Gene Symbol: ncd
Description: non-claret disjunctional
Alias: CG7831, DmNCD, DmNcd, Dmel\CG7831, KIF C1, KIFC1, NCD, Ncd, ca[nd], l(3)05884, ndc, non-claret disjunctional, CG7831-PA, CG7831-PB, Kinesin3A, Non-Claret disjunctional, claret nondisjunctional, kinesin-14, ncd-PA, ncd-PB, non-claret disjunction, non-claret-disjunctional, nonclaret disjunction, nonclaret disjunctional
Species: fruit fly
Products:     ncd

Top Publications

  1. Komma D, Horne A, Endow S. Separation of meiotic and mitotic effects of claret non-disjunctional on chromosome segregation in Drosophila. EMBO J. 1991;10:419-24 pubmed
    ..ncdD's mutant meiotic effect, but near wild-type mitotic effect, suggests that interactions of the ca motor protein with spindle microtubules differ in meiosis and mitosis. ..
  2. Kural C, Kim H, Syed S, Goshima G, Gelfand V, Selvin P. Kinesin and dynein move a peroxisome in vivo: a tug-of-war or coordinated movement?. Science. 2005;308:1469-72 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we found that dynein and kinesin do not work against each other in vivo during peroxisome transport. Rather, multiple kinesins or multiple dyneins work together, producing up to 10 times the in vitro speed. ..
  3. Endow S, Waligora K. Determinants of kinesin motor polarity. Science. 1998;281:1200-2 pubmed
    ..Chimeric motors containing the stalk and neck of the minus-end-directed motor, Ncd, fused to the motor domain of plus-end-directed kinesin were analyzed...
  4. Endow S, Komma D. Assembly and dynamics of an anastral:astral spindle: the meiosis II spindle of Drosophila oocytes. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 17):2487-95 pubmed
    ..Localization of gamma-tubulin to the meiosis II spindle is dependent on the microtubule motor protein, Nonclaret disjunctional (Ncd)...
  5. McDonald H, Stewart R, Goldstein L. The kinesin-like ncd protein of Drosophila is a minus end-directed microtubule motor. Cell. 1990;63:1159-65 pubmed
    The Drosophila ncd gene is required for chromosome segregation during female meiosis...
  6. Komma D, Endow S. Enhancement of the ncdD microtubule motor mutant by mutants of alpha Tub67C. J Cell Sci. 1997;110 ( Pt 2):229-37 pubmed
    b>Ncd is a kinesin-related microtubule motor protein required for chromosome segregation in Drosophila oocytes and early embryos...
  7. Rogers S, Wiedemann U, Hacker U, Turck C, Vale R. Drosophila RhoGEF2 associates with microtubule plus ends in an EB1-dependent manner. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1827-33 pubmed
  8. Giunta K, Jang J, Manheim E, Subramanian G, McKim K. subito encodes a kinesin-like protein required for meiotic spindle pole formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2002;160:1489-501 pubmed
    ..Previous studies in Drosophila melanogaster implicated at least one kinesin motor protein, NCD, in tapering the microtubules into a bipolar spindle...
  9. Sharp D, Rogers G, Scholey J. Microtubule motors in mitosis. Nature. 2000;407:41-7 pubmed
    ..Transitions from one steady state to the next can occur when a change in the activity of a subset of mitotic motors tips the balance. ..

More Information


  1. Sharp D, Yu K, Sisson J, Sullivan W, Scholey J. Antagonistic microtubule-sliding motors position mitotic centrosomes in Drosophila early embryos. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:51-4 pubmed
    ..a bipolar kinesin motor, KLP61F, that is directed to microtubule plus ends, and a carboxy-terminal kinesin motor, Ncd, that is directed towards microtubule minus ends...
  2. Sciambi C, Komma D, Sköld H, Hirose K, Endow S. A bidirectional kinesin motor in live Drosophila embryos. Traffic. 2005;6:1036-46 pubmed
    ..Our findings link motor : motor interactions to function in vivo by showing that motor density, together with cellular dynamics, may influence motor function in live cells. ..
  3. Sköld H, Komma D, Endow S. Assembly pathway of the anastral Drosophila oocyte meiosis I spindle. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:1745-55 pubmed
    ..Here we analyze assembly of the Drosophila oocyte meiosis I spindle and the role of the Nonclaret disjunctional (Ncd) motor in spindle assembly using wild-type and mutant Ncd fused to GFP...
  4. Chandra R, Salmon E, Erickson H, Lockhart A, Endow S. Structural and functional domains of the Drosophila ncd microtubule motor protein. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:9005-13 pubmed
    b>Nonclaret disjunctional (ncd) is a kinesin-related microtubule motor protein that is required for proper chromosome distribution in Drosophila...
  5. Cole D, Saxton W, Sheehan K, Scholey J. A "slow" homotetrameric kinesin-related motor protein purified from Drosophila embryos. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:22913-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, KRP130 appears to be the first Drosophila KRP, and the first member of the BimC subfamily in any organism, to be purified from native tissue as a multimeric motor complex. ..
  6. Sharp D, Brown H, Kwon M, Rogers G, Holland G, Scholey J. Functional coordination of three mitotic motors in Drosophila embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:241-53 pubmed a temporally coordinated balance of forces generated by three mitotic motors, cytoplasmic dynein, KLP61F, and Ncd. Specifically, our findings suggest that dynein acts to move the poles apart throughout mitosis and that this ..
  7. Endow S, Higuchi H. A mutant of the motor protein kinesin that moves in both directions on microtubules. Nature. 2000;406:913-6 pubmed
    ..Kinesin moves towards microtubule plus ends, whereas the kinesin-related Ncd motor moves to the minus ends...
  8. Scholey J, Rogers G, Sharp D. Mitosis, microtubules, and the matrix. J Cell Biol. 2001;154:261-6 pubmed
    ..The mechanical events of mitosis depend on the action of microtubules and mitotic motors, but whether these spindle components act alone or in concert with a spindle matrix is an important question. ..
  9. Morales Mulia S, Scholey J. Spindle pole organization in Drosophila S2 cells by dynein, abnormal spindle protein (Asp), and KLP10A. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:3176-86 pubmed
    ..RNAi depletion of Ncd, another minus-end motor, produced disorganized spindles consisting of multiple disconnected mini-spindles, a ..
  10. Cytrynbaum E, Sommi P, Brust Mascher I, Scholey J, Mogilner A. Early spindle assembly in Drosophila embryos: role of a force balance involving cytoskeletal dynamics and nuclear mechanics. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:4967-81 pubmed
    ..of active cortical dynein are balanced by inward forces produced by nuclear elasticity and during cycle 13, by Ncd, which localizes to interpolar MTs...
  11. Zou J, Hallen M, Yankel C, Endow S. A microtubule-destabilizing kinesin motor regulates spindle length and anchoring in oocytes. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:459-66 pubmed publisher
    ..By altering microtubule dynamics, KLP10A could promote spindle reorientation upon oocyte activation. ..
  12. Fink G, Hajdo L, Skowronek K, Reuther C, Kasprzak A, Diez S. The mitotic kinesin-14 Ncd drives directional microtubule-microtubule sliding. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:717-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster kinesin-14 (Ncd) alone causes sliding of anti-parallel microtubules but locks together (that is, statically crosslinks) those that ..
  13. Hatsumi M, Endow S. Mutants of the microtubule motor protein, nonclaret disjunctional, affect spindle structure and chromosome movement in meiosis and mitosis. J Cell Sci. 1992;101 ( Pt 3):547-59 pubmed
    The Drosophila microtubule motor protein, nonclaret disjunctional (ncd), is required for proper chromosome distribution in meiosis and mitosis...
  14. Hallen M, Liang Z, Endow S. Ncd motor binding and transport in the spindle. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3834-41 pubmed publisher
    The Ncd kinesin-14 motor is required for meiotic spindle assembly in Drosophila oocytes and produces force in mitotic spindles that opposes other motors...
  15. Endow S, Komma D. Spindle dynamics during meiosis in Drosophila oocytes. J Cell Biol. 1997;137:1321-36 pubmed
    ..We report here the use of the Nonclaret disjunctional (Ncd) microtubule motor protein fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) to monitor changes in the ..
  16. Surrey T, Nedelec F, Leibler S, Karsenti E. Physical properties determining self-organization of motors and microtubules. Science. 2001;292:1167-71 pubmed
    ..In general, this approach may become useful for correlating the morphogenetic phenomena taking place in a biological system with the biophysical characteristics of its constituents. ..
  17. Sablin E, Kull F, Cooke R, Vale R, Fletterick R. Crystal structure of the motor domain of the kinesin-related motor ncd. Nature. 1996;380:555-9 pubmed
    ..Kinesin motors differ in their direction of movement along microtubules. Kinesin and ncd, a kinesin-related motor involved in formation and maintenance of mitotic and meiotic spindles, move in opposite ..
  18. Kimble M, Church K. Meiosis and early cleavage in Drosophila melanogaster eggs: effects of the claret-non-disjunctional mutation. J Cell Sci. 1983;62:301-18 pubmed
    ..A model to explain the relationship between the effect of the cand mutation on meiosis I and the early cleavage divisions is presented, and evidence to support the model is discussed. ..
  19. Cheerambathur D, Brust Mascher I, Civelekoglu Scholey G, Scholey J. Dynamic partitioning of mitotic kinesin-5 cross-linkers between microtubule-bound and freely diffusing states. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:429-36 pubmed publisher
    ..KLP61F appears to transiently bind MTs, moving short distances along them before detaching. Thus, kinesin-5 motors can function by cross-linking and sliding adjacent spindle MTs without the need for a static spindle matrix. ..
  20. Goshima G, Vale R. Cell cycle-dependent dynamics and regulation of mitotic kinesins in Drosophila S2 cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:3896-907 pubmed
    ..Class 8 (Klp67A) and class 14 (Ncd) kinesin are sequestered in an active form in the nucleus during interphase and engage their microtubule targets ..
  21. Hallen M, Ho J, Yankel C, Endow S. Fluorescence recovery kinetic analysis of gamma-tubulin binding to the mitotic spindle. Biophys J. 2008;95:3048-58 pubmed publisher
    ..gamma-Tubulin may interact transiently with the spindle, nucleating microtubules very rapidly, differing from centrosomes, where gamma-tubulin binds tightly to nucleate microtubules. ..
  22. Wendt T, Volkmann N, Skiniotis G, Goldie K, Muller J, Mandelkow E, et al. Microscopic evidence for a minus-end-directed power stroke in the kinesin motor ncd. EMBO J. 2002;21:5969-78 pubmed investigate the structure and microtubule-binding configurations of dimeric non-claret disjunctional (ncd) motor domains under various nucleotide conditions, and applied molecular docking using ncd's dimeric X-ray ..
  23. Komma D, Endow S. Haploidy and androgenesis in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:11884-8 pubmed
    ..frequency of androgenetic offspring is greatly enhanced by a partial loss-of-function mutant of the NCD (nonclaret disjunctional) microtubule motor protein, suggesting that wild-type NCD functions is pronuclear fusion...
  24. Endow S, Henikoff S, Soler Niedziela L. Mediation of meiotic and early mitotic chromosome segregation in Drosophila by a protein related to kinesin. Nature. 1990;345:81-3 pubmed
  25. Matthies H, McDonald H, Goldstein L, Theurkauf W. Anastral meiotic spindle morphogenesis: role of the non-claret disjunctional kinesin-like protein. J Cell Biol. 1996;134:455-64 pubmed
    ..Analysis of mutant oocytes indicates that the Non-Claret Disjunctional (NCD) kinesin-like protein is required for normal spindle assembly kinetics and stabilization of the spindle during ..
  26. Endow S, Chandra R, Komma D, Yamamoto A, Salmon E. Mutants of the Drosophila ncd microtubule motor protein cause centrosomal and spindle pole defects in mitosis. J Cell Sci. 1994;107 ( Pt 4):859-67 pubmed
    b>Nonclaret disjunctional (ncd) is a kinesin-related microtubule motor protein required for meiotic and early mitotic chromosome distribution in Drosophila...
  27. Hatsumi M, Endow S. The Drosophila ncd microtubule motor protein is spindle-associated in meiotic and mitotic cells. J Cell Sci. 1992;103 ( Pt 4):1013-20 pubmed
    The nonclaret disjunctional (ncd) protein is required for normal chromosome distribution in oocytes and early embryos...
  28. Tao L, Mogilner A, Civelekoglu Scholey G, Wollman R, Evans J, Stahlberg H, et al. A homotetrameric kinesin-5, KLP61F, bundles microtubules and antagonizes Ncd in motility assays. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2293-302 pubmed
    ..Among these, a kinesin-5, KLP61F, and the kinesin-14, Ncd, are proposed to generate antagonistic-sliding forces that control the spacing of the spindle poles...
  29. Yamamoto A, Komma D, Shaffer C, Pirrotta V, Endow S. The claret locus in Drosophila encodes products required for eyecolor and for meiotic chromosome segregation. EMBO J. 1989;8:3543-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, the putative eyecolor and segregational products are encoded by separate genes. Mutants that affect both eyecolor and chromosome segregation apparently do so because they delete essential regions of both genes. ..
  30. Furuta K, Toyoshima Y. Minus-end-directed motor Ncd exhibits processive movement that is enhanced by microtubule bundling in vitro. Curr Biol. 2008;18:152-7 pubmed publisher
    Drosophila Ncd, a kinesin-14A family member, is essential for meiosis and mitosis...
  31. Rogers G, Rusan N, Peifer M, Rogers S. A multicomponent assembly pathway contributes to the formation of acentrosomal microtubule arrays in interphase Drosophila cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:3163-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results modify our view of the cycle of centrosome function and reveal a multi-component acentrosomal microtubule assembly pathway to establish interphase microtubule arrays in Drosophila. ..
  32. Yun M, Zhang X, Park C, Park H, Endow S. A structural pathway for activation of the kinesin motor ATPase. EMBO J. 2001;20:2611-8 pubmed
  33. Brust Mascher I, Scholey J. Microtubule flux and sliding in mitotic spindles of Drosophila embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:3967-75 pubmed
    ..Loss of Ncd, a candidate flux motor or brake, did not affect flux in the metaphase/anaphase A isometric state or MT sliding in ..
  34. Karabay A, Walker R. Identification of microtubule binding sites in the Ncd tail domain. Biochemistry. 1999;38:1838-49 pubmed
    b>Nonclaret disjunctional (Ncd) is a minus end-directed, C-terminal motor protein that is required for spindle assembly and maintenance during meiosis and early mitosis in Drosophila oocytes and early embryos...
  35. McDonald H, Goldstein L. Identification and characterization of a gene encoding a kinesin-like protein in Drosophila. Cell. 1990;61:991-1000 pubmed
    ..Finally, the clone we isolated appears to correspond to the non-claret disjunctional (ncd) gene, which when mutant causes defects in meiotic and early embryonic mitotic chromosome segregation, and whose ..
  36. Oladipo A, Cowan A, Rodionov V. Microtubule motor Ncd induces sliding of microtubules in vivo. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3601-6 pubmed
    ..cells, we developed an in vivo assay, which involves overexpression of the kinesin-14 family member Drosophila Ncd in interphase mammalian fibroblasts...
  37. Wald H. Cytologic Studies on the Abnormal Development of the Eggs of the Claret Mutant Type of Drosophila Simulans. Genetics. 1936;21:264-81 pubmed
  38. Goshima G, Wollman R, Stuurman N, Scholey J, Vale R. Length control of the metaphase spindle. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1979-88 pubmed
  39. Endres N, Yoshioka C, Milligan R, Vale R. A lever-arm rotation drives motility of the minus-end-directed kinesin Ncd. Nature. 2006;439:875-8 pubmed
    ..of the structural changes underlying the minus-end-directed motility of Kinesin-14 motors (such as Drosophila Ncd) are less well understood...
  40. Heuston E, Bronner C, Kull F, Endow S. A kinesin motor in a force-producing conformation. BMC Struct Biol. 2010;10:19 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that mutation of a single residue in the kinesin-14 Ncd causes the motor to release ADP and hydrolyze ATP faster than wild type, but move more slowly along microtubules in ..
  41. Sablin E, Case R, Dai S, Hart C, Ruby A, Vale R, et al. Direction determination in the minus-end-directed kinesin motor ncd. Nature. 1998;395:813-6 pubmed
    ..of the catalytic cores of conventional kinesin (a plus-end-directed motor involved in organelle transport) and ncd (a minus-end-directed motor involved in chromosome segregation) are nearly identical; therefore, the structural ..
  42. Goshima G, Nedelec F, Vale R. Mechanisms for focusing mitotic spindle poles by minus end-directed motor proteins. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:229-40 pubmed
    ..Here, we have characterized the roles of two minus end-directed motors, dynein and Ncd, in such processes in Drosophila S2 cells using RNA interference and high resolution microscopy...
  43. Yun M, Bronner C, Park C, Cha S, Park H, Endow S. Rotation of the stalk/neck and one head in a new crystal structure of the kinesin motor protein, Ncd. EMBO J. 2003;22:5382-9 pubmed
    ..We report here a 2.5 A crystal structure of the minus-end kinesin, Ncd, with the coiled-coil stalk/neck and one head rotated by approximately 75 degrees relative to the other head...
  44. Kwon M, Morales Mulia S, Brust Mascher I, Rogers G, Sharp D, Scholey J. The chromokinesin, KLP3A, dives mitotic spindle pole separation during prometaphase and anaphase and facilitates chromatid motility. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:219-33 pubmed
    ..KLP3A contributes to spindle pole separation during the prometaphase-to-metaphase transition (when it antagonizes Ncd) and anaphase B, to normal rates of chromatid motility during anaphase A, and to the proper spacing of daughter ..
  45. Cullen C, Ohkura H. Msps protein is localized to acentrosomal poles to ensure bipolarity of Drosophila meiotic spindles. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:637-42 pubmed
    ..The polar localization of Msps is dependent on D-TACC and Ncd, a kinesin-like microtubule motor...
  46. Hallen M, Endow S. Anastral spindle assembly: a mathematical model. Biophys J. 2009;97:2191-201 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ncd was postulated to perform both functions...
  47. Endow S, Komma D. Centrosome and spindle function of the Drosophila Ncd microtubule motor visualized in live embryos using Ncd-GFP fusion proteins. J Cell Sci. 1996;109 ( Pt 10):2429-42 pubmed
    The Ncd microtubule motor protein is required for meiotic and early mitotic chromosome distribution in Drosophila...
  48. Maresca T, Salmon E. Intrakinetochore stretch is associated with changes in kinetochore phosphorylation and spindle assembly checkpoint activity. J Cell Biol. 2009;184:373-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This intrakinetochore stretch is largely independent of a 30-fold variation in centromere stretch. Furthermore, loss of intrakinetochore stretch is associated with enhancement of 3F3/2 phosphorylation and SAC activation. ..
  49. Walker R, Salmon E, Endow S. The Drosophila claret segregation protein is a minus-end directed motor molecule. Nature. 1990;347:780-2 pubmed
    ..The minus-end directed motor activity of the claret motor is consistent with a role for this protein in producing chromosome movement along spindle microtubules during prometaphase and/or anaphase. ..
  50. Mennella V, Rogers G, Rogers S, Buster D, Vale R, Sharp D. Functionally distinct kinesin-13 family members cooperate to regulate microtubule dynamics during interphase. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:235-45 pubmed
    ..Our data also suggest that KLP10A is deposited on microtubules by the plus-end tracking protein, EB1. Our findings support a model in which these two members of the kinesin-13 family divide the labour of microtubule depolymerization. ..
  51. Brust Mascher I, Sommi P, Cheerambathur D, Scholey J. Kinesin-5-dependent poleward flux and spindle length control in Drosophila embryo mitosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1749-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In wild-type and Ncd null mutant embryos, anti-KLP61F dissociated the motor from spindles, producing a spatial gradient in the KLP61F ..
  52. Liu H, Hallen M, Endow S. Altered nucleotide-microtubule coupling and increased mechanical output by a kinesin mutant. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47148 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that mutation of an invariant residue in loop L7 of the central ?-sheet of the Drosophila kinesin-14 Ncd motor alters both nucleotide and microtubule binding, although the mutated residue is not present in either site...
  53. Stewart R, Pesavento P, Woerpel D, Goldstein L. Identification and partial characterization of six members of the kinesin superfamily in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:8470-4 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that each of these six kinesin-like proteins may have functions in a wide variety of cell types and tissues. ..
  54. Gaspar I, Szabad J. Glu415 in the alpha-tubulins plays a key role in stabilizing the microtubule-ADP-kinesin complexes. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:2857-65 pubmed publisher
  55. Leclerc V, Raisin S, Leopold P. Dominant-negative mutants reveal a role for the Cdk7 kinase at the mid-blastula transition in Drosophila embryos. EMBO J. 2000;19:1567-75 pubmed
    ..While cell cycle regulation is not sensitive to our manipulations of Cdk7 activity, it suggests that a distinct pool of CAK activity that is unaffected by expression of the cdk7(DN) mutants is present in these embryos. ..