Gene Symbol: msl-3
Description: male-specific lethal 3
Alias: CG8631, DmMsl-3, Dmel\CG8631, MSL, MSL-3, MSL3, MSL3_DROME, Msl 1-3, Msl3, mle(3)132, mle3, mls3, msl, msl3, male-specific lethal 3, CG8631-PA, gene 2, male sex lethal 3, male sex lethal-3, male specifc lethal, male specific lethal 3, msl-3-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Uenoyama T, Fukunaga A, Ioshi K. Studies on the sex-specific lethals of Drosophila melanogaster. V. Sex transformation caused by interactions between a female-specific lethal, Sxlf 1, and the male-specific lethals mle(3)132, msl-2(27), and mle. Genetics. 1982;102:233-43 pubmed
    ..between a female-specific lethal mutant, Sxlf 1, and each of three male-specific lethal mutants, mle(3)132, msl-2(27) and mle, of Drosophila melanogaster were observed to produce morphological changes in various sexually ..
  2. Park S, Kang Y, Sypula J, Choi J, Oh H, Park Y. An evolutionarily conserved domain of roX2 RNA is sufficient for induction of H4-Lys16 acetylation on the Drosophila X chromosome. Genetics. 2007;177:1429-37 pubmed
    The male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, which includes two noncoding RNA on X (roX)1 and roX2 RNAs, induces histone H4-Lys16 acetylation for twofold hypertranscription of the male X chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster...
  3. Kageyama Y, Mengus G, Gilfillan G, Kennedy H, Stuckenholz C, Kelley R, et al. Association and spreading of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex from a discrete roX1 chromatin entry site. EMBO J. 2001;20:2236-45 pubmed
    In Drosophila, dosage compensation is controlled by the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex consisting of MSL proteins and roX RNAs...
  4. Bertram M, Pereira Smith O. Conservation of the MORF4 related gene family: identification of a new chromo domain subfamily and novel protein motif. Gene. 2001;266:111-21 pubmed
    ..searches identified human retinoblastoma binding protein 1 (RBP-1), Drosophila melanogaster male specific lethal-3 (Msl-3), S. pombe altered polarity-13 (Alp13) and S...
  5. Hamada F, Park P, Gordadze P, Kuroda M. Global regulation of X chromosomal genes by the MSL complex in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2289-94 pubmed
    ..To distinguish between the two models, we used RNA interference to deplete Male-Specific Lethal (MSL) complexes from male-like tissue culture cells...
  6. Koonin E, Zhou S, Lucchesi J. The chromo superfamily: new members, duplication of the chromo domain and possible role in delivering transcription regulators to chromatin. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23:4229-33 pubmed
    ..The most interesting new members of the chromo superfamily are Drosophila male-specific lethal (MSL-3) protein involved in the X chromosome gene dosage compensation in the males and human retinoblastoma-binding ..
  7. Stuckenholz C, Kageyama Y, Kuroda M. Guilt by association: non-coding RNAs, chromosome-specific proteins and dosage compensation in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 1999;15:454-8 pubmed
    ..The discovery of non-coding RNAs that 'paint' dosage-compensated X chromosomes in mammals and in Drosophila suggests that RNAs play an intriguing, unexpected role in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. ..
  8. Franke A, Baker B. Dosage compensation rox!. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2000;12:351-4 pubmed
  9. Alekseyenko A, Peng S, Larschan E, Gorchakov A, Lee O, Kharchenko P, et al. A sequence motif within chromatin entry sites directs MSL establishment on the Drosophila X chromosome. Cell. 2008;134:599-609 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila MSL complex associates with active genes specifically on the male X chromosome to acetylate histone H4 at lysine 16 and increase expression approximately 2-fold...

More Information


  1. Gilfillan G, König C, Dahlsveen I, Prakoura N, Straub T, Lamm R, et al. Cumulative contributions of weak DNA determinants to targeting the Drosophila dosage compensation complex. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:3561-72 pubmed
    ..The results support a model for MSL2 recruitment according to which several different, degenerate sequence motifs of variable affinity cluster and synergise to form a high affinity site. ..
  2. Palmer M, Richman R, Richter L, Kuroda M. Sex-specific regulation of the male-specific lethal-1 dosage compensation gene in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1994;8:698-706 pubmed
    ..b>msl-1 is one of four genes that are essential for dosage compensation in males, and MSL-1 protein is associated ..
  3. Sural T, Peng S, Li B, Workman J, Park P, Kuroda M. The MSL3 chromodomain directs a key targeting step for dosage compensation of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:1318-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we analyze the role of the MSL3 chromodomain in the second targeting step...
  4. Franke A, Baker B. The rox1 and rox2 RNAs are essential components of the compensasome, which mediates dosage compensation in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 1999;4:117-22 pubmed
    ..The rox RNAs and MSL proteins also colocalize with the X chromosome in all somatic cells and are expressed in the same temporal pattern ..
  5. Rattner B, Meller V. Drosophila male-specific lethal 2 protein controls sex-specific expression of the roX genes. Genetics. 2004;166:1825-32 pubmed
    The MSL complex of Drosophila upregulates transcription of the male X chromosome, equalizing male and female X-linked gene expression...
  6. Bhadra U, Pal Bhadra M, Birchler J. Role of the male specific lethal (msl) genes in modifying the effects of sex chromosomal dosage in Drosophila. Genetics. 1999;152:249-68 pubmed
    Immunostaining of chromosomes shows that the male-specific lethal (MSL) proteins are associated with all female chromosomes at a low level but are sequestered to the X chromosome in males...
  7. Soruco M, Chery J, Bishop E, Siggers T, Tolstorukov M, Leydon A, et al. The CLAMP protein links the MSL complex to the X chromosome during Drosophila dosage compensation. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1551-6 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila male-specific lethal (MSL) dosage compensation complex increases transcript levels on the single male X chromosome to equal the transcript levels in XX females...
  8. Deng X, Meller V. Non-coding RNA in fly dosage compensation. Trends Biochem Sci. 2006;31:526-32 pubmed
    ..Several recent studies in Drosophila provide new insight into the principles of X-chromosome recognition and the function of non-coding RNA in this process. ..
  9. Furuhashi H, Nakajima M, Hirose S. DNA supercoiling factor contributes to dosage compensation in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:4475-83 pubmed
    ..SCF functionally interacts with components of the MSL complex, which are required for dosage compensation via hypertranscription of the male X chromosome...
  10. Simon M, Wang C, Kharchenko P, West J, Chapman B, Alekseyenko A, et al. The genomic binding sites of a noncoding RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20497-502 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal the genomic targets of roX2 and demonstrate how CHART can be used to study RNAs in a manner analogous to chromatin immunoprecipitation for proteins. ..
  11. Nusinow D, Panning B. Recognition and modification of seX chromosomes. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2005;15:206-13 pubmed
    ..Finally, evidence from mammals suggests that the chromatin modifications that mediate dosage compensation are very dynamic, because they are established, reversed and re-established early in development. ..
  12. Bashaw G, Baker B. The msl-2 dosage compensation gene of Drosophila encodes a putative DNA-binding protein whose expression is sex specifically regulated by Sex-lethal. Development. 1995;121:3245-58 pubmed
    ..We have cloned the msl-2 gene and shown that MSL-2 protein is co-localized with the other three MSL proteins at hundreds of sites along ..
  13. Kind J, Vaquerizas J, Gebhardt P, Gentzel M, Luscombe N, Bertone P, et al. Genome-wide analysis reveals MOF as a key regulator of dosage compensation and gene expression in Drosophila. Cell. 2008;133:813-28 pubmed publisher
    ..More specifically, on the male X chromosome, where MSL1 and MSL3 are preferentially associated with the 3' end of dosage compensated genes, MOF displays a bimodal distribution ..
  14. Gorman M, Kuroda M, Baker B. Regulation of the sex-specific binding of the maleless dosage compensation protein to the male X chromosome in Drosophila. Cell. 1993;72:39-49 pubmed
    ..Additionally, we have found that mle X chromosome binding requires wild-type msl1, msl2, and msl3 functions...
  15. Ilik I, Quinn J, Georgiev P, Tavares Cadete F, Maticzka D, Toscano S, et al. Tandem stem-loops in roX RNAs act together to mediate X chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2013;51:156-73 pubmed publisher constitute the minimal RNA unit present in multiple copies in diverse arrangements for nucleation of the MSL complex. MLE binds to these domains with distinct ATP-independent and ATP-dependent behavior...
  16. Buscaino A, Legube G, Akhtar A. X-chromosome targeting and dosage compensation are mediated by distinct domains in MSL-3. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:531-8 pubmed
    ..Genetic and biochemical studies have demonstrated that male-specific lethal (MSL) proteins together with roX RNAs regulate this process...
  17. Philip P, Pettersson F, Stenberg P. Sequence signatures involved in targeting the Male-Specific Lethal complex to X-chromosomal genes in Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:97 pubmed publisher
    ..of genes on the X chromosome(s) and the autosomes, is at least partially mediated by the Male-Specific Lethal (MSL) complex...
  18. Akhtar A. Dosage compensation: an intertwined world of RNA and chromatin remodelling. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2003;13:161-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, non-coding RNAs appear to play a dual role, being targeting modules as well as encoding for target sites for complex recognition. ..
  19. Gorchakov A, Alekseyenko A, Kharchenko P, Park P, Kuroda M. Long-range spreading of dosage compensation in Drosophila captures transcribed autosomal genes inserted on X. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2266-71 pubmed publisher
    Dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster males is achieved via targeting of male-specific lethal (MSL) complex to X-linked genes...
  20. Kelley R, Kuroda M. Equality for X chromosomes. Science. 1995;270:1607-10 pubmed
    ..A common theme in the Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans systems is that a subtle alteration of chromatin structure may impose this modest, but vital adjustment of the X chromosome transcription level. ..
  21. Kotlikova I, Demakova O, Semeshin V, Shloma V, Boldyreva L, Kuroda M, et al. The Drosophila dosage compensation complex binds to polytene chromosomes independently of developmental changes in transcription. Genetics. 2006;172:963-74 pubmed
    ..These data imply that, independently of other MSL proteins, the RNA-helicase MLE might participate in general transcriptional regulation or RNA processing.
  22. Morales V, Regnard C, Izzo A, Vetter I, Becker P. The MRG domain mediates the functional integration of MSL3 into the dosage compensation complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:5947-54 pubmed
    ..We showed previously that MSL3 is essential for the activation of MOF's nucleosomal histone acetyltransferase activity within an MSL1-MOF complex...
  23. Morales V, Straub T, Neumann M, Mengus G, Akhtar A, Becker P. Functional integration of the histone acetyltransferase MOF into the dosage compensation complex. EMBO J. 2004;23:2258-68 pubmed
    ..The functional consequences of this interaction were studied in vitro. Simultaneous contact of MOF with MSL1 and MSL3 led to its recruitment to chromatin, a dramatic stimulation of HAT activity and to improved substrate specificity...
  24. Cline T, Meyer B. Vive la différence: males vs females in flies vs worms. Annu Rev Genet. 1996;30:637-702 pubmed
    ..Although no overlap has been found among the molecules used by flies and worms to achieve sex determination, striking similarities have been found in the genetic strategies used by these two species to differentiate their sexes. ..
  25. Stenberg P, Larsson J. Buffering and the evolution of chromosome-wide gene regulation. Chromosoma. 2011;120:213-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss the origin and function of buffering and compensation using Drosophila as a model. ..
  26. Smith E, Pannuti A, Gu W, Steurnagel A, Cook R, Allis C, et al. The drosophila MSL complex acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16, a chromatin modification linked to dosage compensation. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:312-8 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the MSL complex is responsible for the specific chromatin modification characteristic of the X chromosome in Drosophila ..
  27. Wang Y, Zhang W, Jin Y, Johansen J, Johansen K. The JIL-1 tandem kinase mediates histone H3 phosphorylation and is required for maintenance of chromatin structure in Drosophila. Cell. 2001;105:433-43 pubmed
    ..We propose a model where JIL-1 kinase activity is required for maintaining the structure of the more open chromatin regions that facilitate gene transcription...
  28. Gu W, Szauter P, Lucchesi J. Targeting of MOF, a putative histone acetyl transferase, to the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Genet. 1998;22:56-64 pubmed
    ..The products of at least five genes, maleless (mle), male-specific lethal 1, 2, and 3 (msl-1, msl-2, msl-3) and males absent on the first (mof), are necessary for dosage compensation...
  29. Alekseyenko A, Larschan E, Lai W, Park P, Kuroda M. High-resolution ChIP-chip analysis reveals that the Drosophila MSL complex selectively identifies active genes on the male X chromosome. Genes Dev. 2006;20:848-57 pubmed
    X-chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila requires the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, which up-regulates gene expression from the single male X chromosome...
  30. Mar n I, Franke A, Bashaw G, Baker B. The dosage compensation system of Drosophila is co-opted by newly evolved X chromosomes. Nature. 1996;383:160-3 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster, dosage compensation is mediated by the binding of the products of the male-specific lethal (msl) genes to the single male X chromosome...
  31. Li F, Parry D, Scott M. The amino-terminal region of Drosophila MSL1 contains basic, glycine-rich, and leucine zipper-like motifs that promote X chromosome binding, self-association, and MSL2 binding, respectively. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8913-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The male-specific lethal (MSL) complex is required for this process and binds to hundreds of sites on the male X chromosome...
  32. Baker B, Gorman M, Mar n I. Dosage compensation in Drosophila. Annu Rev Genet. 1994;28:491-521 pubmed publisher
  33. Larsson J, Svensson M, Stenberg P, M kitalo M. Painting of fourth in genus Drosophila suggests autosome-specific gene regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:9728-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The chromosome specificity is determined at the species level and not by the amino acid sequence. We argue that POF is involved in a chromosome-specific regulatory function...
  34. Akhtar A, Zink D, Becker P. Chromodomains are protein-RNA interaction modules. Nature. 2000;407:405-9 pubmed
    ..MOF is part of a chromosome-associated complex comprising male-specific lethal (MSL) proteins and at least one non-coding roX RNA...
  35. Jin Y, Wang Y, Johansen J, Johansen K. JIL-1, a chromosomal kinase implicated in regulation of chromatin structure, associates with the male specific lethal (MSL) dosage compensation complex. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:1005-10 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that JIL-1 colocalizes and physically interacts with male specific lethal (MSL) dosage compensation complex proteins...
  36. Zhou S, Yang Y, Scott M, Pannuti A, Fehr K, Eisen A, et al. Male-specific lethal 2, a dosage compensation gene of Drosophila, undergoes sex-specific regulation and encodes a protein with a RING finger and a metallothionein-like cysteine cluster. EMBO J. 1995;14:2884-95 pubmed
    ..Three of these genes, maleless (mle), male-specific lethal 1 (msl-1) and male-specific lethal 3 (msl-3), have been cloned and their products have been shown to interact and to bind ..
  37. Li F, Schiemann A, Scott M. Incorporation of the noncoding roX RNAs alters the chromatin-binding specificity of the Drosophila MSL1/MSL2 complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1252-64 pubmed
    The male-specific lethal (MSL) protein-RNA complex is required for X chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster. The MSL2 and MSL1 proteins form a complex and are essential for X chromosome binding...
  38. Straub T, Becker P. Dosage compensation: the beginning and end of generalization. Nat Rev Genet. 2007;8:47-57 pubmed
  39. Lyman L, Copps K, Rastelli L, Kelley R, Kuroda M. Drosophila male-specific lethal-2 protein: structure/function analysis and dependence on MSL-1 for chromosome association. Genetics. 1997;147:1743-53 pubmed
    b>MSL-2 is required for the male-specific assembly of a dosage compensation regulatory complex on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster...
  40. Mendjan S, Akhtar A. The right dose for every sex. Chromosoma. 2007;116:95-106 pubmed
    ..Male-specific lethal (MSL) factors constitute the MSL complex or dosage compensation complex and are important for transcription regulation ..
  41. Gorman M, Franke A, Baker B. Molecular characterization of the male-specific lethal-3 gene and investigations of the regulation of dosage compensation in Drosophila. Development. 1995;121:463-75 pubmed
    ..This hypertranscription requires four autosomal male-specific lethal (msl) genes and is negatively regulated by the Sxl gene in females...
  42. Dahlsveen I, Gilfillan G, Shelest V, Lamm R, Becker P. Targeting determinants of dosage compensation in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e5 pubmed
    ..Our bioinformatics analysis suggests that DCC binding sites may be composed of variable combinations of degenerate motifs. ..
  43. Meller V, Rattner B. The roX genes encode redundant male-specific lethal transcripts required for targeting of the MSL complex. EMBO J. 2002;21:1084-91 pubmed
    ..and roX2 genes of Drosophila produce male-specific non-coding RNAs that co-localize with the Male-Specific Lethal (MSL) protein complex...
  44. Alekseyenko A, Ellison C, Gorchakov A, Zhou Q, Kaiser V, Toda N, et al. Conservation and de novo acquisition of dosage compensation on newly evolved sex chromosomes in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2013;27:853-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster, the MSL complex increases male X transcription approximately twofold...
  45. Spierer A, Begeot F, Spierer P, Delattre M. SU(VAR)3-7 links heterochromatin and dosage compensation in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000066 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results bring to light a link between heterochromatin and dosage compensation...
  46. Gelbart M, Larschan E, Peng S, Park P, Kuroda M. Drosophila MSL complex globally acetylates H4K16 on the male X chromosome for dosage compensation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:825-32 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila melanogaster male-specific lethal (MSL) complex binds the single male X chromosome to upregulate gene expression to equal that from the two female X chromosomes...
  47. Straub T, Dahlsveen I, Becker P. Dosage compensation in flies: mechanism, models, mystery. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:3258-63 pubmed
    ..We discuss the prevalent models in the context of recent experimental observations. ..
  48. Fagegaltier D, Baker B. X chromosome sites autonomously recruit the dosage compensation complex in Drosophila males. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:e341 pubmed
    It has been proposed that dosage compensation in Drosophila males occurs by binding of two core proteins, MSL-1 and MSL-2, to a set of 35-40 X chromosome "entry sites" that serve to nucleate mature complexes, termed ..
  49. Oh H, Bone J, Kuroda M. Multiple classes of MSL binding sites target dosage compensation to the X chromosome of Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2004;14:481-7 pubmed
    b>MSL complexes bind hundreds of sites along the single male X chromosome to achieve dosage compensation in Drosophila...
  50. Mar n I, Baker B. Origin and evolution of the regulatory gene male-specific lethal-3. Mol Biol Evol. 2000;17:1240-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Several msls, including male-specific lethal-3 (msl-3), encode proteins of unknown function. We cloned the Drosophila virilis msl-3 gene...
  51. Copps K, Richman R, Lyman L, Chang K, Rampersad Ammons J, Kuroda M. Complex formation by the Drosophila MSL proteins: role of the MSL2 RING finger in protein complex assembly. EMBO J. 1998;17:5409-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the MSL1, MSL2 and MSL3 proteins are associated in immunoprecipitations, chromatographic steps and in the yeast two-hybrid system, but that ..
  52. Bai X, Alekseyenko A, Kuroda M. Sequence-specific targeting of MSL complex regulates transcription of the roX RNA genes. EMBO J. 2004;23:2853-61 pubmed
    In Drosophila, dosage compensation is controlled by the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex consisting of at least five proteins and two noncoding RNAs, roX1 and roX2...
  53. Kind J, Akhtar A. Cotranscriptional recruitment of the dosage compensation complex to X-linked target genes. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2030-40 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila this is achieved by targeting the dosage compensation complex or the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex to the male X chromosome...
  54. Franke A, Dernburg A, Bashaw G, Baker B. Evidence that MSL-mediated dosage compensation in Drosophila begins at blastoderm. Development. 1996;122:2751-60 pubmed
    ..This process, dosage compensation, is controlled by a set of male-specific lethal (msl) genes, that appear to act at the level of chromatin structure...
  55. Kelley R, Meller V, Gordadze P, Roman G, Davis R, Kuroda M. Epigenetic spreading of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex from roX RNA genes into flanking chromatin. Cell. 1999;98:513-22 pubmed
    ..The male X chromosome is also coated with noncoding roX RNAs. When either msl3, mle, or mof is mutant, a partial MSL complex is bound at only approximately 35 unusual sites distributed along the ..
  56. Meller V. Dosage compensation: making 1X equal 2X. Trends Cell Biol. 2000;10:54-9 pubmed
    ..Each organism uses a largely non-overlapping set of molecules to achieve the same outcome: 1X = 2X. ..
  57. Meller V, Gordadze P, Park Y, Chu X, Stuckenholz C, Kelley R, et al. Ordered assembly of roX RNAs into MSL complexes on the dosage-compensated X chromosome in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2000;10:136-43 pubmed transcriptionally upregulated to achieve dosage compensation, in a process that depends on association of the MSL proteins with the X chromosome. A role for non-coding RNAs has been suggested in recent studies...
  58. Lucchesi J. Dosage compensation in flies and worms: the ups and downs of X-chromosome regulation. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1998;8:179-84 pubmed
    ..These two different solutions to the common problem of unequal dosage of X-linked genes in different sexes provide invaluable paradigms for the study of gene regulation at the level of chromatin remodeling. ..
  59. Bone J, Lavender J, Richman R, Palmer M, Turner B, Kuroda M. Acetylated histone H4 on the male X chromosome is associated with dosage compensation in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1994;8:96-104 pubmed
    ..elevated expression requires the function of at least four loci, known collectively as the male-specific lethal (msl) genes...
  60. Gu W, Wei X, Pannuti A, Lucchesi J. Targeting the chromatin-remodeling MSL complex of Drosophila to its sites of action on the X chromosome requires both acetyl transferase and ATPase activities. EMBO J. 2000;19:5202-11 pubmed
    ..The role that histone H4 acetylation plays in this process is supported by our observations that MOF overexpression leads to the ectopic association of the complex with autosomal sites. ..
  61. Amrein H, Axel R. Genes expressed in neurons of adult male Drosophila. Cell. 1997;88:459-69 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the multimeric complex of dosage compensation proteins may operate in different ways on different sets of X-linked genes. ..
  62. Park Y, Kuroda M. Epigenetic aspects of X-chromosome dosage compensation. Science. 2001;293:1083-5 pubmed
    ..The result in many organisms is a male-specific Y chromosome that has lost most of its original genetic content, and a difference in dosage of the X chromosome in males (XY) and females (XX). ..
  63. Larschan E, Alekseyenko A, Gortchakov A, Peng S, Li B, Yang P, et al. MSL complex is attracted to genes marked by H3K36 trimethylation using a sequence-independent mechanism. Mol Cell. 2007;28:121-33 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, recombinant MSL3 protein preferentially binds nucleosomes marked by H3K36me3 in vitro...
  64. Park Y, Mengus G, Bai X, Kageyama Y, Meller V, Becker P, et al. Sequence-specific targeting of Drosophila roX genes by the MSL dosage compensation complex. Mol Cell. 2003;11:977-86 pubmed
    b>MSL complexes bind the single male X chromosome in Drosophila to increase transcription approximately 2-fold. Complexes contain at least five proteins and two noncoding RNAs, roX1 and roX2...
  65. Kelley R, Solovyeva I, Lyman L, Richman R, Solovyev V, Kuroda M. Expression of msl-2 causes assembly of dosage compensation regulators on the X chromosomes and female lethality in Drosophila. Cell. 1995;81:867-77 pubmed
    Male-specific lethal-2 (msl-2) is a RING finger protein that is required for X chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila males...
  66. Buscaino A, Kocher T, Kind J, Holz H, Taipale M, Wagner K, et al. MOF-regulated acetylation of MSL-3 in the Drosophila dosage compensation complex. Mol Cell. 2003;11:1265-77 pubmed
    ..We show that interaction of MOF with MSL-3 leads to specific acetylation of MSL-3 at a single lysine residue adjacent to one of its chromodomains...
  67. Meller V. Initiation of dosage compensation in Drosophila embryos depends on expression of the roX RNAs. Mech Dev. 2003;120:759-67 pubmed
    ..Either roX transcript can support X-localization of the complex, but localization is delayed in roX1 mutants until roX2 expression. These results support a model for the ordered assembly of the complex in embryos. ..