Gene Symbol: MtnC
Description: Metallothionein C
Alias: CG5097, Dmel\CG5097, metallothionein C, CG5097-PA, MtnC-PA, metallothionein
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Egli D, Domènech J, Selvaraj A, Balamurugan K, Hua H, Capdevila M, et al. The four members of the Drosophila metallothionein family exhibit distinct yet overlapping roles in heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification. Genes Cells. 2006;11:647-58 pubmed
    Four metallothionein genes are present in the Drosophila melanogaster genome, designated MtnA, MtnB, MtnC, MtnD, all of which are transcriptionally induced by heavy metals through the same metal-responsive transcription factor, MTF-1...
  2. Egli D, Selvaraj A, Yepiskoposyan H, Zhang B, Hafen E, Georgiev O, et al. Knockout of 'metal-responsive transcription factor' MTF-1 in Drosophila by homologous recombination reveals its central role in heavy metal homeostasis. EMBO J. 2003;22:100-8 pubmed
    ..In the mouse, it activates metallothionein genes and other target genes in response to several cell stress conditions, notably heavy metal load...
  3. Southon A, Burke R, Norgate M, Batterham P, Camakaris J. Copper homoeostasis in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. Biochem J. 2004;383:303-9 pubmed
    ..This work is consistent with previous studies in mammalian cells, validating S2 cells as a model system for studying Cu transport and identifying novel Cu regulatory mechanisms. ..
  4. Egli D, Yepiskoposyan H, Selvaraj A, Balamurugan K, Rajaram R, Simons A, et al. A family knockout of all four Drosophila metallothioneins reveals a central role in copper homeostasis and detoxification. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:2286-96 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the generation of a metallothionein gene family knockout in Drosophila melanogaster by targeted disruption of all four genes (MtnA to -D)...
  5. Wang X, Wu Y, Zhou B. Dietary zinc absorption is mediated by ZnT1 in Drosophila melanogaster. FASEB J. 2009;23:2650-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This study will be helpful in understanding the fundamental process of acquiring dietary zinc in higher eukaryotes. ..
  6. Atanesyan L, Günther V, Celniker S, Georgiev O, Schaffner W. Characterization of MtnE, the fifth metallothionein member in Drosophila. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2011;16:1047-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we characterize a new fifth member of Drosophila MT gene family, coding for metallothionein E (MtnE). The MtnE transcription unit is located head-to-head with the one of MtnD...
  7. Pérez Rafael S, Kurz A, Guirola M, Capdevila M, Palacios O, Atrian S. Is MtnE, the fifth Drosophila metallothionein, functionally distinct from the other members of this polymorphic protein family?. Metallomics. 2012;4:342-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Until recently, the Drosophila MT system was assumed to be composed of 4 isoforms (MtnA, MtnB, MtnC and MtnD), all of them responsive to heavy metal load through the dMTF1 transcription factor...
  8. Norgate M, Southon A, Zou S, Zhan M, Sun Y, Batterham P, et al. Copper homeostasis gene discovery in Drosophila melanogaster. Biometals. 2007;20:683-97 pubmed
    ..Building on this information, there is great potential for the further use of Drosophila for copper homeostasis gene discovery. ..
  9. Balamurugan K, Egli D, Hua H, Rajaram R, Seisenbacher G, Georgiev O, et al. Copper homeostasis in Drosophila by complex interplay of import, storage and behavioral avoidance. EMBO J. 2007;26:1035-44 pubmed induces the Ctr1B copper importer gene, whereas at high copper concentrations, it mainly induces the metallothionein genes...

More Information


  1. Norgate M, Southon A, Greenough M, Cater M, Farlow A, Batterham P, et al. Syntaxin 5 is required for copper homeostasis in Drosophila and mammals. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14303 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus Syx5 plays an essential role in copper homeostasis and is a candidate gene for copper-related disease in humans. ..
  2. Guirola M, Naranjo Y, Capdevila M, Atrian S. Comparative genomics analysis of metallothioneins in twelve Drosophila species. J Inorg Biochem. 2011;105:1050-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Data presented here will be comprehensively analyzed to provide a valuable guide for future MT evolutionary, structure and function studies. ..
  3. Günther V, Waldvogel D, Nosswitz M, Georgiev O, Schaffner W. Dissection of Drosophila MTF-1 reveals a domain for differential target gene activation upon copper overload vs. copper starvation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:404-11 pubmed publisher
    ..It mediates protection against heavy metal load by activating the expression of metallothionein and other genes...
  4. Georgiev P, Okkenhaug H, Drews A, Wright D, Lambert S, Flick M, et al. TRPM channels mediate zinc homeostasis and cellular growth during Drosophila larval development. Cell Metab. 2010;12:386-397 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that regulation of Zn(2+) homeostasis through dTRPM channels is required to support molecular processes that mediate class I PI3K-regulated cell growth. ..
  5. Qin Q, Wang X, Zhou B. Functional studies of Drosophila zinc transporters reveal the mechanism for dietary zinc absorption and regulation. BMC Biol. 2013;11:101 pubmed publisher
    ..The knowledge gained will act as a reference for future mammalian studies, and also enable an appreciation of this important process from an evolutionary perspective. ..
  6. Soriano S, Calap Quintana P, Llorens J, Al Ramahi I, Gutierrez L, Martínez Sebastián M, et al. Metal Homeostasis Regulators Suppress FRDA Phenotypes in a Drosophila Model of the Disease. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0159209 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that the metal dysregulation in FRDA includes other metals besides iron, therefore providing a new set of potential therapeutic targets. ..