Gene Symbol: mod(mdg4)
Description: modifier of mdg4
Alias: BcDNA:GH07769, BcDNA:SD03001, CG15500, CG15501, CG15802, CG18151, CG32491, CG7836, CG7859, CG8076, Dmel\CG32491, Doom, E(var)129, E(var)3-93D, E(var)93D, E-(var)3-93D, E-var(3)1, E-var(3)3, MOD(MDG4), MOD(MDG4)56.3, MOD2.2, Mod(mdg 4), Mod(mdg 4)67.2, Mod(mdg)4, Mod(mdg4), Mod(mdg4)-67.2, Mod(mdg4)2.2, Mod(mdg4)67.2, Mod2.2, Mod67.2, Mod[mdg4], R5_3R:17176815..17177103, bpd, doom, l(3)03852, l(3)L3101, l(3)j2B7, mdg4, mnm, mnn, mod, mod (mdg4), mod(gypsy), mod(mdg)4, mod(mdg-4), mod(mdg4, mod(mdg4)-58.8, mod(mdg4)-67.2, mod(mdg4)67.2, mod-mdg4, mod2.2, modMDG4, mod[mdg4], pf-2, modifier of mdg4, CG32491-PA, CG32491-PAA, CG32491-PAB, CG32491-PAC, CG32491-PAD, CG32491-PAE, CG32491-PAF, CG32491-PB, CG32491-PC, CG32491-PD, CG32491-PE, CG32491-PF, CG32491-PG, CG32491-PH, CG32491-PI, CG32491-PJ, CG32491-PK, CG32491-PL, CG32491-PM, CG32491-PN, CG32491-PO, CG32491-PP, CG32491-PR, CG32491-PS, CG32491-PT, CG32491-PU, CG32491-PV, CG32491-PW, CG32491-PX, CG32491-PY, CG32491-PZ, Mod(mdg4)-67.2, Modifier67.2, branch point disrupted, enhancer of variegation 93D, mod(mdg4 , mod(mdg4)-PA, mod(mdg4)-PAA, mod(mdg4)-PAB, mod(mdg4)-PAC, mod(mdg4)-PAD, mod(mdg4)-PAE, mod(mdg4)-PAF, mod(mdg4)-PB, mod(mdg4)-PC, mod(mdg4)-PD, mod(mdg4)-PE, mod(mdg4)-PF, mod(mdg4)-PG, mod(mdg4)-PH, mod(mdg4)-PI, mod(mdg4)-PJ, mod(mdg4)-PK, mod(mdg4)-PL, mod(mdg4)-PM, mod(mdg4)-PN, mod(mdg4)-PO, mod(mdg4)-PP, mod(mdg4)-PR, mod(mdg4)-PS, mod(mdg4)-PT, mod(mdg4)-PU, mod(mdg4)-PV, mod(mdg4)-PW, mod(mdg4)-PX, mod(mdg4)-PY, mod(mdg4)-PZ, modifier mdg4, modifier of (mdg4) 67.2, modifier of mdg 4 67.2, modifier of mdg4 67.2, modifier of mdg4 in meiosis, modifier of midget4
Species: fruit fly
Products:     mod(mdg4)

Top Publications

  1. Moshkovich N, Nisha P, Boyle P, Thompson B, Dale R, Lei E. RNAi-independent role for Argonaute2 in CTCF/CP190 chromatin insulator function. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1686-701 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that RNAi-independent recruitment of AGO2 to chromatin by insulator proteins promotes the definition of transcriptional domains throughout the genome. ..
  2. Cai H, Shen P. Effects of cis arrangement of chromatin insulators on enhancer-blocking activity. Science. 2001;291:493-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, insulators may modulate enhancer-promoter interactions by interacting with each other and facilitating the formation of chromatin loop domains. ..
  3. Gerasimova T, Byrd K, Corces V. A chromatin insulator determines the nuclear localization of DNA. Mol Cell. 2000;6:1025-35 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the nuclear organization imposed by the gypsy insulator on the chromatin fiber is important for gene expression. ..
  4. Gdula D, Gerasimova T, Corces V. Genetic and molecular analysis of the gypsy chromatin insulator of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:9378-83 pubmed
    ..The modifier of mdg4 [mod(mdg4)] protein interacts with su(Hw) to transform this bi-directional repression into the polar effect ..
  5. Melnikova L, Kostuchenko M, Silicheva M, Georgiev P. Drosophila gypsy insulator and yellow enhancers regulate activity of yellow promoter through the same regulatory element. Chromosoma. 2008;117:137-45 pubmed
    ..described promoter-specific, long-distance repression of the yellow promoter by the gypsy insulator on the mod(mdg4) ( u1 ) background...
  6. Golovnin A, Melnikova L, Volkov I, Kostuchenko M, Galkin A, Georgiev P. 'Insulator bodies' are aggregates of proteins but not of insulators. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:440-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The best-known insulators in Drosophila require proteins such as Suppressor of Hairy wing (Su(Hw)) and Modifier of mdg4 (Mod(mdg4)) to be functional...
  7. Schwartz Y, Linder Basso D, Kharchenko P, Tolstorukov M, Kim M, Li H, et al. Nature and function of insulator protein binding sites in the Drosophila genome. Genome Res. 2012;22:2188-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these observations argue against the concept of a genome partitioned by specialized boundary elements and suggest that insulators are reserved for specific regulation of selected genes. ..
  8. Byrd K, Corces V. Visualization of chromatin domains created by the gypsy insulator of Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:565-74 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the gypsy insulator might establish higher-order domains of chromatin structure and regulate nuclear organization by tethering the DNA to the nuclear matrix and creating chromatin loops. ..
  9. Gerasimova T, Corces V. Chromatin insulators and boundaries: effects on transcription and nuclear organization. Annu Rev Genet. 2001;35:193-208 pubmed
    ..Insulators might modulate transcription by organizing the chromatin fiber within the nucleus through the establishment of higher-order domains of chromatin structure. ..

More Information


  1. Buchner K, Roth P, Schotta G, Krauss V, Saumweber H, Reuter G, et al. Genetic and molecular complexity of the position effect variegation modifier mod(mdg4) in Drosophila. Genetics. 2000;155:141-57 pubmed
    mod(mdg4), also known as E(var)3-93D, is involved in a variety of processes, such as gene silencing in position effect variegation (PEV), the control of gypsy insulator sequences, regulation of homeotic gene expression, and programmed ..
  2. Pai C, Lei E, Ghosh D, Corces V. The centrosomal protein CP190 is a component of the gypsy chromatin insulator. Mol Cell. 2004;16:737-48 pubmed
    ..2, which is one of the multiple spliced variants encoded by the modifier of mdg4 [mod(mdg4)] gene...
  3. Harvey A, Bidwai A, Miller L. Doom, a product of the Drosophila mod(mdg4) gene, induces apoptosis and binds to baculovirus inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:2835-43 pubmed
    ..We have identified a protein encoded by the Drosophila mod(mdg4) gene which bound to the baculovirus IAPs...
  4. Rach E, Winter D, Benjamin A, Corcoran D, Ni T, Zhu J, et al. Transcription initiation patterns indicate divergent strategies for gene regulation at the chromatin level. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001274 pubmed publisher
  5. Melnikova L, Juge F, Gruzdeva N, Mazur A, Cavalli G, Georgiev P. Interaction between the GAGA factor and Mod(mdg4) proteins promotes insulator bypass in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14806-11 pubmed
    ..This bypass relies on the activity of both the GAF protein and the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 protein, a factor required for Su(Hw) insulator activity...
  6. Gerasimova T, Lei E, Bushey A, Corces V. Coordinated control of dCTCF and gypsy chromatin insulators in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2007;28:761-72 pubmed required for proper binding of dCTCF to chromatin, but not with the other gypsy insulator proteins Su(Hw) or Mod(mdg4)2.2...
  7. Ramos E, Torre E, Bushey A, Gurudatta B, Corces V. DNA topoisomerase II modulates insulator function in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16562 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect is mediated by the Mod(mdg4)2.2 protein, which is a unique component of the Su(Hw) insulator complex...
  8. Golovnin A, Mazur A, Kopantseva M, Kurshakova M, Gulak P, Gilmore B, et al. Integrity of the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 BTB domain is critical to insulator function in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:963-74 pubmed
    ..Enhancer and silencer blocking require Su(Hw) recruitment of Mod(mdg4)-67.2, a BTB/POZ domain protein that interacts with Su(Hw) through a carboxyl-terminal acidic domain...
  9. Matzat L, Dale R, Moshkovich N, Lei E. Tissue-specific regulation of chromatin insulator function. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003069 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data reveal a novel, tissue-specific mode of regulation of a chromatin insulator. ..
  10. Gerasimova T, Gdula D, Gerasimov D, Simonova O, Corces V. A Drosophila protein that imparts directionality on a chromatin insulator is an enhancer of position-effect variegation. Cell. 1995;82:587-97 pubmed
    ..This polarity is due to the ability of the su(Hw)-binding region to form a chromatin insulator. Mutations in modifier of mdg4 (mod(mdg4)) enhance the effect of su(Hw) by inhibiting the function of enhancers located on both sides of the ..
  11. Van Bortle K, Ramos E, Takenaka N, Yang J, Wahi J, Corces V. Drosophila CTCF tandemly aligns with other insulator proteins at the borders of H3K27me3 domains. Genome Res. 2012;22:2176-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We reveal an important relationship between dCTCF and other Drosophila insulator proteins and speculate that vertebrate CTCF may also align with other nuclear proteins to accomplish similar functions. ..
  12. Dorn R, Krauss V. The modifier of mdg4 locus in Drosophila: functional complexity is resolved by trans splicing. Genetica. 2003;117:165-77 pubmed
    The modifier of mdg4 (mod(mdg4)) gene of Drosophila melanogaster has been identified in many different genetic assays...
  13. Schoborg T, Labrador M. The phylogenetic distribution of non-CTCF insulator proteins is limited to insects and reveals that BEAF-32 is Drosophila lineage specific. J Mol Evol. 2010;70:74-84 pubmed publisher, six insulators and their associated proteins have been characterized, including Su(Hw), Zw5, CTCF, GAF, Mod(mdg4), and BEAF-32...
  14. Oliver D, Sheehan B, South H, Akbari O, Pai C. The chromosomal association/dissociation of the chromatin insulator protein Cp190 of Drosophila melanogaster is mediated by the BTB/POZ domain and two acidic regions. BMC Cell Biol. 2010;11:101 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a mechanism through which activities of an insulator can be modulated by internal and external cues. ..
  15. Lin Q, Chen Q, Lin L, Zhou J. The Promoter Targeting Sequence mediates epigenetically heritable transcription memory. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2639-51 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that promoter targeting is established independent of enhancer activity, and is maintained epigenetically throughout development and subsequent generations. ..
  16. Georgiev P, Kozycina M. Interaction between mutations in the suppressor of Hairy wing and modifier of mdg4 genes of Drosophila melanogaster affecting the phenotype of gypsy-induced mutations. Genetics. 1996;142:425-36 pubmed
    ..Mutations in a second gene, modifier of mdg4, also affect the gypsy-induced phenotype...
  17. Wallace H, Plata M, Kang H, Ross M, Labrador M. Chromatin insulators specifically associate with different levels of higher-order chromatin organization in Drosophila. Chromosoma. 2010;119:177-94 pubmed publisher
  18. Mongelard F, Labrador M, Baxter E, Gerasimova T, Corces V. Trans-splicing as a novel mechanism to explain interallelic complementation in Drosophila. Genetics. 2002;160:1481-7 pubmed
    ..This is the case with certain combinations of mutant alleles in the mod(mdg4) gene. This gene encodes several different proteins, including Mod(mdg4)2.2, a component of the gypsy insulator...
  19. Baxley R, Soshnev A, Koryakov D, Zhimulev I, Geyer P. The role of the Suppressor of Hairy-wing insulator protein in Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2011;356:398-410 pubmed publisher
    ..insulator functions of Su(Hw) were investigated through studies of the two gypsy insulator proteins, Modifier of (mdg4)67.2 (Mod67.2) and Centrosomal Protein of 190kDa (CP190)...
  20. Golovnin A, Volkov I, Georgiev P. SUMO conjugation is required for the assembly of Drosophila Su(Hw) and Mod(mdg4) into insulator bodies that facilitate insulator complex formation. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:2064-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The best studied insulators in Drosophila require Suppressor of Hairy Wing [Su(Hw)], Modifier of mdg4 [Mod(mdg4)] and centrosomal 190 kDa (CP190) proteins to be functional...
  21. Lei E, Corces V. RNA interference machinery influences the nuclear organization of a chromatin insulator. Nat Genet. 2006;38:936-41 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the RNAi machinery acts as a modulator of nuclear architecture capable of effecting global changes in gene expression. ..
  22. Kravchenko E, Savitskaya E, Kravchuk O, Parshikov A, Georgiev P, Savitsky M. Pairing between gypsy insulators facilitates the enhancer action in trans throughout the Drosophila genome. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:9283-91 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that gypsy insulator pairing is involved in communication between loci in the Drosophila genome. ..
  23. Negre N, Brown C, Shah P, Kheradpour P, Morrison C, Henikoff J, et al. A comprehensive map of insulator elements for the Drosophila genome. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000814 pubmed publisher ChIP-chip the genome-wide binding sites of 6 insulator-associated proteins-dCTCF, CP190, BEAF-32, Su(Hw), Mod(mdg4), and GAF-to obtain the first comprehensive map of insulator elements in Drosophila embryos...
  24. Parnell T, Kuhn E, Gilmore B, Helou C, Wold M, Geyer P. Identification of genomic sites that bind the Drosophila suppressor of Hairy-wing insulator protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:5983-93 pubmed
    ..These studies provide the first direct evidence that the Su(Hw) protein contributes to the regulation of gene expression in the Drosophila genome through the establishment of endogenous insulators. ..
  25. Bonchuk A, Denisov S, Georgiev P, Maksimenko O. Drosophila BTB/POZ domains of "ttk group" can form multimers and selectively interact with each other. J Mol Biol. 2011;412:423-36 pubmed publisher
    ..chemical cross-linking, and nondenaturing PAGE that four additional BTB domains of the ttk group-Batman, Mod(mdg4), Pipsqueak, and Tramtrack-can form multimers, like GAF...
  26. Bell A, West A, Felsenfeld G. Insulators and boundaries: versatile regulatory elements in the eukaryotic genome. Science. 2001;291:447-50 pubmed
  27. Geyer P, Corces V. DNA position-specific repression of transcription by a Drosophila zinc finger protein. Genes Dev. 1992;6:1865-73 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in light of current models that explain long-range effects of enhancers on gene expression. ..
  28. Capelson M, Corces V. SUMO conjugation attenuates the activity of the gypsy chromatin insulator. EMBO J. 2006;25:1906-14 pubmed
    ..evidence suggesting that two protein components of the gypsy chromatin insulator of Dorsophila melanogaster, Mod(mdg4)2.2 and CP190, are sumoylated, and that SUMO is associated with a subset of genomic insulator sites...
  29. Capelson M, Corces V. The ubiquitin ligase dTopors directs the nuclear organization of a chromatin insulator. Mol Cell. 2005;20:105-16 pubmed
    ..melanogaster confers its activity through a protein complex that consists of three known components, Su(Hw), Mod(mdg4)2.2, and CP190...
  30. Golovnin A, Biryukova I, Birukova I, Romanova O, Silicheva M, Parshikov A, et al. An endogenous Su(Hw) insulator separates the yellow gene from the Achaete-scute gene complex in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:3249-58 pubmed
    ..Genetic analysis shows that at least two proteins, Suppressor of Hairy wing and Modifier of MDG4, required for the activity of this insulator, are involved in the transcriptional regulation of Achaete-scute. ..
  31. Ghosh D, Gerasimova T, Corces V. Interactions between the Su(Hw) and Mod(mdg4) proteins required for gypsy insulator function. EMBO J. 2001;20:2518-27 pubmed
    ..The Su(Hw) and Mod(mdg4) proteins are components of the gypsy insulator required for its effect on enhancer-promoter interactions...
  32. Cai H, Levine M. The gypsy insulator can function as a promoter-specific silencer in the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1997;16:1732-41 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have shown that a second protein, mod(mdg4), is also important for normal insulator function...
  33. Chetverina D, Savitskaya E, Maksimenko O, Melnikova L, Zaytseva O, Parshikov A, et al. Red flag on the white reporter: a versatile insulator abuts the white gene in Drosophila and is omnipresent in mini-white constructs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:929-37 pubmed
    ..Though Wari contains no binding sites for known insulator proteins and does not require Su(Hw) or Mod(mdg4) for its activity, it can equally well interact with another copy of Wari and with unrelated Su(Hw)-dependent ..
  34. Gause M, Morcillo P, Dorsett D. Insulation of enhancer-promoter communication by a gypsy transposon insert in the Drosophila cut gene: cooperation between suppressor of hairy-wing and modifier of mdg4 proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:4807-17 pubmed
    The Drosophila mod(mdg4) gene products counteract heterochromatin-mediated silencing of the white gene and help activate genes of the bithorax complex...
  35. Hagstrom K, Muller M, Schedl P. Fab-7 functions as a chromatin domain boundary to ensure proper segment specification by the Drosophila bithorax complex. Genes Dev. 1996;10:3202-15 pubmed
    ..These results support the model that Fab-7 functions as a domain boundary within the context of the bithorax complex, making Fab-7 one of the first boundary elements that is known to have an essential function in vivo. ..
  36. Krauss V, Dorn R. Evolution of the trans-splicing Drosophila locus mod(mdg4) in several species of Diptera and Lepidoptera. Gene. 2004;331:165-76 pubmed publisher
    The modifier of mdg4 (mod[mdg4]) locus of Drosophila melanogaster (Dme) encodes chromatin proteins which are involved in position effect variegation, establishment of chromatin boundaries, nerve pathfinding, meiotic chromosome pairing and ..
  37. Xu Q, Li M, Adams J, Cai H. Nuclear location of a chromatin insulator in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:1025-32 pubmed
    ..Antibody stains showed that the two proteins essential for the suHw insulator activity, SUHW and MOD(MDG4), are not restricted to the nuclear periphery...
  38. Sigrist C, Pirrotta V. Chromatin insulator elements block the silencing of a target gene by the Drosophila polycomb response element (PRE) but allow trans interactions between PREs on different chromosomes. Genetics. 1997;147:209-21 pubmed
    ..The similarity between the behavior of PREs and enhancers suggests a model for their long-distance action. ..
  39. Gerasimova T, Corces V. Polycomb and trithorax group proteins mediate the function of a chromatin insulator. Cell. 1998;92:511-21 pubmed
    ..The gypsy insulator contains two proteins, Su(Hw) and Mod(mdg4)...
  40. Erokhin M, Davydova A, Kyrchanova O, Parshikov A, Georgiev P, Chetverina D. Insulators form gene loops by interacting with promoters in Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:4097-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Both insulators support basal activity of the yellow and white promoters in eyes. Thus, the ability of insulators to interact with promoters might play an important role in the regulation of basal gene transcription...
  41. Akbari O, Oliver D, Eyer K, Pai C. An Entry/Gateway cloning system for general expression of genes with molecular tags in Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Cell Biol. 2009;10:8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, live imaging of the movements of these fluorescent-tagged proteins suggests that the assembly and disassembly of insulator bodies are normal activities in living cells and may be directed for regulating transcription. ..
  42. Pascual GarcĂ­a P, Jeong J, Capelson M. Nucleoporin Nup98 associates with Trx/MLL and NSL histone-modifying complexes and regulates Hox gene expression. Cell Rep. 2014;9:433-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings introduce roles of Nup98 in epigenetic regulation that may underlie the basis of oncogenicity of Nup98 fusions in leukemia. ..
  43. Golovnin A, Kostyuchenko M, Georgiev P, Melnikova L. Mod(mdg4)-58.8, isoform of mod(mdg4) loci, directly interacts with MTACP1A and MTACP1B proteins of Drosophila melanogaster. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2016;466:5-8 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster embryo cell lysate, and immunostaining, it was shown for the first time that Mod(mdg4)-58.8 protein (isoform P), a product of mod(mdg4) locus, directly interacts with mtACP1A and mtACP1B proteins...
  44. Zorin I, Gerasimova T, Corces V. The lawc gene is a new member of the trithorax-group that affects the function of the gypsy insulator of Drosophila. Genetics. 1999;152:1045-55 pubmed
    ..The lawc gene behaves as an enhancer of position-effect variegation and interacts genetically with mod(mdg4), which is a component of the gypsy insulator...
  45. Kotnova A, Karpova N, Salenko V, Lyubomirskaya N, Ilyin Y. Canonical and noncanonical MDG4 (Gypsy) sequences contained in Drosophila melanogaster genome. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2005;400:88-91 pubmed
  46. Soltani Bejnood M, Thomas S, Villeneuve L, Schwartz K, Hong C, McKee B. Role of the mod(mdg4) common region in homolog segregation in Drosophila male meiosis. Genetics. 2007;176:161-80 pubmed
    ..are replaced by a homolog conjunction complex that includes the Stromalin in Meiosis (SNM) and Modifier of Mdg4 in Meiosis (MNM) proteins...
  47. Singer A, Gall J. An inducible nuclear body in the Drosophila germinal vesicle. Nucleus. 2011;2:403-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that their behavior serves as a useful model for self-assembly of nuclear bodies in general, and we discuss the possibility that similar bodies may occur normally in cells of other organisms. ..
  48. Pirrotta V. Trans-splicing in Drosophila. Bioessays. 2002;24:988-91 pubmed
    ..The mod(mdg4) gene produces 26 different mRNAs encoding as many protein isoforms...
  49. Harvey A, Soliman H, Kaiser W, Miller L. Anti- and pro-apoptotic activities of baculovirus and Drosophila IAPs in an insect cell line. Cell Death Differ. 1997;4:733-44 pubmed
    ..Like OpIAP and CpIAP, DIAP1 inhibited actinomycin D-induced apoptosis and apoptosis induced by Doom. Removal of the RING finger of DIAP1 reduced but did not eliminate its anti-apoptotic activity...
  50. Dorn R, Szidonya J, Korge G, Sehnert M, Taubert H, Archoukieh E, et al. P transposon-induced dominant enhancer mutations of position-effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1993;133:279-90 pubmed
    ..First studies on the developmentally regulated gene expression of PEV enhancer genes were performed by beta-galactosidase staining in P[lArB] induced mutations. ..
  51. Francisco F, Lemos B. How do y-chromosomes modulate genome-wide epigenetic States: genome folding, chromatin sinks, and gene expression. J Genomics. 2014;2:94-103 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss how the discovery of this new function impacts the current knowledge about Y chromosome origin, its current dynamics, and future fate. ..
  52. Heger P, George R, Wiehe T. Successive gain of insulator proteins in arthropod evolution. Evolution. 2013;67:2945-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Expansion of insulator systems may therefore be a general strategy to increase an organism's gene regulatory repertoire and its potential for morphological plasticity. ..
  53. Miller L. An exegesis of IAPs: salvation and surprises from BIR motifs. Trends Cell Biol. 1999;9:323-8 pubmed
    ..This article discusses current research on the structure and function of the BIR motifs and how it could provide insight into the function of BIRPs in cell division. ..
  54. McManus C, Duff M, Eipper Mains J, Graveley B. Global analysis of trans-splicing in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:12975-9 pubmed publisher have trans-splicing between protein-coding exons and has been demonstrated for only two Drosophila genes: mod(mdg4) and lola...
  55. Maksimenko O, Bartkuhn M, Stakhov V, Herold M, Zolotarev N, Jox T, et al. Two new insulator proteins, Pita and ZIPIC, target CP190 to chromatin. Genome Res. 2015;25:89-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify two new insulator proteins and emphasize the unifying function of CP190, which can be recruited by many DNA-binding insulator proteins. ..
  56. Gause M, Hovhannisyan H, Kan T, Kuhfittig S, Mogila V, Georgiev P. hobo Induced rearrangements in the yellow locus influence the insulation effect of the gypsy su(Hw)-binding region in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1998;149:1393-405 pubmed
    ..These results provide a better insight into mechanisms by which the su(Hw)-binding region affects the enhancer function. ..
  57. Van Bortle K, Nichols M, Li L, Ong C, Takenaka N, Qin Z, et al. Insulator function and topological domain border strength scale with architectural protein occupancy. Genome Biol. 2014;15:R82 pubmed publisher
  58. Karakozova M, Savitskaya E, Melnikova L, Parshikov A, Georgiev P. The Mod(mdg4) component of the Su(Hw) insulator inserted in the P transposon can repress its mobility in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2004;167:1275-80 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of a Mod(mdg4) component of the Su(Hw) insulator suppresses the insulator effect...
  59. Lim S, Boyle P, Chinen M, Dale R, Lei E. Genome-wide localization of exosome components to active promoters and chromatin insulators in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:2963-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results reveal a novel positive relationship between exosome and chromatin insulators throughout the genome. ..
  60. Bell A, Felsenfeld G. Stopped at the border: boundaries and insulators. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:191-8 pubmed
    ..Enhancer-blocking studies in oocytes and position-effect studies in transformed cells shed new light on insulator mechanisms. ..
  61. Sass G, Henikoff S. Pairing-dependent mislocalization of a Drosophila brown gene reporter to a heterochromatic environment. Genetics. 1999;152:595-604 pubmed
    ..We also find that an ensnared distal copy of bw that is interrupted by a heterochromatic insertion enhances silencing. This demonstrates that bw can be simultaneously acted upon by pericentric and distal blocks of heterochromatin...
  62. Lee H, McManus C, Cho D, Eaton M, Renda F, Somma M, et al. DNA copy number evolution in Drosophila cell lines. Genome Biol. 2014;15:R70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study illustrates how genome structure changes may contribute to selection of cell lines in vitro. This has implications for other cell-level natural selection progressions, including tumorigenesis. ..
  63. Labrador M, Mongelard F, Plata Rengifo P, Baxter E, Corces V, Gerasimova T. Protein encoding by both DNA strands. Nature. 2001;409:1000 pubmed
  64. Golovnin A, Dvoretsky E, Kostyuchenko M, Shamsutdinov M, Georgiev P, Melnikova L. MOD(MDG4)-64.2 protein, isoform of MOD(MDG4) loci, directly interacts with the Tweedle protein family of Drosophila melanogaster. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2013;452:225-8 pubmed publisher