Gene Symbol: ND4
Description: NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4
Alias: NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Stewart J, Beckenbach A. Characterization of mature mitochondrial transcripts in Drosophila, and the implications for the tRNA punctuation model in arthropods. Gene. 2009;445:49-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Where multiple tRNA genes are present, as between nad3 and nad5, they are removed sequentially in a 3' to 5' direction. ..
  2. Adán C, Matsushima Y, Hernández Sierra R, Marco Ferreres R, Fernández Moreno M, Gonzalez Vioque E, et al. Mitochondrial transcription factor B2 is essential for metabolic function in Drosophila melanogaster development. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:12333-42 pubmed publisher
  3. Roberti M, Bruni F, Loguercio Polosa P, Manzari C, Gadaleta M, Cantatore P. MTERF3, the most conserved member of the mTERF-family, is a modular factor involved in mitochondrial protein synthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1757:1199-206 pubmed
    ..This role, likely based on protein-protein interactions, may be exerted either through a direct interaction with the translation machinery or by bridging the mitochondrial transcription and translation apparatus. ..
  4. Lewis D, Farr C, Kaguni L. Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA: completion of the nucleotide sequence and evolutionary comparisons. Insect Mol Biol. 1995;4:263-78 pubmed
    ..yakuba mtDNA. All genes encoded in the mtDNA of both species are in identical locations and orientations. Nucleotide substitution analysis reveals that tRNA and rRNA genes evolve at less than half the rate of protein coding genes. ..
  5. Tourmente S, Savre Train I, Berthier F, Renaud M. Expression of six mitochondrial genes during Drosophila oogenesis: analysis by in situ hybridization. Cell Differ Dev. 1990;31:137-49 pubmed
    We have done a comparative analysis of RNA from six mitochondrial genes (rDNA, ND2, COI, COIII, ND4-ND5, Cyt b) during Drosophila oogenesis, using in situ hybridization...
  6. Barry W, Thummel C. The Drosophila HNF4 nuclear receptor promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and mitochondrial function in adults. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish an animal model for MODY1 and define a developmental reprogramming of metabolism to support the energetic needs of the mature animal. ..
  7. Seligmann H. An overlapping genetic code for frameshifted overlapping genes in Drosophila mitochondria: antisense antitermination tRNAs UAR insert serine. J Theor Biol. 2012;298:51-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Parallel genetic systems coded by an additional mitochondrial genetic code in Drosophila confirm similar phenomena in primate mitochondria. ..
  8. Fearnley I, Walker J. Conservation of sequences of subunits of mitochondrial complex I and their relationships with other proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1140:105-34 pubmed
  9. Ballard J, Youngson N. Review: can diet influence the selective advantage of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes?. Biosci Rep. 2015;35: pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Liu F, Tsaur S, Huang H. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia. J Insect Sci. 2015;15: pubmed publisher
    ..seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6...
  2. Nunes M, Dolezal M, Schlotterer C. Extensive paternal mtDNA leakage in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Ecol. 2013;22:2106-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that evolutionary studies using mtDNA as a marker might be biased by paternal leakage in this species. ..
  3. Aw W, Correa C, Clancy D, Ballard J. Mitochondrial DNA variants in Drosophila melanogaster are expressed at the level of the organismal phenotype. Mitochondrion. 2011;11:756-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss these results in terms of the known differences between the lines and conclude that naturally occurring mtDNA variants in D. melanogaster are expressed at the level of the organismal phenotype. ..
  4. Matsushima Y, Goto Y, Kaguni L. Mitochondrial Lon protease regulates mitochondrial DNA copy number and transcription by selective degradation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18410-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased TFAMmtDNA ratio in turn causes inhibition of mitochondrial transcription. We conclude that Lon regulates mitochondrial transcription by stabilizing the mitochondrial TFAMmtDNA ratio via selective degradation of TFAM. ..
  5. Kikuno R, Miyata T. Sequence homologies among mitochondrial DNA-coded URF2, URF4 and URF5. FEBS Lett. 1985;189:85-8 pubmed
  6. Calleja M, Pena P, Ugalde C, Ferreiro C, Marco R, Garesse R. Mitochondrial DNA remains intact during Drosophila aging, but the levels of mitochondrial transcripts are significantly reduced. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:18891-7 pubmed
    ..The decline in the levels of beta H(+)-ATPase transcript, nuclear-encoded, suggests that not only the mitochondrial machinery, but also the nuclear one involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, is affected during aging. ..
  7. Bratic A, Wredenberg A, Gronke S, Stewart J, Mourier A, Ruzzenente B, et al. The bicoid stability factor controls polyadenylation and expression of specific mitochondrial mRNAs in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002324 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus report a novel function of BSF in flies and demonstrate that it has an important intra-mitochondrial role, which is essential for maintaining mtDNA gene expression and oxidative phosphorylation. ..
  8. Matsushima Y, Garesse R, Kaguni L. Drosophila mitochondrial transcription factor B2 regulates mitochondrial DNA copy number and transcription in schneider cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26900-5 pubmed
  9. Bruni F, Manzari C, Filice M, Loguercio Polosa P, Colella M, Carmone C, et al. D-MTERF5 is a novel factor modulating transcription in Drosophila mitochondria. Mitochondrion. 2012;12:492-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-regulation by DREF (DNA Replication-related Element binding Factor) of D-MTERF5 and DmTTF implies that expression of the two factors needs to be co-ordinated to ensure fine modulation of Drosophila mitochondrial transcription. ..
  10. Lim D, Lee L, Oh C, Kim N, Hwang S, Han S, et al. Microarray analysis of Drosophila dicer-2 mutants reveals potential regulation of mitochondrial metabolism by endogenous siRNAs. J Cell Biochem. 2013;114:418-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support a potential role for the endo-siRNA pathway in energy homeostasis through regulation of mitochondrial metabolism. ..
  11. Garesse R. Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA: gene organization and evolutionary considerations. Genetics. 1988;118:649-63 pubmed
    ..The analysis of nucleotide changes reveals a similar frequency for transitions and transversions, and reflects a strong bias against G + C on both strands. The predominant type of transition is strand specific. ..
  12. Cooper B, Burrus C, Ji C, Hahn M, Montooth K. Similar Efficacies of Selection Shape Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes in Both Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens. G3 (Bethesda). 2015;5:2165-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, despite a smaller Ne, mitochondrial loci of both flies and humans appear to experience similar efficacies of purifying selection as do loci in the recombining nuclear genome. ..
  13. Matsushima Y, Kaguni L. Differential phenotypes of active site and human autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia mutations in Drosophila mitochondrial DNA helicase expressed in Schneider cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:9436-44 pubmed
    ..Our dominant negative analysis of d-mtDNA helicase in cultured cells provides a tractable model for understanding human autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia mutations...
  14. Tsai H, Lin R, Hsieh T. Drosophila mitochondrial topoisomerase III alpha affects the aging process via maintenance of mitochondrial function and genome integrity. J Biomed Sci. 2016;23:38 pubmed publisher
    ..The results reported here demonstrate that mitochondrial Top3? ablation results in mitochondrial genome instability and its dysfunction, thereby accelerating the aging process. ..