Gene Symbol: msl-1
Description: male-specific lethal 1
Alias: CG10385, Dmel\CG10385, MSL, MSL-1, MSL1, MSL3, Msl 1-3, Msl-1, Msl1, i94, km(2)B, kmB, mls-1, msl, msl1, male-specific lethal 1, CG10385-PA, CG10385-PB, killer-of-males-B, male specifc lethal, male specific lethal 1, msl-1-PA, msl-1-PB
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Marín I. Evolution of chromatin-remodeling complexes: comparative genomics reveals the ancient origin of "novel" compensasome genes. J Mol Evol. 2003;56:527-39 pubmed
    ..Recent work showed that three of the Drosophila msls (msl-3, mof, and mle) have an ancient origin...
  2. Bhadra M, Bhadra U, Kundu J, Birchler J. Gene expression analysis of the function of the male-specific lethal complex in Drosophila. Genetics. 2005;169:2061-74 pubmed
    ..The male-specific lethal (MSL) complex is concentrated on the X chromosome in males...
  3. Bachiller D, Sanchez L. Mutations affecting dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster: effects in the germline. Dev Biol. 1986;118:379-84 pubmed
    ..These mutations are the male-specific lethals msl-1, msl-2, and mle, which have been analyzed in the somatic tissues...
  4. Park Y, Kelley R, Oh H, Kuroda M, Meller V. Extent of chromatin spreading determined by roX RNA recruitment of MSL proteins. Science. 2002;298:1620-3 pubmed
    The untranslated roX1 and roX2 RNAs are components of the Drosophila male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, which modifies histones to up-regulate transcription of the male X chromosome...
  5. Meller V. Initiation of dosage compensation in Drosophila embryos depends on expression of the roX RNAs. Mech Dev. 2003;120:759-67 pubmed
    ..Either roX transcript can support X-localization of the complex, but localization is delayed in roX1 mutants until roX2 expression. These results support a model for the ordered assembly of the complex in embryos. ..
  6. Chang K, Kuroda M. Modulation of MSL1 abundance in female Drosophila contributes to the sex specificity of dosage compensation. Genetics. 1998;150:699-709 pubmed
    ..A candidate for this limiting factor is MSL1, because the amount of MSL1 protein in females is reduced compared to males...
  7. Smith E, Pannuti A, Gu W, Steurnagel A, Cook R, Allis C, et al. The drosophila MSL complex acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16, a chromatin modification linked to dosage compensation. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:312-8 pubmed
    ..We have partially purified a complex containing MSL1, -2, and -3, MOF, MLE, and roX2 RNA and demonstrated that it exclusively acetylates H4 at lysine 16 on nucleosomal ..
  8. Morales V, Regnard C, Izzo A, Vetter I, Becker P. The MRG domain mediates the functional integration of MSL3 into the dosage compensation complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:5947-54 pubmed
    ..We showed previously that MSL3 is essential for the activation of MOF's nucleosomal histone acetyltransferase activity within an MSL1-MOF complex...
  9. Kind J, Akhtar A. Cotranscriptional recruitment of the dosage compensation complex to X-linked target genes. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2030-40 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila this is achieved by targeting the dosage compensation complex or the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex to the male X chromosome...

More Information


  1. Gorman M, Kuroda M, Baker B. Regulation of the sex-specific binding of the maleless dosage compensation protein to the male X chromosome in Drosophila. Cell. 1993;72:39-49 pubmed
    ..Additionally, we have found that mle X chromosome binding requires wild-type msl1, msl2, and msl3 functions...
  2. Meller V, Wu K, Roman G, Kuroda M, Davis R. roX1 RNA paints the X chromosome of male Drosophila and is regulated by the dosage compensation system. Cell. 1997;88:445-57 pubmed
    ..The novel regulation and subnuclear localization of roX1 RNAs makes them candidates for an RNA component of the dosage compensation machinery. ..
  3. Kotlikova I, Demakova O, Semeshin V, Shloma V, Boldyreva L, Kuroda M, et al. The Drosophila dosage compensation complex binds to polytene chromosomes independently of developmental changes in transcription. Genetics. 2006;172:963-74 pubmed
    ..These data imply that, independently of other MSL proteins, the RNA-helicase MLE might participate in general transcriptional regulation or RNA processing.
  4. Kelley R, Kuroda M. The Drosophila roX1 RNA gene can overcome silent chromatin by recruiting the male-specific lethal dosage compensation complex. Genetics. 2003;164:565-74 pubmed
    The Drosophila MSL complex consists of at least six proteins and two noncoding roX RNAs that mediate dosage compensation. It acts to remodel the male's X chromatin by covalently modifying the amino terminal tails of histones...
  5. Marin I, Siegal M, Baker B. The evolution of dosage-compensation mechanisms. Bioessays. 2000;22:1106-14 pubmed
    ..Some tantalizing similarities in the fly and mammalian mechanisms, however, remain to be explained. ..
  6. Buscaino A, Legube G, Akhtar A. X-chromosome targeting and dosage compensation are mediated by distinct domains in MSL-3. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:531-8 pubmed
    ..Genetic and biochemical studies have demonstrated that male-specific lethal (MSL) proteins together with roX RNAs regulate this process...
  7. Franke A, Dernburg A, Bashaw G, Baker B. Evidence that MSL-mediated dosage compensation in Drosophila begins at blastoderm. Development. 1996;122:2751-60 pubmed
    ..This process, dosage compensation, is controlled by a set of male-specific lethal (msl) genes, that appear to act at the level of chromatin structure...
  8. Gladstein N, McKeon M, Horabin J. Requirement of male-specific dosage compensation in Drosophila females--implications of early X chromosome gene expression. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001041 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that before the female state is set, the ground state is male and female X chromosome expression is elevated. Females thus utilize the male dosage compensation process to amplify the signal which determines their fate. ..
  9. Fagegaltier D, Baker B. X chromosome sites autonomously recruit the dosage compensation complex in Drosophila males. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:e341 pubmed
    It has been proposed that dosage compensation in Drosophila males occurs by binding of two core proteins, MSL-1 and MSL-2, to a set of 35-40 X chromosome "entry sites" that serve to nucleate mature complexes, termed ..
  10. Morales V, Straub T, Neumann M, Mengus G, Akhtar A, Becker P. Functional integration of the histone acetyltransferase MOF into the dosage compensation complex. EMBO J. 2004;23:2258-68 pubmed
    ..The functional consequences of this interaction were studied in vitro. Simultaneous contact of MOF with MSL1 and MSL3 led to its recruitment to chromatin, a dramatic stimulation of HAT activity and to improved substrate specificity...
  11. Sural T, Peng S, Li B, Workman J, Park P, Kuroda M. The MSL3 chromodomain directs a key targeting step for dosage compensation of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:1318-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we analyze the role of the MSL3 chromodomain in the second targeting step...
  12. Grimaud C, Becker P. The dosage compensation complex shapes the conformation of the X chromosome in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2490-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The core DCC subunits MSL1-MSL2 are responsible for this male-specific organization...
  13. Belote J, Lucchesi J. Male-specific lethal mutations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1980;96:165-86 pubmed
    ..mle (Fukunaga, Tanaka and Oishi 1975), while the other three mutants identify two new loci: male-specific lethal-1 (msl-1) (two alleles) at map position 2-53.3 and male-specific lethal-2 (msl-2) at 2-9...
  14. Regnard C, Straub T, Mitterweger A, Dahlsveen I, Fabian V, Becker P. Global analysis of the relationship between JIL-1 kinase and transcription. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001327 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesise that one specific role of JIL-1 may be to reinforce, rather than to establish, the status of active chromatin through the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10. ..
  15. Park Y, Mengus G, Bai X, Kageyama Y, Meller V, Becker P, et al. Sequence-specific targeting of Drosophila roX genes by the MSL dosage compensation complex. Mol Cell. 2003;11:977-86 pubmed
    b>MSL complexes bind the single male X chromosome in Drosophila to increase transcription approximately 2-fold. Complexes contain at least five proteins and two noncoding RNAs, roX1 and roX2...
  16. Stuckenholz C, Kageyama Y, Kuroda M. Guilt by association: non-coding RNAs, chromosome-specific proteins and dosage compensation in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 1999;15:454-8 pubmed
    ..The discovery of non-coding RNAs that 'paint' dosage-compensated X chromosomes in mammals and in Drosophila suggests that RNAs play an intriguing, unexpected role in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. ..
  17. Bone J, Lavender J, Richman R, Palmer M, Turner B, Kuroda M. Acetylated histone H4 on the male X chromosome is associated with dosage compensation in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1994;8:96-104 pubmed
    ..elevated expression requires the function of at least four loci, known collectively as the male-specific lethal (msl) genes...
  18. Bai X, Larschan E, Kwon S, Badenhorst P, Kuroda M. Regional control of chromatin organization by noncoding roX RNAs and the NURF remodeling complex in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2007;176:1491-9 pubmed
    ..The male-specific lethal (MSL) complex contains at least five proteins and two noncoding roX (RNA on X) RNAs...
  19. Franke A, Baker B. Dosage compensation rox!. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2000;12:351-4 pubmed
  20. Mar n I, Franke A, Bashaw G, Baker B. The dosage compensation system of Drosophila is co-opted by newly evolved X chromosomes. Nature. 1996;383:160-3 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster, dosage compensation is mediated by the binding of the products of the male-specific lethal (msl) genes to the single male X chromosome...
  21. Hamada F, Park P, Gordadze P, Kuroda M. Global regulation of X chromosomal genes by the MSL complex in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2289-94 pubmed
    ..To distinguish between the two models, we used RNA interference to deplete Male-Specific Lethal (MSL) complexes from male-like tissue culture cells...
  22. Sass G, Pannuti A, Lucchesi J. Male-specific lethal complex of Drosophila targets activated regions of the X chromosome for chromatin remodeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:8287-91 pubmed
    The male-specific lethal (MSL) complex of Drosophila is responsible for the presence of a monoacetylated isoform of histone H4 (H4Ac16), found exclusively on the X chromosome of males...
  23. Morra R, Smith E, Yokoyama R, Lucchesi J. The MLE subunit of the Drosophila MSL complex uses its ATPase activity for dosage compensation and its helicase activity for targeting. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:958-66 pubmed
    ..compensation-the equalization of most X-linked gene products between XY males and XX females-is mediated by the MSL complex that preferentially associates with numerous sites on the X chromosome in somatic cells of males, but not ..
  24. Park S, Kang Y, Sypula J, Choi J, Oh H, Park Y. An evolutionarily conserved domain of roX2 RNA is sufficient for induction of H4-Lys16 acetylation on the Drosophila X chromosome. Genetics. 2007;177:1429-37 pubmed
    The male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, which includes two noncoding RNA on X (roX)1 and roX2 RNAs, induces histone H4-Lys16 acetylation for twofold hypertranscription of the male X chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster...
  25. Kelley R, Meller V, Gordadze P, Roman G, Davis R, Kuroda M. Epigenetic spreading of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex from roX RNA genes into flanking chromatin. Cell. 1999;98:513-22 pubmed
    ..The male X chromosome is also coated with noncoding roX RNAs. When either msl3, mle, or mof is mutant, a partial MSL complex is bound at only approximately 35 unusual sites distributed along the ..
  26. Gu W, Wei X, Pannuti A, Lucchesi J. Targeting the chromatin-remodeling MSL complex of Drosophila to its sites of action on the X chromosome requires both acetyl transferase and ATPase activities. EMBO J. 2000;19:5202-11 pubmed
    ..The role that histone H4 acetylation plays in this process is supported by our observations that MOF overexpression leads to the ectopic association of the complex with autosomal sites. ..
  27. Johansson A, Allgardsson A, Stenberg P, Larsson J. msl2 mRNA is bound by free nuclear MSL complex in Drosophila melanogaster. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:6428-39 pubmed publisher transcription from the male X chromosome to compensate for its monosomy is mediated by the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex consisting of five proteins and two non-coding RNAs, roX1 and roX2...
  28. Menon D, Meller V. Imprinting of the Y chromosome influences dosage compensation in roX1 roX2 Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2009;183:811-20 pubmed publisher
    ..A complex composed of the male-specific lethal (MSL) proteins and RNA is recruited to the body of transcribed X-linked genes where it modifies chromatin to increase ..
  29. Oh H, Park Y, Kuroda M. Local spreading of MSL complexes from roX genes on the Drosophila X chromosome. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1334-9 pubmed
    b>MSL proteins and noncoding roX RNAs form complexes to up-regulate hundreds of genes on the Drosophila male X chromosome, and make X-linked gene expression equal in males and females...
  30. Nusinow D, Panning B. Recognition and modification of seX chromosomes. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2005;15:206-13 pubmed
    ..Finally, evidence from mammals suggests that the chromatin modifications that mediate dosage compensation are very dynamic, because they are established, reversed and re-established early in development. ..
  31. Li F, Parry D, Scott M. The amino-terminal region of Drosophila MSL1 contains basic, glycine-rich, and leucine zipper-like motifs that promote X chromosome binding, self-association, and MSL2 binding, respectively. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8913-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The MSL1 protein is essential for X chromosome binding and serves as a central scaffold for MSL complex assembly...
  32. Mendjan S, Akhtar A. The right dose for every sex. Chromosoma. 2007;116:95-106 pubmed
    ..Male-specific lethal (MSL) factors constitute the MSL complex or dosage compensation complex and are important for transcription regulation ..
  33. Zhou S, Yang Y, Scott M, Pannuti A, Fehr K, Eisen A, et al. Male-specific lethal 2, a dosage compensation gene of Drosophila, undergoes sex-specific regulation and encodes a protein with a RING finger and a metallothionein-like cysteine cluster. EMBO J. 1995;14:2884-95 pubmed
    ..Three of these genes, maleless (mle), male-specific lethal 1 (msl-1) and male-specific lethal 3 (msl-3), have been cloned and their products have been shown to interact and to bind ..
  34. Amrein H, Axel R. Genes expressed in neurons of adult male Drosophila. Cell. 1997;88:459-69 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the multimeric complex of dosage compensation proteins may operate in different ways on different sets of X-linked genes. ..
  35. Levine M, Holloway A, Arshad U, Begun D. Pervasive and largely lineage-specific adaptive protein evolution in the dosage compensation complex of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2007;177:1959-62 pubmed
    ..Here we report a population genetic analysis suggesting that four of the five core DCC proteins--MSL1, MSL2, MSL3, and MOF--are evolving under positive selection in D. melanogaster...
  36. Greenberg A, Yanowitz J, Schedl P. The Drosophila GAGA factor is required for dosage compensation in males and for the formation of the male-specific-lethal complex chromatin entry site at 12DE. Genetics. 2004;166:279-89 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that mutations in Trithorax-like (Trl) lead to the loss of a single chromatin entry site on the X, male lethality, and mislocalization of dosage compensation complexes. ..
  37. Deng X, Rattner B, Souter S, Meller V. The severity of roX1 mutations is predicted by MSL localization on the X chromosome. Mech Dev. 2005;122:1094-105 pubmed
    ..This ability predicts the level of male survival that each allele supports. This points to a peripheral or transient role for roX in the RNA and protein complex that binds to and regulates the X chromosome. ..
  38. Li F, Schiemann A, Scott M. Incorporation of the noncoding roX RNAs alters the chromatin-binding specificity of the Drosophila MSL1/MSL2 complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1252-64 pubmed
    ..The MSL2 and MSL1 proteins form a complex and are essential for X chromosome binding...
  39. Fauth T, Müller Planitz F, König C, Straub T, Becker P. The DNA binding CXC domain of MSL2 is required for faithful targeting the Dosage Compensation Complex to the X chromosome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:3209-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Early genetic studies suggested that MSL1 and MSL2 serve to recognize high-affinity sites (HAS) in vivo, but a direct interaction of these DCC subunits with ..
  40. Duncan K, Grskovic M, Strein C, Beckmann K, Niggeweg R, Abaza I, et al. Sex-lethal imparts a sex-specific function to UNR by recruiting it to the msl-2 mRNA 3' UTR: translational repression for dosage compensation. Genes Dev. 2006;20:368-79 pubmed
    b>MSL-2 (male-specific lethal 2) is the limiting component of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex (DCC) that specifically increases transcription from the male X chromosome...
  41. Gu W, Szauter P, Lucchesi J. Targeting of MOF, a putative histone acetyl transferase, to the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Genet. 1998;22:56-64 pubmed
    ..The products of at least five genes, maleless (mle), male-specific lethal 1, 2, and 3 (msl-1, msl-2, msl-3) and males absent on the first (mof), are necessary for dosage compensation...
  42. Bai X, Alekseyenko A, Kuroda M. Sequence-specific targeting of MSL complex regulates transcription of the roX RNA genes. EMBO J. 2004;23:2853-61 pubmed
    In Drosophila, dosage compensation is controlled by the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex consisting of at least five proteins and two noncoding RNAs, roX1 and roX2...
  43. Wu L, Zee B, Wang Y, Garcia B, Dou Y. The RING finger protein MSL2 in the MOF complex is an E3 ubiquitin ligase for H2B K34 and is involved in crosstalk with H3 K4 and K79 methylation. Mol Cell. 2011;43:132-44 pubmed publisher
    ..MSL2, together with MSL1, has robust histone ubiquitylation activity that mainly targets nucleosomal H2B on lysine 34 (H2B K34ub), a site ..
  44. Kelley R, Solovyeva I, Lyman L, Richman R, Solovyev V, Kuroda M. Expression of msl-2 causes assembly of dosage compensation regulators on the X chromosomes and female lethality in Drosophila. Cell. 1995;81:867-77 pubmed
    Male-specific lethal-2 (msl-2) is a RING finger protein that is required for X chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila males...
  45. Rastelli L, Richman R, Kuroda M. The dosage compensation regulators MLE, MSL-1 and MSL-2 are interdependent since early embryogenesis in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1995;53:223-33 pubmed
    We have analyzed the expression pattern and localization of MLE, MLS-1, MSL-2, and histone H4Ac16 during embryogenesis to determine when msl-dependent dosage compensation begins...
  46. Prestel M, Feller C, Straub T, Mitlöhner H, Becker P. The activation potential of MOF is constrained for dosage compensation. Mol Cell. 2010;38:815-26 pubmed publisher
  47. Rath U, Ding Y, Deng H, Qi H, Bao X, Zhang W, et al. The chromodomain protein, Chromator, interacts with JIL-1 kinase and regulates the structure of Drosophila polytene chromosomes. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2332-41 pubmed
    ..Taken together these findings indicate that Chromator and JIL-1 interact in an interband-specific complex that functions to establish or maintain polytene chromosome structure in Drosophila. ..
  48. Furuhashi H, Nakajima M, Hirose S. DNA supercoiling factor contributes to dosage compensation in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:4475-83 pubmed
    ..SCF functionally interacts with components of the MSL complex, which are required for dosage compensation via hypertranscription of the male X chromosome...
  49. Weake V, Scott M. The non-dosage compensated Lsp1alpha gene of Drosophila melanogaster escapes acetylation by MOF in larval fat body nuclei, but is flanked by two dosage compensated genes. BMC Mol Biol. 2007;8:35 pubmed
    In Drosophila melanogaster dosage compensation of most X-linked genes is mediated by the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, which includes MOF. MOF acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac)...
  50. Bachtrog D. Positive selection at the binding sites of the male-specific lethal complex involved in dosage compensation in Drosophila. Genetics. 2008;180:1123-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex binds to hundreds of sites along the male X chromosome and mediates twofold hypertranscription of the ..
  51. Palmer M, Richman R, Richter L, Kuroda M. Sex-specific regulation of the male-specific lethal-1 dosage compensation gene in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1994;8:698-706 pubmed
    ..b>msl-1 is one of four genes that are essential for dosage compensation in males, and MSL-1 protein is associated ..
  52. Laverty C, Li F, Belikoff E, Scott M. Abnormal dosage compensation of reporter genes driven by the Drosophila glass multiple reporter (GMR) enhancer-promoter. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20455 pubmed publisher
    In Drosophila melanogaster the male specific lethal (MSL) complex is required for upregulation of expression of most X-linked genes in males, thereby achieving X chromosome dosage compensation...
  53. Stuckenholz C, Meller V, Kuroda M. Functional redundancy within roX1, a noncoding RNA involved in dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2003;164:1003-14 pubmed
    ..used a deletion analysis to search for functional RNA domains within roX1, assaying RNA stability, targeting of the MSL proteins to the X, and rescue of male viability in a roX1(-) roX2(-) mutant background...
  54. Kageyama Y, Mengus G, Gilfillan G, Kennedy H, Stuckenholz C, Kelley R, et al. Association and spreading of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex from a discrete roX1 chromatin entry site. EMBO J. 2001;20:2236-45 pubmed
    In Drosophila, dosage compensation is controlled by the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex consisting of MSL proteins and roX RNAs...
  55. Stenberg P, Larsson J. Buffering and the evolution of chromosome-wide gene regulation. Chromosoma. 2011;120:213-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss the origin and function of buffering and compensation using Drosophila as a model. ..
  56. Rastelli L, Kuroda M. An analysis of maleless and histone H4 acetylation in Drosophila melanogaster spermatogenesis. Mech Dev. 1998;71:107-17 pubmed
    ..We observed that MLE is the only MSL expressed in the male germ cells and it is not localized to the X chromosome...
  57. Menon D, Meller V. A role for siRNA in X-chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2012;191:1023-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings are consistent with a role for siRNA in selective recognition of X chromatin. ..
  58. Gilfillan G, Dahlsveen I, Becker P. Lifting a chromosome: dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster. FEBS Lett. 2004;567:8-14 pubmed
    ..Deciphering the principles of X chromosome recognition and the nature of the chromatin configuration, that allows fine-tuning of transcription, remain the most interesting challenges. ..
  59. Wang Y, Zhang W, Jin Y, Johansen J, Johansen K. The JIL-1 tandem kinase mediates histone H3 phosphorylation and is required for maintenance of chromatin structure in Drosophila. Cell. 2001;105:433-43 pubmed
    ..We propose a model where JIL-1 kinase activity is required for maintaining the structure of the more open chromatin regions that facilitate gene transcription...
  60. Larschan E, Alekseyenko A, Gortchakov A, Peng S, Li B, Yang P, et al. MSL complex is attracted to genes marked by H3K36 trimethylation using a sequence-independent mechanism. Mol Cell. 2007;28:121-33 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, recombinant MSL3 protein preferentially binds nucleosomes marked by H3K36me3 in vitro...
  61. Franke A, Baker B. The rox1 and rox2 RNAs are essential components of the compensasome, which mediates dosage compensation in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 1999;4:117-22 pubmed
    ..The rox RNAs and MSL proteins also colocalize with the X chromosome in all somatic cells and are expressed in the same temporal pattern ..
  62. Baker B, Gorman M, Mar n I. Dosage compensation in Drosophila. Annu Rev Genet. 1994;28:491-521 pubmed publisher
  63. Straub T, Becker P. Dosage compensation: the beginning and end of generalization. Nat Rev Genet. 2007;8:47-57 pubmed
  64. Palmer M, Mergner V, Richman R, Manning J, Kuroda M, Lucchesi J. The male-specific lethal-one (msl-1) gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a novel protein that associates with the X chromosome in males. Genetics. 1993;134:545-57 pubmed
    Male-specific lethal-one (msl-1) is one of four genes that are required for dosage compensation in Drosophila males...
  65. Gorman M, Franke A, Baker B. Molecular characterization of the male-specific lethal-3 gene and investigations of the regulation of dosage compensation in Drosophila. Development. 1995;121:463-75 pubmed
    ..This hypertranscription requires four autosomal male-specific lethal (msl) genes and is negatively regulated by the Sxl gene in females...
  66. Schiemann A, Weake V, Li F, Laverty C, Belikoff E, Scott M. The importance of location and orientation of male specific lethal complex binding sites of differing affinities on reporter gene dosage compensation in Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;402:699-704 pubmed publisher
    The male specific lethal (MSL) complex is required for X chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila. The complex binds to most actively transcribed X-linked genes in males and upregulates expression...
  67. Zhang W, Deng H, Bao X, Lerach S, Girton J, Johansen J, et al. The JIL-1 histone H3S10 kinase regulates dimethyl H3K9 modifications and heterochromatic spreading in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:229-35 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings, we propose a model where JIL-1 kinase activity functions to maintain euchromatic regions by antagonizing Su(var)3-9-mediated heterochromatization. ..
  68. Kind J, Vaquerizas J, Gebhardt P, Gentzel M, Luscombe N, Bertone P, et al. Genome-wide analysis reveals MOF as a key regulator of dosage compensation and gene expression in Drosophila. Cell. 2008;133:813-28 pubmed publisher
    ..More specifically, on the male X chromosome, where MSL1 and MSL3 are preferentially associated with the 3' end of dosage compensated genes, MOF displays a bimodal distribution ..
  69. Bashaw G, Baker B. Dosage compensation and chromatin structure in Drosophila. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1996;6:496-501 pubmed
    The past year has brought significant advances in our understanding of the male-specific lethal (msl genes and dosage compensation in Drosophila...
  70. Izzo A, Regnard C, Morales V, Kremmer E, Becker P. Structure-function analysis of the RNA helicase maleless. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:950-62 pubmed
    ..The C-terminal domain containing a glycine-rich heptad repeat adds potential dimerization and RNA-binding surfaces which are not required for helicase activity. ..
  71. Johansen K, Johansen J. Regulation of chromatin structure by histone H3S10 phosphorylation. Chromosome Res. 2006;14:393-404 pubmed
  72. Bone J, Kuroda M. Dosage compensation regulatory proteins and the evolution of sex chromosomes in Drosophila. Genetics. 1996;144:705-13 pubmed
    In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, the four male specific lethal (msl) genes are required to achieve dosage compensation of the male X chromosome...
  73. Meller V, Rattner B. The roX genes encode redundant male-specific lethal transcripts required for targeting of the MSL complex. EMBO J. 2002;21:1084-91 pubmed
    ..and roX2 genes of Drosophila produce male-specific non-coding RNAs that co-localize with the Male-Specific Lethal (MSL) protein complex...
  74. Richter L, Bone J, Kuroda M. RNA-dependent association of the Drosophila maleless protein with the male X chromosome. Genes Cells. 1996;1:325-36 pubmed
    ..The potential relationship between interaction with RNA and transcriptional control of the X chromosome suggests that the mechanism of dosage compensation is distinct from classical models for transcriptional activation. ..
  75. Spierer A, Begeot F, Spierer P, Delattre M. SU(VAR)3-7 links heterochromatin and dosage compensation in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000066 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, reduced or increased amounts of SU(VAR)3-7 result in redistribution of the DCC proteins MSL1 and MSL2, and of Histone 4 acetylation of lysine 16, indicating that a wild-type dose of SU(VAR)3-7 is required for ..
  76. Vaquerizas J, Suyama R, Kind J, Miura K, Luscombe N, Akhtar A. Nuclear pore proteins nup153 and megator define transcriptionally active regions in the Drosophila genome. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000846 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we suggest that NAR-binding is used for chromosomal organization that enables gene expression control. ..
  77. Kelley R, Kuroda M. Equality for X chromosomes. Science. 1995;270:1607-10 pubmed
    ..A common theme in the Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans systems is that a subtle alteration of chromatin structure may impose this modest, but vital adjustment of the X chromosome transcription level. ..
  78. McDowell K, Hilfiker A, Lucchesi J. Dosage compensation in Drosophila: the X chromosome binding of MSL-1 and MSL-2 in female embryos is prevented by the early expression of the Sxl gene. Mech Dev. 1996;57:113-9 pubmed
    In wildtype males, binding of the MSL-1 gene product to the X chromosome is first seen at the cellular blastoderm stage (stage 5)...
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    ..Here we demonstrate that JIL-1 colocalizes and physically interacts with male specific lethal (MSL) dosage compensation complex proteins...
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    ..We show that SPT5 interacts directly with MSL1 in vitro and is required downstream of MSL complex recruitment, providing the first mechanistic data corroborating ..