Gene Symbol: mus308
Description: mutagen-sensitive 308
Alias: 0443/09, AAF54858, CG6019, Dmel\CG6019, Mus308, Nuc3, POLQ, Pol theta, PolQ, mus-308, mutagen-sensitive 308, CG6019-PA, DNA polymerase theta, Nuclease-3, mus308-PA, pol theta
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Laurencon A, Orme C, Peters H, Boulton C, Vladar E, Langley S, et al. A large-scale screen for mutagen-sensitive loci in Drosophila. Genetics. 2004;167:217-31 pubmed
    ..At least one allele of each new gene identified in this study is available at the Bloomington Stock Center. ..
  2. Oshige M, Aoyagi N, Harris P, Burtis K, Sakaguchi K. A new DNA polymerase species from Drosophila melanogaster: a probable mus308 gene product. Mutat Res. 1999;433:183-92 pubmed
    ..P.V. Harris, O.M. Mazina, E.A. Leonhardt, R.B. Case, J.B. Boyd, K.C. Burtis, Molecular cloning of Drosophila mus308, a gene involved in DNA cross-link repair with homology to prokaryotic DNA polymerase I genes, Mol. Cell. Biol...
  3. Sekelsky J, Burtis K, Hawley R. Damage control: the pleiotropy of DNA repair genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1998;148:1587-98 pubmed
  4. Wei D, Rong Y. A genetic screen for DNA double-strand break repair mutations in Drosophila. Genetics. 2007;177:63-77 pubmed
  5. Yu A, McVey M. Synthesis-dependent microhomology-mediated end joining accounts for multiple types of repair junctions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:5706-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that a single underlying mechanism could be responsible for all three repair product types. Genetic analysis indicates that SD-MMEJ is Ku70, Lig4 and Rad51-independent but impaired in mus308 (POLQ) mutants.
  6. Boyd J, Sakaguchi K, Harris P. mus308 mutants of Drosophila exhibit hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents and are defective in a deoxyribonuclease. Genetics. 1990;125:813-9 pubmed
    ..previously identified enzymes DNase 1 and DNase 2, it represents a new Drosophila nuclease that is designated Nuclease 3. The mus308 mutants were originally distinguished from all other mutagen-sensitive mutants of Drosophila because ..
  7. Pang M, McConnell M, Fisher P. The Drosophila mus 308 gene product, implicated in tolerance of DNA interstrand crosslinks, is a nuclear protein found in both ovaries and embryos. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:971-82 pubmed
    b>mus 308 designates one of over 30 mutagen sensitivity loci found in Drosophila. It is predicted to code for a 229-kDa polypeptide...
  8. Aguirrezabalaga I, Sierra L, Comendador M. The hypermutability conferred by the mus308 mutation of Drosophila is not specific for cross-linking agents. Mutat Res. 1995;336:243-50 pubmed
    The hypersensitivity of the mus308 mutant of D. melanogaster to cross-linking agents has been suggested to be the consequence of a possible defect of this mutant in DNA cross-link repair...
  9. Harris P, Mazina O, Leonhardt E, Case R, Boyd J, Burtis K. Molecular cloning of Drosophila mus308, a gene involved in DNA cross-link repair with homology to prokaryotic DNA polymerase I genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:5764-71 pubmed
    Mutations in the Drosophila mus308 gene confer specific hypersensitivity to DNA-cross-linking agents as a consequence of defects in DNA repair...

More Information


  1. Inagaki S, Suzuki T, Ohto M, Urawa H, Horiuchi T, Nakamura K, et al. Arabidopsis TEBICHI, with helicase and DNA polymerase domains, is required for regulated cell division and differentiation in meristems. Plant Cell. 2006;18:879-92 pubmed
    ..The TEB gene encodes a homolog of Drosophila MUS308 and mammalian DNA polymerase theta, which prevent spontaneous or DNA damage-induced production of DNA double strand breaks...
  2. Chan S, Yu A, McVey M. Dual roles for DNA polymerase theta in alternative end-joining repair of double-strand breaks in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001005 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster DNA polymerase theta (pol theta), encoded by the mus308 gene and previously implicated in DNA interstrand crosslink repair, ..
  3. Tosal L, Comendador M, Sierra L. The mus308 locus of Drosophila melanogaster is implicated in the bypass of ENU-induced O-alkylpyrimidine adducts. Mol Gen Genet. 2000;263:144-51 pubmed
    The mus308 locus of D. melanogaster was originally characterized by virtue of a mutant phenotype that resulted in specific hypersensitivity to cross-linking agents...
  4. Boyd J, Golino M, Shaw K, Osgood C, Green M. Third-chromosome mutagen-sensitive mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1981;97:607-23 pubmed
    ..Mutants from four of the complementation groups are associated with moderate to strong meiotic effects in females. Preliminary biochemical analyses have implicated seven of these loci in DNA metabolism. ..
  5. Okamura K, Chung W, Ruby J, Guo H, Bartel D, Lai E. The Drosophila hairpin RNA pathway generates endogenous short interfering RNAs. Nature. 2008;453:803-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel regulatory RNAs reveal unexpected complexity in the sorting of small RNAs, and open a window onto the biological usage of endogenous RNA interference in Drosophila. ..
  6. Xie W, Liang C, Birchler J. Inhibition of RNA interference and modulation of transposable element expression by cell death in Drosophila. Genetics. 2011;188:823-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrate that the mus308 gene and endogenous transposable elements, which are both regularly silenced by RNAi, are increased in expression ..
  7. Beagan K, Armstrong R, Witsell A, Roy U, Renedo N, Baker A, et al. Drosophila DNA polymerase theta utilizes both helicase-like and polymerase domains during microhomology-mediated end joining and interstrand crosslink repair. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006813 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data illustrate the functional importance of the helicase-like domain of Pol ? and suggest that its tethering to the polymerase domain is important for its multiple functions in DNA repair and damage tolerance. ..
  8. Ferro W, Eeken J. Studies on mutagen sensitive strains of Drosophila melanogaster. XI. Survival (dominant lethality) after X-irradiation and relation to recessive lethals and translocations. Mutat Res. 1993;285:313-25 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that genetic damage recovered in a repair deficient background is likely to be qualitatively different even if the frequency of the damage induced by a given dose is not altered. ..
  9. Sabin L, Zhou R, Gruber J, Lukinova N, Bambina S, Berman A, et al. Ars2 regulates both miRNA- and siRNA- dependent silencing and suppresses RNA virus infection in Drosophila. Cell. 2009;138:340-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of Ars2 as a player in these small RNA pathways provides new insight into the biogenesis of small RNAs that may be extended to other systems. ..
  10. Harris P, Boyd J. Re-evaluation of excision repair in the mus304, mus306 and mus308 mutants of Drosophila. Mutat Res. 1993;301:51-5 pubmed
    ..Since the mus306 and mus308 stocks also carry secondary phr mutations, their partial deficiency in repair of pyrimidine dimers may also be the ..
  11. Barros A, Comendador M, Sierra L. Acrolein genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Influence of mus201 and mus308 mutations. Mutat Res. 1994;306:1-8 pubmed
    The influence of mus201 and mus308 mutants on acrolein mutagenicity was analyzed with the Drosophila melanogaster sex-linked recessive lethal test (SLRL), using the maternal approach, to further study the mechanisms of action of this ..
  12. Boyd J, Shaw K. Postreplication repair defects in mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1982;186:289-94 pubmed
    ..Two additional defects in postreplication repair were observed with the brain-ganglia assay in strains that cannot be assayed in cell culture [mus(1)108, mus(2)206]. ..
  13. McKee B, Hong C, Das S. On the roles of heterochromatin and euchromatin in meiosis in drosophila: mapping chromosomal pairing sites and testing candidate mutations for effects on X-Y nondisjunction and meiotic drive in male meiosis. Genetica. 2000;109:77-93 pubmed
    ..No strong effects on disjunction were seen. However, the tests did uncover several mutations that suppress or enhance the meiotic drive (distorted X-Y recovery ratio) that accompanies X-Y pairing failure...
  14. Todo T, Ryo H. Identification of cellular factors that recognize UV-damaged DNA in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1992;273:85-93 pubmed
    ..These findings might suggest the possible involvement of these gene products in lesion recognition and repair of UV-induced photoproducts in DNA. ..
  15. Azqueta A, Slyskova J, Langie S, O Neill Gaivão I, Collins A. Comet assay to measure DNA repair: approach and applications. Front Genet. 2014;5:288 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies to date have examined effects of environment, nutrition, lifestyle, and occupation, in addition to clinical investigations. ..
  16. Sakaguchi K, Harris P, Van Kuyk R, Singson A, Boyd J. A mitochondrial nuclease is modified in Drosophila mutants (mus308) that are hypersensitive to DNA crosslinking agents. Mol Gen Genet. 1990;224:333-40 pubmed
    ..The mus308 mutants of Drosophila have previously been demonstrated to be defective in an enzyme that is designated Nuclease 3 (Boyd et al. 1990b)...
  17. Marques J, Kim K, Wu P, Alleyne T, Jafari N, Carthew R. Loqs and R2D2 act sequentially in the siRNA pathway in Drosophila. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Loqs is primarily required for dsRNA processing, whereas R2D2 is essential for the subsequent loading of siRNAs into effector Ago-RISC complexes. ..
  18. Merritt T, Duvernell D, Eanes W. Natural and synthetic alleles provide complementary insights into the nature of selection acting on the Men polymorphism of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2005;171:1707-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The distinct differences in biochemistry and physiology between the naturally occurring alleles and between the engineered alleles suggest the potential for selection on the Men locus...
  19. de Buendía P. Search for DNA repair pathways in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1998;407:67-84 pubmed
    ..A possible explanation could be a weaker control of post-replication repair mechanisms in Drosophila than in yeast. It is expected that this research could help for a better understanding of repair mechanisms in complex organisms. ..
  20. Leonhardt E, Henderson D, Rinehart J, Boyd J. Characterization of the mus308 gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1993;133:87-96 pubmed
    Among the available mutagen-sensitive mutations in Drosophila, those at the mus308 locus are unique in conferring hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents but not to monofunctional agents...
  21. Xiong X, Kurthkoti K, Chang K, Lichinchi G, De N, Schneemann A, et al. Core small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle splicing factor SmD1 modulates RNA interference in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:16520-5 pubmed publisher
  22. Lim D, Lee L, Oh C, Kim N, Hwang S, Han S, et al. Microarray analysis of Drosophila dicer-2 mutants reveals potential regulation of mitochondrial metabolism by endogenous siRNAs. J Cell Biochem. 2013;114:418-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support a potential role for the endo-siRNA pathway in energy homeostasis through regulation of mitochondrial metabolism. ..
  23. Burgers P, Koonin E, Bruford E, Blanco L, Burtis K, Christman M, et al. Eukaryotic DNA polymerases: proposal for a revised nomenclature. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:43487-90 pubmed
  24. Leonhardt E, Boyd J. Identification of a new locus, mus115, in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1993;301:121-4 pubmed
    ..but not to monofunctional agents have produced 6 mutations; all of which fall within the third chromosomal gene mus308. In an effort to identify analogous sex-linked genes, a screen of mutagenized X-chromosomes has been conducted for ..
  25. Siddique H, Sharma A, Gupta S, Murthy R, Dhawan A, Saxena D, et al. DNA damage induced by industrial solid waste leachates in Drosophila melanogaster: a mechanistic approach. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2008;49:206-16 pubmed publisher
    ..mutant strains mei41 (deficient in cell cycle check point protein), mus201 (deficient in excision repair protein), mus308 (deficient in postreplication repair protein), and rad54 (deficient in double strand break repair protein) than in ..
  26. Díaz Valdés N, Comendador M, Sierra L. Mus308 processes oxygen and nitrogen ethylation DNA damage in germ cells of Drosophila. J Nucleic Acids. 2010;2010: pubmed publisher
    The D. melanogaster mus308 gene, highly conserved among higher eukaryotes, is implicated in the repair of cross-links and of O-ethylpyrimidine DNA damage, working in a DNA damage tolerance mechanism...
  27. Ameres S, Hung J, Xu J, Weng Z, Zamore P. Target RNA-directed tailing and trimming purifies the sorting of endo-siRNAs between the two Drosophila Argonaute proteins. RNA. 2011;17:54-63 pubmed publisher
  28. Ameres S, Horwich M, Hung J, Xu J, Ghildiyal M, Weng Z, et al. Target RNA-directed trimming and tailing of small silencing RNAs. Science. 2010;328:1534-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Target complementarity also affects small RNA stability in human cells. These results provide an explanation for the partial complementarity between animal miRNAs and their targets. ..
  29. Burtis K, Harris P. A possible functional role for a new class of eukaryotic DNA polymerases. Curr Biol. 1997;7:R743-4 pubmed
  30. McCaffrey R, St Johnston D, González Reyes A. Drosophila mus301/spindle-C encodes a helicase with an essential role in double-strand DNA break repair and meiotic progression. Genetics. 2006;174:1273-85 pubmed
    ..We have cloned mus301 and show that it is a member of the Mus308 subfamily of ATP-dependent helicases and the closest homolog of human and mouse HEL308...
  31. Boyd J, Harris P. Mutants partially defective in excision repair at five autosomal loci in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1981;82:249-57 pubmed
    ..This study, therefore, brings the total number of Drosophila mutants known to be defective in excision repair to seven. The results are discussed relative to other genetic and biochemical properties of these mutants. ..
  32. Oliveri D, Harris P, Boyd J. X-ray sensitivity and single-strand DNA break repair in mutagen-sensitive mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1990;235:25-31 pubmed
    ..Repair of single-strand breaks is therefore mediated by repair processes unrelated to those that are disrupted in the current mutant collection. ..
  33. White T, Lambowitz A. The retrohoming of linear group II intron RNAs in Drosophila melanogaster occurs by both DNA ligase 4-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002534 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, our results reveal novel activities of group II intron reverse transcriptases, with implications for retrohoming mechanisms and potential biotechnological applications. ..
  34. Dusenbery R, Smith P. Cellular responses to DNA damage in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1996;364:133-45 pubmed