell. 2013;50:711-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The location of the pause is influenced by the timing between when NELF loads onto Pol II and how fast Pol II escapes the promoter region...
  7. Sawarkar R, Sievers C, Paro R. Hsp90 globally targets paused RNA polymerase to regulate gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. Cell. 2012;149:807-18 pubmed publisher
    ..analyses, we find that Hsp90 maintains and optimizes RNA polymerase II pausing via stabilization of the negative elongation factor complex (NELF)...
  8. Haley B, Hendrix D, Trang V, Levine M. A simplified miRNA-based gene silencing method for Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2008;321:482-90 pubmed publisher
    ..As proof of concept, this method was used for the efficient silencing of dpp gene activity in the adult wing, and the analysis of the general RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) elongation factor, Nelf-E.
  9. Enerly E, Larsson J, Lambertsson A. Reverse genetics in Drosophila: from sequence to phenotype using UAS-RNAi transgenic flies. Genesis. 2002;34:152-5 pubmed
  10. Lyamouri M, Enerly E, Kress H, Lambertsson A. Conservation of gene order, structure and sequence between three closely linked genes in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis. Gene. 2002;282:199-206 pubmed
    ..virilis 7.3 kb genomic fragment may be indicative for a transposon-induced event of transposition which did not yet scramble the order of the three genes but led to the breakdown of sequence identity of the flanking DNA...
  11. Feller C, Prestel M, Hartmann H, Straub T, Söding J, Becker P. The MOF-containing NSL complex associates globally with housekeeping genes, but activates only a defined subset. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:1509-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the regulatory capacity of the NSL complex is highly context-dependent. Activation by the NSL complex requires a particular promoter architecture defined by combinations of chromatin regulators and core promoter motifs. ..
  12. Fay A, Misulovin Z, Li J, Schaaf C, Gause M, Gilmour D, et al. Cohesin selectively binds and regulates genes with paused RNA polymerase. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1624-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Cohesin depletion does not reduce polymerase pausing, in contrast to depletion of the NELF (negative elongation factor) pausing complex...
  13. Chopra V, Cande J, Hong J, Levine M. Stalled Hox promoters as chromosomal boundaries. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1505-9 pubmed publisher
    ..are dependent on general transcription factors that inhibit Pol II elongation, including components of the DSIF and NELF complexes...
  14. Lagha M, Bothma J, Esposito E, Ng S, Stefanik L, Tsui C, et al. Paused Pol II coordinates tissue morphogenesis in the Drosophila embryo. Cell. 2013;153:976-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that paused Pol II and transcriptional synchrony are essential for coordinating cell behavior during morphogenesis. ..
  15. Liang J, Lacroix L, Gamot A, Cuddapah S, Queille S, Lhoumaud P, et al. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indirect peaks highlight long-range interactions of insulator proteins and Pol II pausing. Mol Cell. 2014;53:672-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data illustrate how indirect peaks may decipher gene regulatory networks through specific long-range interactions. ..
  16. Zraly C, Dingwall A. The chromatin remodeling and mRNA splicing functions of the Brahma (SWI/SNF) complex are mediated by the SNR1/SNF5 regulatory subunit. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:5975-87 pubmed publisher
  17. Pagano J, Kwak H, Waters C, Sprouse R, White B, Ozer A, et al. Defining NELF-E RNA binding in HIV-1 and promoter-proximal pause regions. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004090 pubmed publisher
    The four-subunit Negative Elongation Factor (NELF) is a major regulator of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) pausing...