Gene Symbol: mts
Description: microtubule star
Alias: 5559, CG7109, DmPp2A-28D, Dmel\CG7109, ER2-6, MTS, MTS/PP2A, Mts, PP2, PP2A, PP2A 28D, PP2A C, PP2A-C, PP2A/MTS, PP2A[C], PP2A[[C]], PP2Ac, PP2a, PP2a 28D, Pp2A, Pp2A-28D, dPP2A, dPP2A-C, l(2)02496, l(2)s5286, microtubule star, CG7109-PA, CG7109-PB, CG7109-PC, Microtubule-star, PP2A catalytic subunit, catalytic subunit C of type 2A protein phosphatase, mts-PA, mts-PB, mts-PC, phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit, protein phosphatase 2A, protein phosphatase 2A at 28D
Species: fruit fly
Products:     mts

Top Publications

  1. Orgad S, Brewis N, Alphey L, Axton J, Dudai Y, Cohen P. The structure of protein phosphatase 2A is as highly conserved as that of protein phosphatase 1. FEBS Lett. 1990;275:44-8 pubmed
    cDNA coding for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) has been isolated from Drosophila head and eye imaginal disc libraries. Drosophila PP2A mRNA is expressed throughout development, but is most abundant in the early embryo...
  2. Chen F, Archambault V, Kar A, Lio P, D Avino P, Sinka R, et al. Multiple protein phosphatases are required for mitosis in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2007;17:293-303 pubmed
    ..Finally, for PP2A, knockdown of the catalytic or A subunits led to bipolar monoastral spindles, knockdown of the Twins B subunit led ..
  3. Mayer Jaekel R, Baumgartner S, Bilbe G, Ohkura H, Glover D, Hemmings B. Molecular cloning and developmental expression of the catalytic and 65-kDa regulatory subunits of protein phosphatase 2A in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 1992;3:287-98 pubmed
    cDNA clones encoding the catalytic subunit and the 65-kDa regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PR65) from Drosophila melanogaster have been isolated by homology screening with the corresponding human cDNAs...
  4. Hannus M, Feiguin F, Heisenberg C, Eaton S. Planar cell polarization requires Widerborst, a B' regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. Development. 2002;129:3493-503 pubmed
    We have identified widerborst (wdb), a B' regulatory subunit of PP2A, as a conserved component of planar cell polarization mechanisms in both Drosophila and in zebrafish...
  5. Li X, Scuderi A, Letsou A, Virshup D. B56-associated protein phosphatase 2A is required for survival and protects from apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:3674-84 pubmed
    ..Using double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi), the role of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in cellular signaling was investigated...
  6. Jia H, Liu Y, Yan W, Jia J. PP4 and PP2A regulate Hedgehog signaling by controlling Smo and Ci phosphorylation. Development. 2009;136:307-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Using an in vivo RNAi screen, we identified PP4 and PP2A as phosphatases that influence Hh signaling by regulating Smo and Ci, respectively...
  7. Mayer Jaekel R, Ohkura H, Ferrigno P, Andjelkovic N, Shiomi K, Uemura T, et al. Drosophila mutants in the 55 kDa regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A show strongly reduced ability to dephosphorylate substrates of p34cdc2. J Cell Sci. 1994;107 ( Pt 9):2609-16 pubmed
    The 55 kDa regulatory subunit of Drosophila protein phosphatase 2A is located in the cytoplasm at all cell cycle stages, by the criterion of immunofluorescence...
  8. D Avino P, Archambault V, Przewloka M, Zhang W, Laue E, Glover D. Isolation of protein complexes involved in mitosis and cytokinesis from Drosophila cultured cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;545:99-112 pubmed publisher
    ..Although this method has proven very successful in isolating mitotic and cytokinetic complexes, it can also be used to characterise protein complexes involved in many other cellular processes. ..
  9. Shiomi K, Takeichi M, Nishida Y, Nishi Y, Uemura T. Alternative cell fate choice induced by low-level expression of a regulator of protein phosphatase 2A in the Drosophila peripheral nervous system. Development. 1994;120:1591-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the modulation of the phosphatase activity by the B subunit appears to be crucial for specification of neural cell identity. ..

More Information


  1. Lu H, Leung H, Wang N, Pak W, Shieh B. Role of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:11100-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we show that phosphorylation of CaMKII is greatly enhanced by okadaic acid, and indeed, purified PP2A catalyzes the dephosphorylation of CaMKII...
  2. Ribeiro P, Josué F, Wepf A, Wehr M, Rinner O, Kelly G, et al. Combined functional genomic and proteomic approaches identify a PP2A complex as a negative regulator of Hippo signaling. Mol Cell. 2010;39:521-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Using combined proteomic and RNAi screening approaches, we identify the dSTRIPAK PP2A complex as a major regulator of Hpo signaling...
  3. Snaith H, Armstrong C, Guo Y, Kaiser K, Cohen P. Deficiency of protein phosphatase 2A uncouples the nuclear and centrosome cycles and prevents attachment of microtubules to the kinetochore in Drosophila microtubule star (mts) embryos. J Cell Sci. 1996;109 ( Pt 13):3001-12 pubmed
    A Drosophila strain, carrying a P[lacW] element in the promoter of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit gene at chromosomal location 28D, has been identified using plasmid rescue of the P element and adjoining genomic DNA ..
  4. Bielinski V, Mumby M. Functional analysis of the PP2A subfamily of protein phosphatases in regulating Drosophila S6 kinase. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:3117-26 pubmed
    ..Knockdown of the PP2A catalytic subunit increased basal dS6K phosphorylation and inhibited dephosphorylation induced by amino acid withdrawal...
  5. Cygnar K, Gao X, Pan D, Neufeld T. The phosphatase subunit tap42 functions independently of target of rapamycin to regulate cell division and survival in Drosophila. Genetics. 2005;170:733-40 pubmed
    The protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit Tap42 is essential for target of rapamycin (TOR)-mediated signaling in yeast, but its role in higher eukaryotes has not been established...
  6. Janssens V, Goris J. Protein phosphatase 2A: a highly regulated family of serine/threonine phosphatases implicated in cell growth and signalling. Biochem J. 2001;353:417-39 pubmed
    b>Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) comprises a family of serine/threonine phosphatases, minimally containing a well conserved catalytic subunit, the activity of which is highly regulated...
  7. Viquez N, Füger P, Valakh V, Daniels R, Rasse T, DiAntonio A. PP2A and GSK-3beta act antagonistically to regulate active zone development. J Neurosci. 2009;29:11484-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is required for the development of structurally normal active zones opposite glutamate receptors...
  8. Kotadia S, Kao L, Comerford S, Jones R, Hammer R, Megraw T. PP2A-dependent disruption of centrosome replication and cytoskeleton organization in Drosophila by SV40 small tumor antigen. Oncogene. 2008;27:6334-46 pubmed publisher
    ..the tumor suppressors p53 and Rb, and small tumor antigen (ST), which interferes with serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)...
  9. Wang N, Leung H, Pak W, Carl Y, Wadzinski B, Shieh B. Role of protein phosphatase 2A in regulating the visual signaling in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:1444-51 pubmed publisher
    ..the critical phosphatases that dephosphorylate INAD, we used several biochemical analyses and identified protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as a candidate...
  10. Cohen P, Philp A, Vázquez Martin C. Protein phosphatase 4--from obscurity to vital functions. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:3278-86 pubmed the PPP family that is now recognised to regulate a variety of cellular functions independently of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)...
  11. Su Y, Ospina J, Zhang J, Michelson A, Schoen A, Zhu A. Sequential phosphorylation of smoothened transduces graded hedgehog signaling. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra43 pubmed publisher
    ..dephosphorylated PKA-phosphorylated Smo to reduce signaling mediated by intermediate concentrations of Hh, whereas PP2A specifically dephosphorylated PKA-primed, CKI-phosphorylated Smo to restrict signaling by high concentrations of Hh...
  12. Viquez N, Li C, Wairkar Y, DiAntonio A. The B' protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit well-rounded regulates synaptic growth and cytoskeletal stability at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci. 2006;26:9293-303 pubmed
    ..We isolated a B' regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) that we have named well-rounded (wrd)...
  13. Nam S, Mukhopadhyay B, Choi K. Antagonistic functions of Par-1 kinase and protein phosphatase 2A are required for localization of Bazooka and photoreceptor morphogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2007;306:624-35 pubmed
    ..We also show that the inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) mimics the polarity defects caused by Par-1 overexpression...
  14. Bennett D, Szoor B, Gross S, Vereshchagina N, Alphey L. Ectopic expression of inhibitors of protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) can be used to analyze roles of PP1 in Drosophila development. Genetics. 2003;164:235-45 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that inhibitors of PP1 can be used in a tissue- and developmental-specific manner to examine the developmental roles of PP1. ..
  15. Wehr M, Holder M, Gailite I, Saunders R, Maile T, Ciirdaeva E, et al. Salt-inducible kinases regulate growth through the Hippo signalling pathway in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:61-71 pubmed
    ..As Sik kinases have been implicated in nutrient sensing, this suggests a link between the Hpo pathway and systemic growth control. ..
  16. Murali T, Pacifico S, Finley R. Integrating the interactome and the transcriptome of Drosophila. BMC Bioinformatics. 2014;15:177 pubmed publisher
    ..This organization implies that tissue or stage specific networks can be best identified from interactome data by using filters designed to include both ubiquitously expressed and specifically expressed genes and proteins. ..
  17. Lu C, Hodge J, Mehren J, Sun X, Griffith L. Regulation of the Ca2+/CaM-responsive pool of CaMKII by scaffold-dependent autophosphorylation. Neuron. 2003;40:1185-97 pubmed
    ..This interaction provides a mechanism by which the active postsynaptic pool of CaMKII can be controlled locally to differentiate active and inactive synapses. ..
  18. Ramel M, Emery C, Emery C, Foulger R, Goberdhan D, van den Heuvel M, et al. Drosophila SnoN modulates growth and patterning by antagonizing TGF-beta signalling. Mech Dev. 2007;124:304-17 pubmed
  19. Matsubayashi H, Sese S, Lee J, Shirakawa T, Iwatsubo T, Tomita T, et al. Biochemical characterization of the Drosophila wingless signaling pathway based on RNA interference. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:2012-24 pubmed
  20. Zhang W, Yang J, Liu Y, Chen X, Yu T, Jia J, et al. PR55 alpha, a regulatory subunit of PP2A, specifically regulates PP2A-mediated beta-catenin dephosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:22649-56 pubmed publisher
    ..PR55 alpha, but not the catalytic subunit, PP2Ac, directly interacts with beta-catenin...
  21. Biswas R, Stein D, Stanley E. Drosophila Dok is required for embryonic dorsal closure. Development. 2006;133:217-27 pubmed
    ..As there are six mammalian Dok family members that exhibit some functional redundancy, analysis of the regulation of DC by Ddok is expected to provide novel insights into the function of the Dok adapter proteins. ..
  22. Dombradi V, Axton J, Barker H, Cohen P. Protein phosphatase 1 activity in Drosophila mutants with abnormalities in mitosis and chromosome condensation. FEBS Lett. 1990;275:39-43 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the PP1 87B isoenzyme is involved in regulation of chromosome condensation at interphase as well as mitosis. ..
  23. Sathyanarayanan S, Zheng X, Xiao R, Sehgal A. Posttranslational regulation of Drosophila PERIOD protein by protein phosphatase 2A. Cell. 2004;116:603-15 pubmed
    ..In addition, overexpression of the PP2A catalytic subunit results in loss of behavioral rhythms and constitutive nuclear expression of PER...
  24. Maher P, Dargusch R, Bodai L, Gerard P, Purcell J, Marsh J. ERK activation by the polyphenols fisetin and resveratrol provides neuroprotection in multiple models of Huntington's disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:261-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, fisetin, resveratrol and related compounds might be useful for the treatment of HD by virtue of their unique ability to activate ERK. ..
  25. Mayer Jaekel R, Hemmings B. Role of protein phosphatase 2A in Drosophila development. Semin Cancer Biol. 1995;6:249-56 pubmed
    The molecular cloning of protein phosphatase 2A subunits from Drosophila has provided insights into the role this enzyme plays in developmental processes and in cell cycle regulation...
  26. Chang K, Garcia Alvarez G, Somers G, Sousa Nunes R, Rossi F, Lee Y, et al. Interplay between the transcription factor Zif and aPKC regulates neuroblast polarity and self-renewal. Dev Cell. 2010;19:778-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, reciprocal repression between Zif and aPKC act as a critical regulatory mechanism for establishing cell polarity and controlling neuroblast self-renewal. ..
  27. Li L, Tian X, Zhu M, Bulgari D, Böhme M, Goettfert F, et al. Drosophila Syd-1, liprin-?, and protein phosphatase 2A B' subunit Wrd function in a linear pathway to prevent ectopic accumulation of synaptic materials in distal axons. J Neurosci. 2014;34:8474-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify Drosophila protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit B' [Wrd (Well Rounded)] as a Liprin-?-interacting protein, and we demonstrate ..
  28. Liu J, Lee D, Yu C, Angers S, Harris T. Stepping stone: a cytohesin adaptor for membrane cytoskeleton restraint in the syncytial Drosophila embryo. Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26:711-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall we propose that Sstn acts as a cytohesin adaptor that promotes Steppke activity for localized membrane cytoskeleton restraint in the syncytial Drosophila embryo. ..
  29. Bánréti A, Lukacsovich T, Csikós G, Erdelyi M, Sass M. PP2A regulates autophagy in two alternative ways in Drosophila. Autophagy. 2012;8:623-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) holoenzyme is a heterotrimeric complex, consisting of A, B and C subunits. The catalytic subunit PP2A-C (microtubule star/mts) binds to the C-terminal part of the scaffold protein PP2A-A (PP2A-29B)...
  30. Guo Y, Gillan A, Torok T, Kiss I, Dow J, Kaiser K. Site-selected mutagenesis of the Drosophila second chromosome via plasmid rescue of lethal P-element insertions. Genome Res. 1996;6:972-9 pubmed
    ..The success rate was better than one in four. This rate would undoubtedly be improved by the use of genomic DNA probes. ..
  31. Rangone H, Wegel E, Gatt M, Yeung E, Flowers A, Debski J, et al. Suppression of scant identifies Endos as a substrate of greatwall kinase and a negative regulator of protein phosphatase 2A in mitosis. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002225 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) plays a major role in dephosphorylating the targets of the major mitotic kinase Cdk1 at mitotic exit, yet how it is regulated in mitotic progression is poorly understood...
  32. Chen K, Koe C, Xing Z, Tian X, Rossi F, Wang C, et al. Arl2- and Msps-dependent microtubule growth governs asymmetric division. J Cell Biol. 2016;212:661-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Arl2- and Msps-dependent microtubule growth is a new paradigm regulating asymmetric division of neural stem cells. ..
  33. Ogawa H, Ohta N, Moon W, Matsuzaki F. Protein phosphatase 2A negatively regulates aPKC signaling by modulating phosphorylation of Par-6 in Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric divisions. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3242-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the Drosophila compound eye, we identified microtubule star (mts), which encodes a catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), as a negative regulator for aPKC signaling...
  34. Yanagawa S, Lee J, Matsuda Y, Ishimoto A. Biochemical characterization of the Drosophila axin protein. FEBS Lett. 2000;474:189-94 pubmed
    ..Moreover, interactions between Daxin and Zeste-white 3, Armadillo, Dishevelled, protein phosphatase 2A and Daxin itself were shown, providing direct evidence that Daxin is a scaffold protein in the Wingless ..
  35. Wang N, Leung H, Mazalouskas M, Watkins G, Gomez R, Wadzinski B. Essential roles of the Tap42-regulated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) family in wing imaginal disc development of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38569 pubmed publisher
    Protein ser/thr phosphatase 2A family members (PP2A, PP4, and PP6) are implicated in the control of numerous biological processes, but our understanding of the in vivo function and regulation of these enzymes is limited...
  36. Andreazza S, Bouleau S, Martin B, Lamouroux A, Ponien P, Papin C, et al. Daytime CLOCK Dephosphorylation Is Controlled by STRIPAK Complexes in Drosophila. Cell Rep. 2015;11:1266-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of the PP2A catalytic subunit and CKA downregulation affect daytime CLK similarly, suggesting that STRIPAK complexes are the main PP2A ..
  37. Wang P, Larouche M, Normandin K, Kachaner D, Mehsen H, Emery G, et al. Spatial regulation of greatwall by Cdk1 and PP2A-Tws in the cell cycle. Cell Cycle. 2016;15:528-39 pubmed publisher
    ..cyclin B-Cdk1, while exit from mitosis requires their dephosphorylation, which depends largely on the phosphatase PP2A in complex with its B55 regulatory subunit (Tws in Drosophila)...
  38. Sun D, Buttitta L. Protein phosphatase 2A promotes the transition to G0 during terminal differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2015;142:3033-45 pubmed publisher
    Protein phosphatase type 2A complex (PP2A) has been known as a tumor suppressor for over two decades, but it remains unclear exactly how it suppresses tumor growth...
  39. Chabu C, Doe C. Twins/PP2A regulates aPKC to control neuroblast cell polarity and self-renewal. Dev Biol. 2009;330:399-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that aPKC is in a protein complex in vivo with Twins, a Drosophila B-type protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) subunit, and that Twins and the catalytic subunit of PP2A, called Microtubule star (Mts), are ..
  40. Choi K, Nam S, Mukhopadhyay B. Par-1 and PP2A: Yin-Yang of Bazooka localization. Fly (Austin). 2007;1:235-7 pubmed
    ..Our study suggests that in photoreceptors, Par-1 blocks the localization of Baz to AJ whereas protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) promotes Baz localization by antagonizing the Par-1 effects...
  41. Karim F, Chang H, Therrien M, Wassarman D, Laverty T, Rubin G. A screen for genes that function downstream of Ras1 during Drosophila eye development. Genetics. 1996;143:315-29 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the Drosophila homologues of Raf, MEK, MAPK, type I Geranylgeranyl Transferase and Protein Phosphatase 2A were isolated, as were mutations in several novel signaling genes...
  42. Casso D, Liu S, Iwaki D, Ogden S, Kornberg T. A screen for modifiers of hedgehog signaling in Drosophila melanogaster identifies swm and mts. Genetics. 2008;178:1399-413 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the other regions includes the gene microtubule star (mts) that encodes a subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. We show that mts is necessary for full activation of Hh signaling...
  43. Kadrmas J, Smith M, Pronovost S, Beckerle M. Characterization of RACK1 function in Drosophila development. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2207-15 pubmed
    ..By characterizing an allelic series of RACK1 mutants, we demonstrate that RACK1 is essential at multiple steps of Drosophila development, particularly in oogenesis, where somatic RACK1 is required for proper germ-line function. ..
  44. Millward T, Zolnierowicz S, Hemmings B. Regulation of protein kinase cascades by protein phosphatase 2A. Trends Biochem Sci. 1999;24:186-91 pubmed
    ..Several of these protein kinases are substrates for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and PP2A appears to be the major kinase phosphatase in eukaryotic cells that downregulates ..
  45. Kunttas Tatli E, Bose A, Kahali B, Bishop C, Bidwai A. Functional dissection of Timekeeper (Tik) implicates opposite roles for CK2 and PP2A during Drosophila neurogenesis. Genesis. 2009;47:647-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, overexpression of microtubule star (mts), the PP2A catalytic subunit closely mimics the phenotypic effects of loss of CK2 functions in N(+) or N(spl) flies, and elicits ..
  46. Chang H, Karim F, O Neill E, Rebay I, Solomon N, Therrien M, et al. Ras signal transduction pathway in Drosophila eye development. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1994;59:147-53 pubmed
  47. Bulat V, Rast M, Pielage J. Presynaptic CK2 promotes synapse organization and stability by targeting Ankyrin2. J Cell Biol. 2014;204:77-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies phosphorylation of structural synaptic components as a compelling mechanism to actively control the development and longevity of synaptic connections. ..
  48. Zhang F, Huang Z, Bao H, Cong F, Wang H, Chai P, et al. Phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator facilitates localization of Miranda through dephosphorylation in dividing neuroblasts. Development. 2016;143:35-44 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these results, a two-step process for the basal localization of Mira during NB division is revealed: cortical association of Mira mediated by the PTPA-PP4 complex is followed by apical aPKC-mediated basal restriction. ..
  49. Wang P, Pinson X, Archambault V. PP2A-twins is antagonized by greatwall and collaborates with polo for cell cycle progression and centrosome attachment to nuclei in drosophila embryos. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002227 pubmed publisher
    ..We uncovered a strong interdependence between Polo and Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) with its B-type subunit Twins (Tws)...
  50. Neisch A, Neufeld T, Hays T. A STRIPAK complex mediates axonal transport of autophagosomes and dense core vesicles through PP2A regulation. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:441-461 pubmed publisher
    ..CKA is a regulatory subunit of PP2A, a component of the STRIPAK complex. We propose that the STRIPAK complex modulates dynein activity...
  51. Ouyang Y, Petritsch C, Wen H, Jan L, Jan Y, Lu B. Dronc caspase exerts a non-apoptotic function to restrain phospho-Numb-induced ectopic neuroblast formation in Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:2185-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduction of Dronc activity facilitates ENF induced by phospho-Numb. Our findings uncover a molecular mechanism that regulates Numb activity and suggest a novel role for Dronc caspase in regulating neural stem cell homeostasis. ..
  52. Krahn M, Egger Adam D, Wodarz A. PP2A antagonizes phosphorylation of Bazooka by PAR-1 to control apical-basal polarity in dividing embryonic neuroblasts. Dev Cell. 2009;16:901-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) binds to Baz via its structural A subunit...
  53. Chen X, Li Y, Huang J, Cao D, Yang G, Liu W, et al. Study of tauopathies by comparing Drosophila and human tau in Drosophila. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;329:169-78 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the two tau genes differ significantly. This comparison between species-specific isoforms may help to clarify whether the homologous tau genes are conserved. ..
  54. Oh S, Kingsley T, Shin H, Zheng Z, Chen H, Chen X, et al. A P-element insertion screen identified mutations in 455 novel essential genes in Drosophila. Genetics. 2003;163:195-201 pubmed
    ..Our mutation collection represents approximately 56% of the second chromosome vital genes and approximately 24% of the total vital Drosophila genes. ..
  55. Chen M, Chen Y, Cohen P. Polymerase chain reactions using Saccharomyces, Drosophila and human DNA predict a large family of protein serine/threonine phosphatases. FEBS Lett. 1992;306:54-8 pubmed
    ..polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to examine the protein serine/threonine phosphatase (PP) family which includes PP1, PP2A and PP2B, we have identified two, seven, and four novel protein phosphatase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ..
  56. Vereshchagina N, Ramel M, Bitoun E, Wilson C. The protein phosphatase PP2A-B' subunit Widerborst is a negative regulator of cytoplasmic activated Akt and lipid metabolism in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3383-92 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it remains unclear how this pool is regulated. Here we show that the protein phosphatase PP2A-B' regulatory subunit Widerborst (Wdb), which coimmunoprecipitates with Akt in vivo, selectively modulates levels ..
  57. Bennett D, Szoor B, Alphey L. The chaperone-like properties of mammalian inhibitor-2 are conserved in a Drosophila homologue. Biochemistry. 1999;38:16276-82 pubmed
    ..Like I-2, I-2Dm can convert recombinant PP1c to a native-like activity. This strongly suggests that this ability is an essential, conserved role of I-2 and I-2Dm. ..
  58. Wassarman D, Solomon N, Chang H, Karim F, Therrien M, Rubin G. Protein phosphatase 2A positively and negatively regulates Ras1-mediated photoreceptor development in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1996;10:272-8 pubmed
    b>Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a heterotrimeric serine/threonine phosphatase present in most tissues and cell types, has been implicated in the regulation of cell cycle progression, DNA replication, transcription, and translation...
  59. Salah Z, Aqeilan R. WW domain interactions regulate the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. Cell Death Dis. 2011;2:e172 pubmed publisher
    ..We further discuss new insights and future directions on the emerging role of such regulation. ..
  60. Moazzen H, Rosenfeld R, Percival Smith A. Non-requirement of a regulatory subunit of Protein Phosphatase 2A, PP2A-B', for activation of Sex comb reduced activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Mech Dev. 2009;126:605-10 pubmed publisher
    ..A Protein Phosphatase 2A holoenzyme assembled with the PP2A-B' regulatory subunit is proposed to specifically interact with, and ..
  61. Zhu J, Vereshchagina N, Sreekumar V, Burbulla L, Costa A, Daub K, et al. Knockdown of Hsc70-5/mortalin induces loss of synaptic mitochondria in a Drosophila Parkinson's disease model. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e83714 pubmed publisher
  62. Afonso O, Matos I, Pereira A, Aguiar P, Lampson M, Maiato H. Feedback control of chromosome separation by a midzone Aurora B gradient. Science. 2014;345:332-336 pubmed publisher
    ..PP1/PP2A phosphatases counteracted this gradient and promoted chromosome decondensation and NER...
  63. Hardin P. The circadian timekeeping system of Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R714-22 pubmed
    ..I will also discuss where work remains to be done to give a comprehensive picture of the circadian clock in Drosophila and likely many other organisms. ..
  64. Lipinszki Z, Lefevre S, Savoian M, Singleton M, Glover D, Przewloka M. Centromeric binding and activity of Protein Phosphatase 4. Nat Commun. 2015;6:5894 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that binding of Flfl to CENP-C is required to bring PP4 activity to centromeres to maintain CENP-C and attached core kinetochore proteins at chromosomes during mitosis. ..
  65. Helps N, Brewis N, Lineruth K, Davis T, Kaiser K, Cohen P. Protein phosphatase 4 is an essential enzyme required for organisation of microtubules at centrosomes in Drosophila embryos. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 10):1331-40 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that PP4 is required for nucleation, growth and/or stabilisation of microtubules at centrosomes/spindle pole bodies. ..
  66. Orr Weaver T. Developmental modification of the Drosophila cell cycle. Trends Genet. 1994;10:321-7 pubmed
    ..The field is now poised for the identification of the intervening steps between the developmental signals and their ultimate effects on known cell cycle regulators. ..