Gene Symbol: Mlc2
Description: Myosin light chain 2
Alias: CG2184, DmMLC2, Dmel\CG2184, Dmlc, Dmlc2, Ifm(3)99Eb, LC2, MLC, MLC 2, MLC-2, MLC2, MRLC, MYL2, RLC, RLC1, RLC2, dMLC-2, dro MLC-2, l(3)99Eb, mlc-2, mlc2, myosin, myosin light chain 2, CG2184-PA, Mlc2-PA, muscle-specific myosin regulatory light chain, myosin LC2, myosin alkali light chain 2, myosin light Chain-2, myosin light-chain 2, myosin regulatory light chain
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Miller M, Farman G, Braddock J, Soto Adames F, Irving T, Vigoreaux J, et al. Regulatory light chain phosphorylation and N-terminal extension increase cross-bridge binding and power output in Drosophila at in vivo myofilament lattice spacing. Biophys J. 2011;100:1737-46 pubmed publisher
    The N-terminal extension and phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) independently improve Drosophila melanogaster flight performance...
  2. Farman G, Miller M, Reedy M, Soto Adames F, Vigoreaux J, Maughan D, et al. Phosphorylation and the N-terminal extension of the regulatory light chain help orient and align the myosin heads in Drosophila flight muscle. J Struct Biol. 2009;168:240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..alanines (Dmlc2(S66A, S67A)) decreased the equatorial intensity ratio (I(20)/I(10)), indicating decreased myosin mass associated with the thin filaments...
  3. Irving T, Bhattacharya S, Tesic I, Moore J, Farman G, Simcox A, et al. Changes in myofibrillar structure and function produced by N-terminal deletion of the regulatory light chain in Drosophila. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2001;22:675-83 pubmed examine the structural and functional consequences of deleting the N-terminal extension of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) in Drosophila flight muscle...
  4. Parker V, Falkenthal S, Davidson N. Characterization of the myosin light-chain-2 gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 1985;5:3058-68 pubmed
    Recombinant DNA clones encoding the Drosophila melanogaster homolog of the vertebrate myosin light-chain-2 (MLC-2) gene have been isolated. This single-copy gene maps to the chromosomal locus 99E...
  5. Dickinson M, Hyatt C, Lehmann F, Moore J, Reedy M, Simcox A, et al. Phosphorylation-dependent power output of transgenic flies: an integrated study. Biophys J. 1997;73:3122-34 pubmed
    ..IFM) and the entire flight system of Drosophila melanogaster are affected by phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (MLC2)...
  6. Warmke J, Yamakawa M, Molloy J, Falkenthal S, Maughan D. Myosin light chain-2 mutation affects flight, wing beat frequency, and indirect flight muscle contraction kinetics in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1992;119:1523-39 pubmed
    ..genetic, histological, biochemical, and biophysical techniques to identify and characterize a null mutation of the myosin light chain-2 (MLC-2) locus of Drosophila melanogaster...
  7. Warner S, Longmore G. Cdc42 antagonizes Rho1 activity at adherens junctions to limit epithelial cell apical tension. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:119-33 pubmed publisher
  8. Moore J, Dickinson M, Vigoreaux J, Maughan D. The effect of removing the N-terminal extension of the Drosophila myosin regulatory light chain upon flight ability and the contractile dynamics of indirect flight muscle. Biophys J. 2000;78:1431-40 pubmed
    The Drosophila myosin regulatory light chain (DMLC2) is homologous to MLC2s of vertebrate organisms, except for the presence of a unique 46-amino acid N-terminal extension...
  9. Tohtong R, Yamashita H, Graham M, Haeberle J, Simcox A, Maughan D. Impairment of muscle function caused by mutations of phosphorylation sites in myosin regulatory light chain. Nature. 1995;374:650-3 pubmed
    b>Myosin regulatory light chain is phosphorylated by myosin light chain kinase at conserved serine and threonine residues in a number of species...

More Information


  1. Yamashita R, Sellers J, Anderson J. Identification and analysis of the myosin superfamily in Drosophila: a database approach. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2000;21:491-505 pubmed
    ..Our own efforts predicted the presence of four additional partial sequences that appear to be myosin proteins which did not fall into any specific class...
  2. Hudson R, Kaplan N. Deleterious background selection with recombination. Genetics. 1995;141:1605-17 pubmed
    ..If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. ..
  3. Coen P, Xie M, Clemens J, Murthy M. Sensorimotor Transformations Underlying Variability in Song Intensity during Drosophila Courtship. Neuron. 2016;89:629-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate an unanticipated level of control in insect acoustic communication and uncover novel computations and mechanisms underlying the regulation of acoustic signal intensity. ..
  4. DUBOFF B, Götz J, Feany M. Tau promotes neurodegeneration via DRP1 mislocalization in vivo. Neuron. 2012;75:618-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate a conserved role for actin and myosin in regulating mitochondrial fission and show that excess actin stabilization inhibits association of the fission ..
  5. Takano Ohmuro H, Takahashi S, Hirose G, Maruyama K. Phosphorylated and dephosphorylated myosin light chains of Drosophila fly and larva. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1990;95:171-7 pubmed
    1. The present study confirmed that light chains of Drosophila adult fibrillar (flight) muscle myosin consist of Lf1, Lf2, Lf2' and Lf3, and tubular muscle myosin light chains contain Lt1, Lt2, Lt2' and Lt3, as revealed by two-dimensional ..
  6. Bullard B, Leonard K, Larkins A, Butcher G, Karlik C, Fyrberg E. Troponin of asynchronous flight muscle. J Mol Biol. 1988;204:621-37 pubmed
    ..Part of the sequence of Drosophila Tn-T is homologous to the carboxyl end of the Drosophila myosin light chain MLC-2 and one anti-Tn-T antibody cross-reacted with the light chain...
  7. Olson E, Perry M, Schulz R. Regulation of muscle differentiation by the MEF2 family of MADS box transcription factors. Dev Biol. 1995;172:2-14 pubmed
  8. Yeh S, von Grotthuss M, Gandasetiawan K, Jayasekera S, Xia X, Chan C, et al. Functional divergence of the miRNA transcriptome at the onset of Drosophila metamorphosis. Mol Biol Evol. 2014;31:2557-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results show contrasting patterns of functional divergence associated with miRNA expression levels during Drosophila ontogeny. ..
  9. Ranganayakulu G, Zhao B, Dokidis A, Molkentin J, Olson E, Schulz R. A series of mutations in the D-MEF2 transcription factor reveal multiple functions in larval and adult myogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1995;171:169-81 pubmed
    ..In contrast, in the cardiac muscle lineage, morphogenesis of the dorsal vessel occurs normally but the three myosin subunit genes are not expressed...
  10. Zappia M, Frolov M. E2F function in muscle growth is necessary and sufficient for viability in Drosophila. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10509 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify a key function of E2F in skeletal muscle required for animal viability, and illustrate how the cell cycle regulator is repurposed in post-mitotic cells. ..
  11. Toffenetti J, Mischke D, Pardue M. Isolation and characterization of the gene for myosin light chain two of Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 1987;104:19-28 pubmed
    A recombinant lambda-phage DNA clone containing Drosophila melanogaster sequences encoding the gene for myosin light chain (MLC) two has been isolated from a library of randomly sheared DNA...
  12. Osterfield M, Schüpbach T, Wieschaus E, Shvartsman S. Diversity of epithelial morphogenesis during eggshell formation in drosophilids. Development. 2015;142:1971-7 pubmed publisher
  13. Swank D, Bartoo M, Knowles A, Iliffe C, Bernstein S, Molloy J, et al. Alternative exon-encoded regions of Drosophila myosin heavy chain modulate ATPase rates and actin sliding velocity. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:15117-24 pubmed
    To investigate the molecular functions of the regions encoded by alternative exons from the single Drosophila myosin heavy chain gene, we made the first kinetic measurements of two muscle myosin isoforms that differ in all alternative ..
  14. Warmke J, Kreuz A, Falkenthal S. Co-localization to chromosome bands 99E1-3 of the Drosophila melanogaster myosin light chain-2 gene and a haplo-insufficient locus that affects flight behavior. Genetics. 1989;122:139-51 pubmed
    Using overlapping synthetic deficiencies, we find that a haplo-insufficient locus affecting flight behavior and the myosin light chain-2 gene co-map to the Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosome interval 99D9-E1 to 99E2-3...
  15. Taylor P, Clark A, Marsh A, Singer D, Dilly S. A chemical genomics approach to identification of interactions between bioactive molecules and alternative reading frame proteins. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013;49:9588-90 pubmed publisher
  16. Roark M, Mahoney P, Graham M, Lengyel J. Blastoderm-differential and blastoderm-specific genes of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1985;109:476-88 pubmed
    ..The sequence at 99E is that encoding the myosin light chain 2. Two other blastoderm-differential sequences are members of multigene families (one of which is B104, or ..
  17. Reedy M, Bullard B, Vigoreaux J. Flightin is essential for thick filament assembly and sarcomere stability in Drosophila flight muscles. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:1483-500 pubmed
    ..Here we show that flightin is associated with thick filaments where it is likely to interact with the myosin rod...
  18. Taylor M. Developmental biology: micromanaging muscle growth. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R20-3 pubmed
    ..Recently, the conserved microRNA miR-1 has been found to be essential for Drosophila development. miR-1 mutants die during the rapid larval growth phase with severe muscle defects. ..
  19. Chang Y, Tang H, Liang S, Pu T, Meng T, Khoo K, et al. Evaluation of Drosophila metabolic labeling strategies for in vivo quantitative proteomic analyses with applications to early pupa formation and amino acid starvation. J Proteome Res. 2013;12:2138-50 pubmed publisher
  20. Meyer E, Ikmi A, Gibson M. Interkinetic nuclear migration is a broadly conserved feature of cell division in pseudostratified epithelia. Curr Biol. 2011;21:485-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our studies suggest a mechanistic link between IKNM and the fundamental process of mitotic cell rounding. ..
  21. Sparrow J. Muscle. Flight and phosphorylation. Nature. 1995;374:592-3 pubmed
  22. Vigoreaux J. Genetics of the Drosophila flight muscle myofibril: a window into the biology of complex systems. Bioessays. 2001;23:1047-63 pubmed
  23. Clayton J, Cripps R, Sparrow J, Bullard B. Interaction of troponin-H and glutathione S-transferase-2 in the indirect flight muscles of Drosophila melanogaster. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 1998;19:117-27 pubmed
    ..dissection of the sarcomere showed that GST-2 is stably associated with the thin filaments but the presence of myosin is required to achieve the correct stoichiometry, suggesting that there is also an interaction with the thick ..
  24. Williams J, Boin N, Valera J, Johnson A. Noncanonical roles for Tropomyosin during myogenesis. Development. 2015;142:3440-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Tropomyosin therefore dictates fundamental steps of myogenesis prior to regulating contraction in the sarcomere. ..
  25. Yashiro H, Loza A, Skeath J, Longmore G. Rho1 regulates adherens junction remodeling by promoting recycling endosome formation through activation of myosin II. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:2956-69 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect of Rho1 is mediated through Rok-dependent, but not MLCK-dependent, stimulation of myosin II activity yet independent of its effects upon actin remodeling...
  26. Raghavan S, Williams I, Aslam H, Thomas D, Szoor B, Morgan G, et al. Protein phosphatase 1beta is required for the maintenance of muscle attachments. Curr Biol. 2000;10:269-72 pubmed
    ..We have isolated a new, semi-lethal flw allele that shows a range of defects, especially in muscles, which break away from their attachment sites and degenerate. ..
  27. Meisen N, Baars S, Jimenez F. Isolation of mesoderm-specific genes expressed in the Drosophila embryo. Gene. 1988;74:457-64 pubmed
    ..No neural-specific genes were identified using this approach, most probably because of the low sensitivity of detection methods which combine filter hybridization techniques with the use of complex probes. ..
  28. Bulchand S, Menon S, George S, Chia W. Muscle wasted: a novel component of the Drosophila histone locus body required for muscle integrity. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2697-707 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that mute regulates terminal muscle differentiation possibly through heterochromatic reorganisation. ..
  29. Nakano A, Takashima S. LKB1 and AMP-activated protein kinase: regulators of cell polarity. Genes Cells. 2012;17:737-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the mechanisms and factors responsible for organizing cell polarity and the role of LKB1 and AMPK in cell polarity. ..
  30. Miller B, Nyitrai M, Bernstein S, Geeves M. Kinetic analysis of Drosophila muscle myosin isoforms suggests a novel mode of mechanochemical coupling. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50293-300 pubmed
    The molecular mechanism of myosin function was addressed by measuring transient kinetic parameters of naturally occurring and chimeric Drosophila muscle myosin isoforms...
  31. Martin P, Wood W. Epithelial fusions in the embryo. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2002;14:569-74 pubmed
    ..It is now clear that there are intriguing parallels with more complex morphogenetic tissue movements in vertebrates. ..
  32. Stephan W. An improved method for estimating the rate of fixation of favorable mutations based on DNA polymorphism data. Mol Biol Evol. 1995;12:959-62 pubmed
  33. Takahashi S, Takano Ohmuro H, Maruyama K. Regulation of Drosophila myosin ATPase activity by phosphorylation of myosin light chains--I. Wild-type fly. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1990;95:179-81 pubmed
    1. Two types of myosins with phosphorylated and dephosphorylated myosin light chains were prepared from Drosophila flies. The former had ATPase (Ca2(+)- and Mg2(+)-activited) activities twice those of the latter. 2...
  34. Bai J, Binari R, Ni J, Vijayakanthan M, Li H, Perrimon N. RNA interference screening in Drosophila primary cells for genes involved in muscle assembly and maintenance. Development. 2008;135:1439-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss how Drosophila primary cells can be manipulated to develop cell-based assays to model human diseases for RNAi and small-molecule screens. ..
  35. Ayer G, Vigoreaux J. Flightin is a myosin rod binding protein. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2003;38:41-54 pubmed
    The assembly of striated muscle myosin into thick filaments of precise and regular length requires the assistance of accessory proteins...
  36. Chakravorty S, Vu H, Foelber V, Vigoreaux J. Mutations of the Drosophila myosin regulatory light chain affect courtship song and reduce reproductive success. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e90077 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined the courtship song properties and mating behavior of three mutant strains of the myosin regulatory light chain (DMLC2) that are known to affect IFM contractile properties and impair flight: (i) Dmlc2(Δ2-46) (..
  37. Lichter J, Storti R. In vitro transcription analysis of the Drosophila tropomyosin and other muscle genes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991;1088:419-24 pubmed
    ..The embryonic extract did, however, contain developmental-specific proteins that bound to the muscle enhancer regulatory region of the Tropomyosin I gene. ..
  38. Takahashi S, Takano Ohmuro H, Maruyama K, Hotta Y. Regulation of Drosophila myosin ATPase activity by phosphorylation of myosin light chains--II. Flightless mfd- fly. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1990;95:183-5 pubmed
    1. The Ca2(+)-activated and Mg2+ actin-activated myosin ATPase activities of flightless mfd- mutant Drosophila flight muscle myosin were one-half and one-third of those of the wild-type fly muscle myosin, respectively. 2...
  39. Irving T, Maughan D. In vivo x-ray diffraction of indirect flight muscle from Drosophila melanogaster. Biophys J. 2000;78:2511-5 pubmed
    ..Transgenic flies with amino-acid substitutions in the conserved phosphorylation site of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) exhibit structural abnormalities that can explain their flight impairment...
  40. Razzaq A, Schmitz S, Veigel C, Molloy J, Geeves M, Sparrow J. Actin residue glu(93) is identified as an amino acid affecting myosin binding. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:28321-8 pubmed
    ..and absence of methylcellulose, and the ability of the ACT88F actin to bind the S1 fragment of rabbit skeletal myosin. However, optical tweezer measurements of the actomyosin working stroke and the force transmitted from the rabbit ..
  41. Elgar S, Han J, Taylor M. mef2 activity levels differentially affect gene expression during Drosophila muscle development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:918-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a route by which mef2 can orchestrate the muscle differentiation program and contribute to the stringent regulation of gene expression during myogenesis. ..
  42. Royou A, Sullivan W, Karess R. Cortical recruitment of nonmuscle myosin II in early syncytial Drosophila embryos: its role in nuclear axial expansion and its regulation by Cdc2 activity. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:127-37 pubmed
    ..The cellular mechanisms driving this process, called axial expansion, are unclear, but myosin II activity is required...
  43. Hyatt C, Maughan D. Fourier analysis of wing beat signals: assessing the effects of genetic alterations of flight muscle structure in Diptera. Biophys J. 1994;67:1149-54 pubmed
    ..This method fulfills a need for a standardized method for determining wing beat frequencies and examining wing beat frequency variability in insects whose flight muscles have been altered by protein engineering methods. ..