Gene Symbol: msps
Description: mini spindles
Alias: CG5000, Dis1, Dmel\CG5000, MSPS, Msps, TOG, XMAP215, anon-WO0140519.136, mini spindles, CG5000-PB, CG5000-PC, CG5000-PD, CG5000-PE, CG5000-PF, mini-spindles, minispindles, msps-PB, msps-PC, msps-PD, msps-PE, msps-PF
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Currie J, Stewman S, Schimizzi G, Slep K, Ma A, Rogers S. The microtubule lattice and plus-end association of Drosophila Mini spindles is spatially regulated to fine-tune microtubule dynamics. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:4343-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we conducted an in vivo structure-function analysis of the Drosophila homologue Mini spindles (Msps)...
  2. Slep K, Vale R. Structural basis of microtubule plus end tracking by XMAP215, CLIP-170, and EB1. Mol Cell. 2007;27:976-91 pubmed
    ..Three main +TIP classes have been identified (XMAP215, EB1, and CLIP-170), but whether they act upon microtubule plus ends through a similar mechanism has not been ..
  3. Pearson N, Cullen C, Dzhindzhev N, Ohkura H. A pre-anaphase role for a Cks/Suc1 in acentrosomal spindle formation of Drosophila female meiosis. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:1058-63 pubmed
    ..In addition, we found that the essential pole components, Msps and D-TACC, were often mislocalized to the equator, which may explain part of the spindle defect...
  4. Li W, Miki T, Watanabe T, Kakeno M, Sugiyama I, Kaibuchi K, et al. EB1 promotes microtubule dynamics by recruiting Sentin in Drosophila cells. J Cell Biol. 2011;193:973-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of Sentin attenuated plus end accumulation of Msps (mini spindles), the orthologue of XMAP215 microtubule polymerase...
  5. Giunta K, Jang J, Manheim E, Subramanian G, McKim K. subito encodes a kinesin-like protein required for meiotic spindle pole formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2002;160:1489-501 pubmed
    ..sub is also required for the early embryonic divisions but is otherwise dispensable for most mitotic divisions. ..
  6. Giet R, McLean D, Descamps S, Lee M, Raff J, Prigent C, et al. Drosophila Aurora A kinase is required to localize D-TACC to centrosomes and to regulate astral microtubules. J Cell Biol. 2002;156:437-51 pubmed
    ..that one of the functions of Aurora A kinase is to direct centrosomal organization such that D-TACC complexed to the MSPS/XMAP215 microtubule-associated protein may be recruited, and thus modulate the behavior of astral microtubules.
  7. Goshima G, Wollman R, Stuurman N, Scholey J, Vale R. Length control of the metaphase spindle. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1979-88 pubmed
    ..microtubules (Kinesin-5, Kinesin-14, dynein), promote microtubule polymerization (EB1, Mast/Orbit [CLASP], Minispindles [Dis1/XMAP215/TOG]) or depolymerization (Kinesin-8, Kinesin-13), or mediate sister-chromatid cohesion (Rad21) ..
  8. Lee M, Gergely F, Jeffers K, Peak Chew S, Raff J. Msps/XMAP215 interacts with the centrosomal protein D-TACC to regulate microtubule behaviour. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:643-9 pubmed
    The XMAP215/ch-TOG/Msps family of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) promote microtubule growth in vitro and are concentrated at centrosomes in vivo...
  9. Brittle A, Ohkura H. Centrosome maturation: Aurora lights the way to the poles. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R880-2 pubmed
    ..Recent studies show that Aurora A kinase promotes microtubule assembly from centrosomes through the phosphorylation of the conserved centrosomal protein TACC. ..

More Information


  1. Brittle A, Ohkura H. Mini spindles, the XMAP215 homologue, suppresses pausing of interphase microtubules in Drosophila. EMBO J. 2005;24:1387-96 pubmed
    Drosophila Mini spindles (Msps) protein belongs to a conserved family of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs)...
  2. Cullen C, Deak P, Glover D, Ohkura H. mini spindles: A gene encoding a conserved microtubule-associated protein required for the integrity of the mitotic spindle in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:1005-18 pubmed
    We describe a new Drosophila gene, mini spindles (msps) identified in a cytological screen for mitotic mutant...
  3. Rogers G, Rusan N, Peifer M, Rogers S. A multicomponent assembly pathway contributes to the formation of acentrosomal microtubule arrays in interphase Drosophila cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:3163-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results modify our view of the cycle of centrosome function and reveal a multi-component acentrosomal microtubule assembly pathway to establish interphase microtubule arrays in Drosophila. ..
  4. Barros T, Kinoshita K, Hyman A, Raff J. Aurora A activates D-TACC-Msps complexes exclusively at centrosomes to stabilize centrosomal microtubules. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:1039-46 pubmed
    ..Transforming acidic coiled coil (TACC) proteins stabilize MTs during mitosis by recruiting Minispindles (Msps)/XMAP215 proteins to centrosomes...
  5. Raff J. Centrosomes and cancer: lessons from a TACC. Trends Cell Biol. 2002;12:222-5 pubmed
    ..The model might also apply to several other centrosomal proteins that have been linked to cancer. ..
  6. Cullen C, Ohkura H. Msps protein is localized to acentrosomal poles to ensure bipolarity of Drosophila meiotic spindles. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:637-42 pubmed
    ..The acentrosomal poles contain at least two proteins, Mini-spindles (Msps) and D-TACC, which are also associated with mitotic centrosomes...
  7. Howard A, Fox J, Slep K. Drosophila melanogaster mini spindles TOG3 utilizes unique structural elements to promote domain stability and maintain a TOG1- and TOG2-like tubulin-binding surface. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:10149-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present the structure and characterization of Drosophila melanogaster Mini spindles (Msps) TOG3...
  8. Zhang J, Megraw T. Proper recruitment of gamma-tubulin and D-TACC/Msps to embryonic Drosophila centrosomes requires Centrosomin Motif 1. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:4037-49 pubmed
    ..of gamma-tubulin, D-TACC (the homolog of vertebrate transforming acidic coiled-coil proteins [TACC]), and Minispindles (Msps) to embryonic centrosomes but is not required for assembly of other centrosome components including ..
  9. Benton R, Palacios I, St Johnston D. Drosophila 14-3-3/PAR-5 is an essential mediator of PAR-1 function in axis formation. Dev Cell. 2002;3:659-71 pubmed
    ..The C. elegans 14-3-3 protein, PAR-5, is also required for A-P polarization, suggesting that this is a conserved mechanism by which PAR-1 establishes cellular asymmetries. ..
  10. Lu Y, Wu L, Anderson K. The antibacterial arm of the drosophila innate immune response requires an IkappaB kinase. Genes Dev. 2001;15:104-10 pubmed
    ..The ird5 gene encodes a Drosophila homolog of mammalian IkappaB kinases (IKKs). The ird5 phenotype and sequence suggest that the gene is specifically required for the activation of Relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB family member. ..
  11. Cullen C, Brittle A, Ito T, Ohkura H. The conserved kinase NHK-1 is essential for mitotic progression and unifying acentrosomal meiotic spindles in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:593-602 pubmed
    ..NHK-1 itself is phosphorylated in mitosis and female meiosis, suggesting that this kinase is part of the regulatory system coordinating progression of mitosis and meiosis. ..
  12. Lowery L, Lee H, Lu C, Murphy R, Obar R, Zhai B, et al. Parallel genetic and proteomic screens identify Msps as a CLASP-Abl pathway interactor in Drosophila. Genetics. 2010;185:1311-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We focused our initial investigation on the MT+TIP Minispindles (Msps), identified among the cytoskeletal effectors in both genetic and proteomic screens...
  13. Bucciarelli E, Pellacani C, Naim V, Palena A, Gatti M, Somma M. Drosophila Dgt6 interacts with Ndc80, Msps/XMAP215, and gamma-tubulin to promote kinetochore-driven MT formation. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1839-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In control cells, these fibers are enriched in Dgt6, gamma-tubulin, and Msps/XMAP215. Consistent with these results, Dgt6 coprecipitates with Msps, D-TACC, gamma-tubulin, Ndc80, and Nuf2...
  14. Scholey J, Rogers G, Sharp D. Mitosis, microtubules, and the matrix. J Cell Biol. 2001;154:261-6 pubmed
    ..The mechanical events of mitosis depend on the action of microtubules and mitotic motors, but whether these spindle components act alone or in concert with a spindle matrix is an important question. ..
  15. Neuwald A, Hirano T. HEAT repeats associated with condensins, cohesins, and other complexes involved in chromosome-related functions. Genome Res. 2000;10:1445-52 pubmed
    ..HEAT repeats also were found in dis1-TOG family and cofactor D family microtubule-associated proteins, which, owing to their roles in microtubule ..
  16. Chen L, Stone M, Tao J, Rolls M. Axon injury and stress trigger a microtubule-based neuroprotective pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:11842-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that axon injury or stress triggers a microtubule-based neuroprotective pathway that stabilizes neurons against degeneration. ..
  17. Li W, Moriwaki T, Tani T, Watanabe T, Kaibuchi K, Goshima G. Reconstitution of dynamic microtubules with Drosophila XMAP215, EB1, and Sentin. J Cell Biol. 2012;199:849-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, three MT tip-localizing proteins, Msps/XMAP215, EB1, and Sentin (an EB1 cargo protein), have been identified as being critical for accelerating MT growth and ..
  18. Moutinho Pereira S, Debec A, Maiato H. Microtubule cytoskeleton remodeling by acentriolar microtubule-organizing centers at the entry and exit from mitosis in Drosophila somatic cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2796-808 pubmed publisher
    ..CDK1 down-regulation at anaphase coordinates the activity of Msps/XMAP215 and the kinesin-13 KLP10A to favor net MT growth and stability from aMTOCs...
  19. Perkins A, Tanentzapf G. An ongoing role for structural sarcomeric components in maintaining Drosophila melanogaster muscle function and structure. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e99362 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide in vivo evidence of adult muscle protein turnover and uncover specific functional defects associated with reduced expression of a subset of cytoskeletal proteins in the adult animal. ..
  20. Buster D, Zhang D, Sharp D. Poleward tubulin flux in spindles: regulation and function in mitotic cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3094-104 pubmed
  21. Gergely F. Centrosomal TACCtics. Bioessays. 2002;24:915-25 pubmed
    ..In this review, I summarise what we already know of this protein family and will use the TACC proteins to illustrate the many facets that centrosomes have developed during the course of evolution. ..
  22. Odde D. Mitotic spindle: disturbing a subtle balance. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R956-9 pubmed
  23. Tan S, Lyulcheva E, Dean J, Bennett D. Mars promotes dTACC dephosphorylation on mitotic spindles to ensure spindle stability. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:27-33 pubmed publisher vivo, Mars binds directly to protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and coimmunoprecipitates from embryo extracts with minispindles and Drosophila transforming acidic coiled-coil (dTACC), two MAPs that function as spindle assembly factors...
  24. Burgess S, Bayliss R, Pfuhl M. Solution NMR assignment of the cryptic sixth TOG domain of mini spindles. Biomol NMR Assign. 2015;9:411-3 pubmed publisher
    ..recently identified a cryptic TOG domain in the XMAP215 family proteins, chTOG and its Drosophila homologue, mini spindles. This domain is not part of the well-established array of TOG domains involved in tubulin polymerisation...
  25. Theurkauf W. TACCing down the spindle poles. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:E159-61 pubmed
  26. Wells W. Microtubules concentrate. J Cell Biol. 2001;154:13 pubmed
  27. Minestrini G, Mathe E, Glover D. Domains of the Pavarotti kinesin-like protein that direct its subcellular distribution: effects of mislocalisation on the tubulin and actin cytoskeleton during Drosophila oogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:725-36 pubmed
  28. Sato K, Nishida K, Shibuya A, Siomi M, Siomi H. Maelstrom coordinates microtubule organization during Drosophila oogenesis through interaction with components of the MTOC. Genes Dev. 2011;25:2361-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Mael forms complexes with microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) components, including Centrosomin, Mini spindles, and ?Tubulin...
  29. Fahmy K, Akber M, Cai X, Koul A, Hayder A, Baumgartner S. αTubulin 67C and Ncd are essential for establishing a cortical microtubular network and formation of the Bicoid mRNA gradient in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e112053 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data strongly corroborate the ARTS model and explain the occurrence of the bcd mRNA gradient. ..
  30. Conduit P, Brunk K, Dobbelaere J, Dix C, Lucas E, Raff J. Centrioles regulate centrosome size by controlling the rate of Cnn incorporation into the PCM. Curr Biol. 2010;20:2178-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism can explain how centrosome size is regulated during the cell cycle and also allows mother and daughter centrioles to set centrosome size independently of one another. ..
  31. Byrnes A, Slep K. TOG-tubulin binding specificity promotes microtubule dynamics and mitotic spindle formation. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:1641-1657 pubmed publisher
    b>XMAP215, CLASP, and Crescerin use arrayed tubulin-binding tumor overexpressed gene (TOG) domains to modulate microtubule dynamics...
  32. Stone M, Nguyen M, Tao J, Allender D, Rolls M. Global up-regulation of microtubule dynamics and polarity reversal during regeneration of an axon from a dendrite. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:767-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that regulation of microtubule dynamics and polarity in response to JNK signaling is key to initiating regeneration of an axon from a dendrite. ..
  33. Trogden K, Rogers S. TOG Proteins Are Spatially Regulated by Rac-GSK3β to Control Interphase Microtubule Dynamics. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0138966 pubmed publisher, we have identified a novel protein-protein interaction between the XMAP215 homologue in Drosophila, Mini spindles (Msps), and the CLASP homologue, Orbit...
  34. Pokrywka N, Payne Tobin A, Raley Susman K, Swartzman S. Microtubules, the ER and Exu: new associations revealed by analysis of mini spindles mutations. Mech Dev. 2009;126:289-300 pubmed publisher
    ..We used mutations in mini spindles (msps), a microtubule-associated protein, to disrupt microtubule function during mid- and late-oogenesis, and ..
  35. Fox J, Howard A, Currie J, Rogers S, Slep K. The XMAP215 family drives microtubule polymerization using a structurally diverse TOG array. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:2375-92 pubmed publisher
    b>XMAP215 family members are potent microtubule (MT) polymerases, with mutants displaying reduced MT growth rates and aberrant spindle morphologies. XMAP215 proteins contain arrayed tumor overexpressed gene (TOG) domains that bind tubulin...
  36. Basto R, Lau J, Vinogradova T, Gardiol A, Woods C, Khodjakov A, et al. Flies without centrioles. Cell. 2006;125:1375-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, centrioles are essential for the formation of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella, but, remarkably, they are not essential for most aspects of Drosophila development. ..
  37. Kao L, Megraw T. Centrocortin cooperates with centrosomin to organize Drosophila embryonic cleavage furrows. Curr Biol. 2009;19:937-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings show that the C terminus of CNN coordinates cleavage furrow formation through binding to CEN, thereby providing a molecular link between the centrosome and cleavage furrow assembly. ..
  38. Moon W, Hazelrigg T. The Drosophila microtubule-associated protein mini spindles is required for cytoplasmic microtubules in oogenesis. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1957-61 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila family member, encoded by the mini spindles (msps) gene, is maternally expressed and loaded into the egg, where it is an essential component of meiotic ..
  39. Chen K, Koe C, Xing Z, Tian X, Rossi F, Wang C, et al. Arl2- and Msps-dependent microtubule growth governs asymmetric division. J Cell Biol. 2016;212:661-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Drosophila ADP ribosylation factor like-2 (Arl2) and Msps, a known microtubule-binding protein, control cell polarity and spindle orientation of NBs...
  40. Fernandez N, Chang Q, Buster D, Sharp D, Ma A. A model for the regulatory network controlling the dynamics of kinetochore microtubule plus-ends and poleward flux in metaphase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7846-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The model also provides a simple and robust physical mechanism through which the regulatory networks at kinetochore microtubule plus- and minus-ends could communicate. ..
  41. Wang C, Li S, Januschke J, Rossi F, Izumi Y, Garcia Alvarez G, et al. An ana2/ctp/mud complex regulates spindle orientation in Drosophila neuroblasts. Dev Cell. 2011;21:520-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that the centrosomal proteins Ana2 and Ctp regulate Mud function to orient the mitotic spindle during NB asymmetric division. ..
  42. Pokrywka N, Zhang H, Raley Susman K. Distinct roles for hu li tai shao and swallow in cytoskeletal organization during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2014;243:906-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests RNA localization can lead to modifications of both the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons at specific subcellular locales. ..
  43. Blagden S, Glover D. Polar expeditions--provisioning the centrosome for mitosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:505-11 pubmed
    ..Centrosomes enlarge dramatically after mitotic entry, when both Aurora A and Polo-like kinases cooperate to recruit additional gamma-tubulin ring complexes and microtubule-associated proteins to assist spindle formation. ..
  44. Basto R, Gergely F, Draviam V, Ohkura H, Liley K, Raff J. Hsp90 is required to localise cyclin B and Msps/ch-TOG to the mitotic spindle in Drosophila and humans. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1278-87 pubmed
    ..we show that cyclin B interacts with the molecular chaperone Hsp90 and with the MT-associated protein (MAP) Mini spindles (Msps; the Drosophila orthologue of XMAP215/ch-TOG)...
  45. Applewhite D, Grode K, Duncan M, Rogers S. The actin-microtubule cross-linking activity of Drosophila Short stop is regulated by intramolecular inhibition. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:2885-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this mechanism allows Shot to rapidly cross-link dynamic microtubules in response to localized activating signals at the cell cortex. ..