Gene Symbol: ms(3)K81
Description: male sterile (3) K81
Alias: CG14251, Dmel\CG14251, K81, ms(3)97Dg, ms(3)k81, male sterile (3) K81, CG14251-PA, ms(3)K81-PA, paternal haploid, paternal-haploid
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Xue Z, Ren M, Wu M, Dai J, Rong Y, Gao G. Efficient gene knock-out and knock-in with transgenic Cas9 in Drosophila. G3 (Bethesda). 2014;4:925-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5% by co-injecting gRNA with a circular DNA donor. ..
  2. Yasuda G, Schubiger G, Wakimoto B. Genetic characterization of ms (3) K81, a paternal effect gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1995;140:219-29 pubmed
    ..The ms(3) K81(1) mutation is one of a rare class of male sterile mutations in which sterility is caused by developmental arrest ..
  3. Fuyama Y. Genetics of Parthenogenesis in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. II. Characterization of a Gynogenetically Reproducing Strain. Genetics. 1986;114:495-509 pubmed
    ..On mating with a male sterile mutant, ms( 3)K81, gyn-F9 females produced impaternate progeny at a rate of about 15 flies per female, which was almost 2000 times as ..
  4. Edgar B, Kiehle C, Schubiger G. Cell cycle control by the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio in early Drosophila development. Cell. 1986;44:365-72 pubmed
    ..Transcription patterns in haploid embryos indicate that transcriptional activation is not directly controlled by the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, but may be an effect of the lengthening of interphase periods. ..
  5. Yu Z, Ren M, Wang Z, Zhang B, Rong Y, Jiao R, et al. Highly efficient genome modifications mediated by CRISPR/Cas9 in Drosophila. Genetics. 2013;195:289-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes in both heterochromatin and euchromatin can be modified efficiently. Thus the Cas9/gRNA system is an attractive tool for rapid disruption of essentially any gene in Drosophila. ..
  6. Dubruille R, Loppin B. Epigenetic maintenance of telomere identity in Drosophila: buckle up for the sperm ride. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:1037-42 pubmed
    ..HipHop and K81 are two recently identified paralogous capping proteins with complementary expression patterns...
  7. Gao G, Cheng Y, Wesolowska N, Rong Y. Paternal imprint essential for the inheritance of telomere identity in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:4932-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The ms(3)k81 (k81) gene is a duplication of hiphop that encodes a telomeric protein...
  8. Grosshans J, Müller H, Wieschaus E. Control of cleavage cycles in Drosophila embryos by frühstart. Dev Cell. 2003;5:285-94 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the expression of frs is delayed in haploid embryos and requires activity of the maternal checkpoint gene grapes. We propose that zygotic frs expression is involved in linking the N/C and the pause of cleavage cycle. ..
  9. Loppin B, Lepetit D, Dorus S, Couble P, Karr T. Origin and neofunctionalization of a Drosophila paternal effect gene essential for zygote viability. Curr Biol. 2005;15:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Using molecular genetics and the annotated Drosophila melanogaster genome, we identified CG14251 as the Drosophila paternal effect gene, ms(3)K81 (K81)...

More Information


  1. Orsi G, Joyce E, Couble P, McKim K, Loppin B. Drosophila I-R hybrid dysgenesis is associated with catastrophic meiosis and abnormal zygote formation. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:3515-24 pubmed publisher
  2. Loppin B, Docquier M, Bonneton F, Couble P. The maternal effect mutation sésame affects the formation of the male pronucleus in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2000;222:392-404 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the maternally provided sésame(+) function is required for a late stage of sperm chromatin remodeling. ..
  3. Dubruille R, Orsi G, Delabaere L, Cortier E, Couble P, Marais G, et al. Specialization of a Drosophila capping protein essential for the protection of sperm telomeres. Curr Biol. 2010;20:2090-9 pubmed publisher
    ..that the hiphop gene was duplicated before the radiation of the melanogaster subgroup of species, giving birth to K81, a unique paternal effect gene specifically expressed in the male germline. ..
  4. Liu J, Lin H, Lopez J, Wolfner M. Formation of the male pronuclear lamina in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1997;184:187-96 pubmed
    ..localization of YA and lamin Dm in mutant embryos defective for the function of either the male pronucleus (mh, K81, and pal or both pronuclei (gnu, png, and plu)...
  5. Lin H, Song K, Hutcheson G, Goutte C, Wolfner M. A maternally encoded nuclear envelope protein required for embryonic mitosis in Drosophila. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1991;56:719-27 pubmed
  6. Loppin B, Dubruille R, Horard B. The intimate genetics of Drosophila fertilization. Open Biol. 2015;5: pubmed publisher
  7. Orsi G, Algazeery A, Meyer R, Capri M, Sapey Triomphe L, Horard B, et al. Drosophila Yemanuclein and HIRA cooperate for de novo assembly of H3.3-containing nucleosomes in the male pronucleus. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003285 pubmed publisher
    ..3 deposition pathway is not involved in paternal chromatin assembly, thus underlining the specific implication of the HIRA/YEM complex for this essential step of zygote formation. ..
  8. Charlat S, Hurst G, Merçot H. Evolutionary consequences of Wolbachia infections. Trends Genet. 2003;19:217-23 pubmed
    ..Here we discuss the potential of Wolbachia for promoting evolutionary changes in its hosts. ..
  9. Erickson J, Quintero J. Indirect effects of ploidy suggest X chromosome dose, not the X:A ratio, signals sex in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e332 pubmed
    ..Our findings reiterate that correlations between X:A ratios and cell fates in other organisms need not implicate the value of the ratio as an active signal. ..
  10. Golic K. RNA-guided nucleases: a new era for engineering the genomes of model and nonmodel organisms. Genetics. 2013;195:303-8 pubmed publisher
  11. Knibb W, Tearle R, Elizur A, Saint R. Genetic analysis of chromosomal region 97D2-9 of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1993;239:109-14 pubmed
    ..In addition to rough, one other locus within this region, 1(3)97De, was shown to be required for formation of the normal pattern of photoreceptor cells in the compound eye. ..
  12. Langley C, Crepeau M, Cardeno C, Corbett Detig R, Stevens K. Circumventing heterozygosity: sequencing the amplified genome of a single haploid Drosophila melanogaster embryo. Genetics. 2011;188:239-46 pubmed publisher
    ..haploid genome of a progeny of females mated to males homozygous for the recessive male sterile mutation, ms(3)K81. A single "lane" of paired-end sequences (2 × 76 bp) provides a good syntenic assembly with >95% high-..
  13. Fitch K, Yasuda G, Owens K, Wakimoto B. Paternal effects in Drosophila: implications for mechanisms of early development. Curr Top Dev Biol. 1998;38:1-34 pubmed
    ..Analyses of the paternal effects mutations sneaky, K81, paternal loss, and Horka have identified paternal products that play a role in mediating the initial response of ..
  14. Singh R, Jagadeeshan S. Sex and speciation: Drosophila reproductive tract proteins- twenty five years later. Int J Evol Biol. 2012;2012:191495 pubmed publisher
  15. Moazed D, O Farrell P. Maintenance of the engrailed expression pattern by Polycomb group genes in Drosophila. Development. 1992;116:805-10 pubmed
  16. Perrimon N, Engstrom L, Mahowald A. A pupal lethal mutation with a paternally influenced maternal effect on embryonic development in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1985;110:480-91 pubmed
    ..When the zygotic activity l(1)ph+ is modulated using position effect variegation a new phenotype is observed among class 2 embryos in which torso embryos are twisted along their longitudinal axis. ..
  17. Gratz S, Wildonger J, Harrison M, O Connor Giles K. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering and the promise of designer flies on demand. Fly (Austin). 2013;7:249-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we highlight the variety of genome modifications facilitated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system along with key considerations for starting your own CRISPR genome engineering project. ..
  18. Ohsako T, Hirai K, Yamamoto M. The Drosophila misfire gene has an essential role in sperm activation during fertilization. Genes Genet Syst. 2003;78:253-66 pubmed
  19. Haigh A, MacDonald W, Lloyd V. The generation of cloned Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2005;169:1165-7 pubmed
  20. Fuyama Y. Genetics of Parthenogenesis in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. I. the Modes of Diploidization in the Gynogenesis Induced by a Male-Sterile Mutant, ms(3)K81. Genetics. 1986;112:237-48 pubmed
    Sperm that are produced by males homozygous for ms(3)K81 , a male sterile mutant of Drosophila melanogaster, are defective in syngamy but are capable of activating eggs to develop gynogenetically...
  21. Xue Z, Wu M, Wen K, Ren M, Long L, Zhang X, et al. CRISPR/Cas9 mediates efficient conditional mutagenesis in Drosophila. G3 (Bethesda). 2014;4:2167-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The CRISPR/Cas9-mediated conditional mutagenesis system provides a simple and effective tool for gene function analysis, and complements the existing RNAi approach. ..
  22. Haigh A, Lloyd V. Why clone flies? Using cloned Drosophila to monitor epigenetic defects. Fly (Austin). 2007;1:6-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, Drosophila can potentially be used to study epigenetic dysfunction in cloned animals and to screen for genetic and epigenetic conditions that promote the production of healthy clones. ..
  23. Dubruille R, Marais G, Loppin B. Repeated evolution of testis-specific new genes: the case of telomere-capping genes in Drosophila. Int J Evol Biol. 2012;2012:708980 pubmed publisher and its testis-specific paralog K81 are critical for the protection of chromosome ends in somatic cells and male gametes, respectively...
  24. Wesolowska N, Amariei F, Rong Y. Clustering and protein dynamics of Drosophila melanogaster telomeres. Genetics. 2013;195:381-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, we propose that clustering is independent of sequence and is likely maintained by an as yet undetermined factor. ..
  25. Vibranovski M, Lopes H, Karr T, Long M. Stage-specific expression profiling of Drosophila spermatogenesis suggests that meiotic sex chromosome inactivation drives genomic relocation of testis-expressed genes. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000731 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest MSCI as a general mechanism affecting the evolution of some testis-expressed genes. ..
  26. Dubruille R, Loppin B. Protection of Drosophila chromosome ends through minimal telomere capping. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:1969-81 pubmed publisher that the exhaustion of HOAP results in a dramatic reduction of other capping proteins at telomeres, including K81 [encoded by ms(3)K81], which is essential for male fertility...