Gene Symbol: MtnA
Description: Metallothionein A
Alias: BcDNA:GH18460, CG9470, Dmel\CG9470, DrosMtn, MTN, Mtn, anon-WO0153538.42, anon-WO0153538.44, anon-WO0153538.49, mtnA, metallothionein A, CG9470-PA, CG9470-PB, MtnA-PA, MtnA-PB, metallothionein, metallothionein N
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Domenech J, Palacios O, Villarreal L, González Duarte P, Capdevila M, Atrian S. MTO: the second member of a Drosophila dual copper-thionein system. FEBS Lett. 2003;533:72-8 pubmed
    Drosophila MTO metal binding features were analyzed for comparison with MTN, the paralogous Drosophila metallothionein, and to classify MTO as either zinc- or copper-thionein...
  2. Silar P, Theodore L, Mokdad R, Erraiss N, Cadic A, Wegnez M. Metallothionein Mto gene of Drosophila melanogaster: structure and regulation. J Mol Biol. 1990;215:217-24 pubmed
    We report the sequence of the Mto gene, one of the two known metallothionein genes of Drosophila melanogaster, and compare its structure with that of the other metallothionein gene, Mtn...
  3. Southon A, Burke R, Norgate M, Batterham P, Camakaris J. Copper homoeostasis in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. Biochem J. 2004;383:303-9 pubmed
    ..of yeast COX17), and SCO1 and SCO2, did not significantly respond transcriptionally to increased Cu levels, whereas MtnA, MtnB and MtnD (Drosophila orthologues of human metallothioneins) were up-regulated by Cu in a time- and dose-..
  4. Balamurugan K, Egli D, Selvaraj A, Zhang B, Georgiev O, Schaffner W. Metal-responsive transcription factor (MTF-1) and heavy metal stress response in Drosophila and mammalian cells: a functional comparison. Biol Chem. 2004;385:597-603 pubmed
    ..Finally, a clear difference was revealed in the response to mercury, a highly toxic heavy metal: metallothionein-type promoters respond poorly, if at all, to Hg2+ in mammalian cells but strongly in Drosophila, and this ..
  5. Selvaraj A, Balamurugan K, Yepiskoposyan H, Zhou H, Egli D, Georgiev O, et al. Metal-responsive transcription factor (MTF-1) handles both extremes, copper load and copper starvation, by activating different genes. Genes Dev. 2005;19:891-6 pubmed
    From insects to mammals, metallothionein genes are induced in response to heavy metal load by the transcription factor MTF-1, which binds to short DNA sequence motifs, termed metal response elements (MREs)...
  6. Balamurugan K, Egli D, Hua H, Rajaram R, Seisenbacher G, Georgiev O, et al. Copper homeostasis in Drosophila by complex interplay of import, storage and behavioral avoidance. EMBO J. 2007;26:1035-44 pubmed induces the Ctr1B copper importer gene, whereas at high copper concentrations, it mainly induces the metallothionein genes...
  7. Valls M, Bofill R, Romero Isart N, Gonzalez Duarte R, Abian J, Carrascal M, et al. Drosophila MTN: a metazoan copper-thionein related to fungal forms. FEBS Lett. 2000;467:189-94 pubmed
    Two Drosophila metallothioneins (MT) have been reported: MTN, a 40 residue peptide including 10 Cys, and MTO, a 43 residue peptide including 12 Cys...
  8. Egli D, Domènech J, Selvaraj A, Balamurugan K, Hua H, Capdevila M, et al. The four members of the Drosophila metallothionein family exhibit distinct yet overlapping roles in heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification. Genes Cells. 2006;11:647-58 pubmed
    Four metallothionein genes are present in the Drosophila melanogaster genome, designated MtnA, MtnB, MtnC, MtnD, all of which are transcriptionally induced by heavy metals through the same metal-responsive transcription factor, MTF-1...
  9. Mokdad R, Debec A, Wegnez M. Metallothionein genes in Drosophila melanogaster constitute a dual system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:2658-62 pubmed
    We have selected a metallothionein (MT) cDNA clone from a cadmium-resistant Drosophila melanogaster cell line...

More Information


  1. Zhang B, Egli D, Georgiev O, Schaffner W. The Drosophila homolog of mammalian zinc finger factor MTF-1 activates transcription in response to heavy metals. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:4505-14 pubmed
    ..These data underline an important role for dMTF-1 in MT gene regulation and thus heavy metal homeostasis. ..
  2. Egli D, Yepiskoposyan H, Selvaraj A, Balamurugan K, Rajaram R, Simons A, et al. A family knockout of all four Drosophila metallothioneins reveals a central role in copper homeostasis and detoxification. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:2286-96 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the generation of a metallothionein gene family knockout in Drosophila melanogaster by targeted disruption of all four genes (MtnA to -D)...
  3. Atanesyan L, Günther V, Celniker S, Georgiev O, Schaffner W. Characterization of MtnE, the fifth metallothionein member in Drosophila. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2011;16:1047-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we characterize a new fifth member of Drosophila MT gene family, coding for metallothionein E (MtnE). The MtnE transcription unit is located head-to-head with the one of MtnD...
  4. Capy P, Anxolabehere D, Langin T. The strange phylogenies of transposable elements: are horizontal transfers the only explantation?. Trends Genet. 1994;10:7-12 pubmed
    ..Moreover, in many cases, the hypothesis of horizontal transfer must be compared with alternative evolutionary scenarios. ..
  5. Capdevila M, Palacios O, Atrian S. The zn- or cu-thionein character of a metallothionein determines its metal load when synthesized in physiological (metal-unsupplemented) conditions. Bioinorg Chem Appl. 2010;:541829 pubmed publisher
    ..The four MTs are two Drosophila (MtnA and MtnB), one yeast (Crs5), and one mouse (mMT1) metallothionein isoforms...
  6. Filipiak M, Tylko G, Pyza E. Zinc induces caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway of the programmed cell death in haemocytes of Drosophila melanogaster. Biometals. 2012;25:507-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained results showed that rapid increase of [Zn(2+)]( i ) in the cytoplasm up-regulates metallothionein MtnB but not MtnA gene expression in cells treated with Zn(2+) in both concentrations...
  7. Pennington K, Marr S, Chirn G, Marr M. Holo-TFIID controls the magnitude of a transcription burst and fine-tuning of transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:7678-83 pubmed publisher
    ..from Drosophila cells and determined the consequences on metal-induced transcription at an inducible gene, metallothionein B. We observe a marked increase in the levels of both the mature message and pre-mRNA in TAF1-depleted cells...
  8. Kohn M, Shapiro J, Wu C. Decoupled differentiation of gene expression and coding sequence among Drosophila populations. Genes Genet Syst. 2008;83:265-73 pubmed
    ..Our contrasts between genetic differentiation of populations in expression and sequences revealed that even when genotype and phenotype can be connected the sources of variation that are the target of selection remain to be identified. ..
  9. Southon A, Farlow A, Norgate M, Burke R, Camakaris J. Malvolio is a copper transporter in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:709-16 pubmed publisher
    ..An MtnA-EYFP reporter was used as a proxy measure of Cu distribution within Mvl(97f/+) larvae...
  10. Xiao G, Fan Q, Wang X, Zhou B. Huntington disease arises from a combinatory toxicity of polyglutamine and copper binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:14995-5000 pubmed publisher
    ..The existence of these two parallel pathways converging into Htt toxicity also suggests that an ideal HD therapy would be a multipronged approach that takes both these actions into consideration. ..
  11. Lanier L, Storm K, Shafaie A, Volkman L. Copper treatment increases recombinant baculovirus production and polyhedrin and p10 expression. Biotechniques. 1997;23:728-35 pubmed
    Treatment with 2 mM CuSO4 was used to induce a Drosophila melanogaster metallothionein (Mtn) promoter that had been cloned into a recombinant baculovirus...
  12. Guirola M, Naranjo Y, Capdevila M, Atrian S. Comparative genomics analysis of metallothioneins in twelve Drosophila species. J Inorg Biochem. 2011;105:1050-9 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster, where four isogenes (MtnA to MtnD) are known and deeply characterized...
  13. Otto E, Young J, Maroni G. Structure and expression of a tandem duplication of the Drosophila metallothionein gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:6025-9 pubmed
    A strain of cadmium-resistant Drosophila containing a chromosomal duplication of the metallothionein gene was isolated...
  14. Chen X, Hua H, Balamurugan K, Kong X, Zhang L, George G, et al. Copper sensing function of Drosophila metal-responsive transcription factor-1 is mediated by a tetranuclear Cu(I) cluster. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:3128-38 pubmed publisher
    ..or completely impaired in their ability to protect flies from copper toxicity and fail to up-regulate MtnA (metallothionein) expression in response to excess Cu...
  15. Wang X, Wu Y, Zhou B. Dietary zinc absorption is mediated by ZnT1 in Drosophila melanogaster. FASEB J. 2009;23:2650-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This study will be helpful in understanding the fundamental process of acquiring dietary zinc in higher eukaryotes. ..
  16. Theodore L, Ho A, Maroni G. Recent evolutionary history of the metallothionein gene Mtn in Drosophila. Genet Res. 1991;58:203-10 pubmed
    A new allele of one of the metallothionein genes of D. melanogaster, Mtn.3, sheds light on the recent evolution of this gene. In comparison to the previously studied Mtn1 allele found in Canton S, this new allele, Mtn...
  17. Garrity P, Lee C, Salecker I, Robertson H, Desai C, Zinn K, et al. Retinal axon target selection in Drosophila is regulated by a receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase. Neuron. 1999;22:707-17 pubmed
    ..We propose PTP69D promotes R1-R6 targeting in response to extracellular signals by dephosphorylating substrate(s) in R1-R6 growth cones. ..
  18. Whiting J, Pliley M, Farmer J, Jeffery D. In situ hybridization analysis of chromosomal homologies in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis. Genetics. 1989;122:99-109 pubmed
    ..The results were consistent with H.J. Muller's proposal that chromosomal elements have been conserved during evolution of this genus. ..
  19. Wang M, Bohmann D, Jasper H. JNK signaling confers tolerance to oxidative stress and extends lifespan in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;5:811-6 pubmed
    ..Our work thus identifies the evolutionarily conserved JNK signaling pathway as a major genetic factor in the control of longevity. ..
  20. Maroni G, Otto E, Lastowski Perry D. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a metallothionein gene of Drosophila. Genetics. 1986;112:493-504 pubmed
    A chromosomal DNA segment containing the metallothionein gene was isolated from a genomic library of Drosophila melanogaster using a previously characterized cDNA of this species as a probe...
  21. Norgate M, Southon A, Zou S, Zhan M, Sun Y, Batterham P, et al. Copper homeostasis gene discovery in Drosophila melanogaster. Biometals. 2007;20:683-97 pubmed
    ..Building on this information, there is great potential for the further use of Drosophila for copper homeostasis gene discovery. ..
  22. Günther V, Waldvogel D, Nosswitz M, Georgiev O, Schaffner W. Dissection of Drosophila MTF-1 reveals a domain for differential target gene activation upon copper overload vs. copper starvation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:404-11 pubmed publisher
    ..It mediates protection against heavy metal load by activating the expression of metallothionein and other genes...
  23. Faucheux M, Netter S, Bloyer S, Moussa M, Boissonneau E, Lemeunier F, et al. Advantages of a P-element construct containing MtnA sequences for the identification of patterning and cell determination genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;265:14-22 pubmed
    The P[MTW] transposon carries a functional MtnA (metallothionein) gene and a miniwhite reporter gene...
  24. Rasmussen E, Lis J. Short transcripts of the ternary complex provide insight into RNA polymerase II elongational pausing. J Mol Biol. 1995;252:522-35 pubmed
    ..metabolic genes (Gapdh-1 and Gapdh-2), where paused polymerases were thought to be present, plus two other genes (Mtn and yp1), where polymerase pausing has not been detected in the past...
  25. Alvarado D, Rice A, Duffy J. Knockouts of Kekkon1 define sequence elements essential for Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition. Genetics. 2004;166:201-11 pubmed
    ..Last, our analysis implicates glycine 160 of the second LRR in regulating EGFR binding. ..
  26. Cherbas L, Cherbas P. The arthropod initiator: the capsite consensus plays an important role in transcription. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1993;23:81-90 pubmed
  27. Klueg K, Alvarado D, Muskavitch M, Duffy J. Creation of a GAL4/UAS-coupled inducible gene expression system for use in Drosophila cultured cell lines. Genesis. 2002;34:119-22 pubmed
  28. Crandall K, Templeton A. Empirical tests of some predictions from coalescent theory with applications to intraspecific phylogeny reconstruction. Genetics. 1993;134:959-69 pubmed
  29. Bunch T, Grinblat Y, Goldstein L. Characterization and use of the Drosophila metallothionein promoter in cultured Drosophila melanogaster cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:1043-61 pubmed
    The promoter from the metallothionein gene may be a useful conditional promoter for the construction of chimeric genes to be expressed in Drosophila cells in culture...
  30. Zhou H, Cadigan K, Thiele D. A copper-regulated transporter required for copper acquisition, pigmentation, and specific stages of development in Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:48210-8 pubmed
    ..These studies establish that copper acquisition through the Drosophila Ctr1B transporter is crucial for normal growth and in early and specific stages of metazoan development. ..
  31. Saini N, Georgiev O, Schaffner W. The parkin mutant phenotype in the fly is largely rescued by metal-responsive transcription factor (MTF-1). Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2151-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings also raise the possibility that MTF-1 gene polymorphisms in humans could affect the severity of Parkinson's disease. ..
  32. Pérez Rafael S, Kurz A, Guirola M, Capdevila M, Palacios O, Atrian S. Is MtnE, the fifth Drosophila metallothionein, functionally distinct from the other members of this polymorphic protein family?. Metallomics. 2012;4:342-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Until recently, the Drosophila MT system was assumed to be composed of 4 isoforms (MtnA, MtnB, MtnC and MtnD), all of them responsive to heavy metal load through the dMTF1 transcription factor...
  33. Soriano S, Calap Quintana P, Llorens J, Al Ramahi I, Gutierrez L, Martínez Sebastián M, et al. Metal Homeostasis Regulators Suppress FRDA Phenotypes in a Drosophila Model of the Disease. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0159209 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that the metal dysregulation in FRDA includes other metals besides iron, therefore providing a new set of potential therapeutic targets. ..
  34. Silar P, Wegnez M. Expression of the Drosophila melanogaster metallothionein genes in yeast. FEBS Lett. 1990;269:273-6 pubmed
    The metallothionein system in Drosophila melanogaster is composed of two genes, Mto and Mtn, that code for distinctly different proteins...
  35. Wiehe T, Stephan W. Analysis of a genetic hitchhiking model, and its application to DNA polymorphism data from Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Biol Evol. 1993;10:842-54 pubmed
    ..3 x 10(-8). Additional data are needed to estimate this parameter more precisely. The estimation of alpha v is important, as this parameter determines the shape of the frequency distribution of strongly selected substitutions. ..
  36. Maroni G, Lastowski Perry D, Otto E, Watson D. Effects of heavy metals on Drosophila larvae and a metallothionein cDNA. Environ Health Perspect. 1986;65:107-16 pubmed
    ..This clone showed strong hybridization to mouse metallothionein-I cDNA at reduced stringency...
  37. Dallinger R. Metallothionein research in terrestrial invertebrates: synopsis and perspectives. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1996;113:125-33 pubmed
    While most of metallothionein research during the past years has been carried out on mammals or vertebrates, only relatively few studies have been directed towards invertebrates...
  38. Durliat M, Bonneton F, Boissonneau E, Andre M, Wegnez M. Expression of metallothionein genes during the post-embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster. Biometals. 1995;8:339-51 pubmed
    Expression of the two Drosophila melanogaster metallothionein genes, Mtn and Mto, has been analyzed by in situ hybridization during post-embryonic development...
  39. Catalan A, Glaser Schmitt A, Argyridou E, Duchen P, Parsch J. An Indel Polymorphism in the MtnA 3' Untranslated Region Is Associated with Gene Expression Variation and Local Adaptation in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005987 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we report that an indel polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the metallothionein gene MtnA is associated with gene expression variation in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster...
  40. Hua H, Münter L, Harmeier A, Georgiev O, Multhaup G, Schaffner W. Toxicity of Alzheimer's disease-associated A? peptide is ameliorated in a Drosophila model by tight control of zinc and copper availability. Biol Chem. 2011;392:919-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that a tight control of zinc and copper availability can minimize cellular damage associated with A?42 expression. ..
  41. Nguyen A, Altomare L, McElwain M. Decreased accumulation of cadmium in Drosophila selected for resistance suggests a mechanism independent of metallothionein. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2014;160:245-9 pubmed publisher
    ..While metallothionein-mediated sequestration has been extensively studied as a mechanism of cadmium resistance, a link between ..
  42. Zhao J, Klyne G, Benson E, Gudmannsdottir E, White Cooper H, Shotton D. FlyTED: the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:D710-5 pubmed publisher, and provides both web-based search and browse interfaces, and programmatic access via an SQL dump, OAI-PMH and SPARQL. FlyTED is available at ..
  43. Sims H, Chirn G, Marr M. Single nucleotide in the MTF-1 binding site can determine metal-specific transcription activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16516-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that the type of binding site chosen is an important component of the capability to induce the metal-specific transcription activation. ..
  44. Lastowski Perry D, Otto E, Maroni G. Nucleotide sequence and expression of a Drosophila metallothionein. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:1527-30 pubmed
    ..This clone showed strong hybridization to mouse metallothionein I cDNA at reduced stringency...
  45. Angelichio M, Beck J, Johansen H, Ivey Hoyle M. Comparison of several promoters and polyadenylation signals for use in heterologous gene expression in cultured Drosophila cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:5037-43 pubmed
    ..the actin 5C distal promoter and the alpha 1-tubulin promoter, with the tightly regulated Drosophila metallothionein (Mtn) promoter and the Bombyx mori fibroin promoter...
  46. Demontis F, Piccirillo R, Goldberg A, Perrimon N. Mechanisms of skeletal muscle aging: insights from Drosophila and mammalian models. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:1339-52 pubmed publisher
  47. Maroni G, Ho A, Theodore L. Genetic control of cadmium tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster. Environ Health Perspect. 1995;103:1116-8 pubmed
    Files from a transgenic line of Drosophila melanogaster with two copies of the metallothionein allele Mtn3 were more tolerant to cadmium than strains with only one copy of the gene...
  48. Otto E, Allen J, Young J, Palmiter R, Maroni G. A DNA segment controlling metal-regulated expression of the Drosophila melanogaster metallothionein gene Mtn. Mol Cell Biol. 1987;7:1710-5 pubmed
    Cloned fragments of DNA including the Drosophila melanogaster metallothionein gene Mtn and different amounts of 5' flanking sequences were introduced into flies by P-element-mediated germ line transformation...
  49. Bonneton F, Wegnez M. Developmental variability of metallothionein Mtn gene expression in the species of the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. Dev Genet. 1995;16:253-63 pubmed publisher
    Developmental expression of the Drosophila melanogaster metallothionein Mtn gene has been analysed...
  50. Stephan W, Rodriguez V, Zhou B, Parsch J. Molecular evolution of the metallothionein gene Mtn in the melanogaster species group: results from Drosophila ananassae. Genetics. 1994;138:135-43 pubmed
    Three distinctly different alleles of the metallothionein gene Mtn have been identified in natural Drosophila melanogaster populations: Mtn.3, Mtn1, and Dp(Mtn1), where the latter designates a tandem duplication of Mtn1...
  51. Lange B, Langley C, Stephan W. Molecular evolution of Drosophila metallothionein genes. Genetics. 1990;126:921-32 pubmed
    The metallothionein genes of Drosophila melanogaster, Mtn and Mto, may play an important role in heavy metal detoxification...
  52. Tio L, Pagani M, Atrian S. Drosophila proteins interacting with metallothioneins: a metal-dependent recognition. Proteomics. 2009;9:2568-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present work, we have detected that the two major D. melanogaster isoforms (MtnA and MtnB) interact with the peroxiredoxin (Prx) encoded by the gene Jafrac1, both in a clear metal-dependent ..
  53. Bonneton F, Theodore L, Silar P, Maroni G, Wegnez M. Response of Drosophila metallothionein promoters to metallic, heat shock and oxidative stresses. FEBS Lett. 1996;380:33-8 pubmed
    The metallothionein system in Drosophila melanogaster is composed of two genes, Mtn and Mto. In order to compare the induction properties of these genes, we transformed D...
  54. Sun X, Seeberger J, Alberico T, Wang C, Wheeler C, Schauss A, et al. Açai palm fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp improves survival of flies on a high fat diet. Exp Gerontol. 2010;45:243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..the transcript level of l(2)efl, a small heat-shock-related protein, and two detoxification genes, GstD1 and MtnA, while decreasing the transcript level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), a key gene involved in ..
  55. Begun D, Aquadro C. Levels of naturally occurring DNA polymorphism correlate with recombination rates in D. melanogaster. Nature. 1992;356:519-20 pubmed
    ..Hitch-hiking thus seems to occur over a large fraction of the Drosophila genome and may constitute a major constraint on levels of genetic variation in nature. ..