Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Mi 2
Alias: 0006/06, 0854/01, CG8103, Chd4, Dm-Mi-2, Dmel\CG8103, M-i2, MI-2, MI2, Mi 2, Mi2, Pha, dMI-2, dMi, dMi-2, dMi2, hip76, l(3)01058, l(3)76BDe, l(3)A154.3M3, l(3)L1243, l(3)S000606, l(3)S085401, l(3)j3D4, pha, Mi-2, CG8103-PA, CG8103-PB, CG8103-PC, CG8103-PD, Mi-2 ortholog, Mi-2-PA, Mi-2-PB, Mi-2-PC, Mi-2-PD, PHD-containing ATPase, dMi-2, hb-interacting protein 76, lethal (3) L1243
Species: fruit fly
Products: Mi 2
- Murawska M, Kunert N, van Vugt J, L ngst G, Kremmer E, Logie C, et al. dCHD3, a novel ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler associated with sites of active transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:2745-57 pubmed publisher..Three CHD proteins, dMi-2, dChd1, and Kismet, have been described for Drosophila melanogaster...
- Tweedie S, Ng H, Barlow A, Turner B, Hendrich B, Bird A. Vestiges of a DNA methylation system in Drosophila melanogaster?. Nat Genet. 1999;23:389-90 pubmed
- Li M, Belozerov V, Cai H. Modulation of chromatin boundary activities by nucleosome-remodeling activities in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1067-76 pubmed publisher..In contrast to the effect of NURF knockdown, reduction in dMi-2, the ATPase component of the Drosophila nucleosome-remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD) complex, augmented Fab7 ..
- Marfella C, Imbalzano A. The Chd family of chromatin remodelers. Mutat Res. 2007;618:30-40 pubmed..Genetic, biochemical, and structural studies demonstrate that Chd proteins are important regulators of transcription and play critical roles during developmental processes. Numerous Chd proteins are also implicated in human disease. ..
- Reddy B, Bajpe P, Bassett A, Moshkin Y, Kozhevnikova E, Bezstarosti K, et al. Drosophila transcription factor Tramtrack69 binds MEP1 to recruit the chromatin remodeler NuRD. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:5234-44 pubmed publisher..Proteomic characterization revealed that MEP1 is a tightly associated subunit of the NuRD remodeler, harboring the Mi2 enzymatic core ATPase...
- Kharchenko P, Alekseyenko A, Schwartz Y, Minoda A, Riddle N, Ernst J, et al. Comprehensive analysis of the chromatin landscape in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature. 2011;471:480-5 pubmed publisher..This systematic profiling and integrative analysis of chromatin signatures provides insights into how genomic elements are regulated, and will serve as a resource for future experimental investigations of genome structure and function. ..
- Murawsky C, Brehm A, Badenhorst P, Lowe N, Becker P, Travers A. Tramtrack69 interacts with the dMi-2 subunit of the Drosophila NuRD chromatin remodelling complex. EMBO Rep. 2001;2:1089-94 pubmedb>dMi-2, the ATPase subunit of the Drosophila nucleosome remodelling and histone deacetylation (dNuRD) complex, was identified in a two-hybrid screen as an interacting partner of the transcriptional repressor, Tramtrack69 (Ttk69)...
- Ballestar E, Pile L, Wassarman D, Wolffe A, Wade P. A Drosophila MBD family member is a transcriptional corepressor associated with specific genes. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:5397-406 pubmed..This banding pattern suggests gene-specific regulatory functions for dMBD-like and the Drosophila Mi-2 complex. ..
- Brehm A, Langst G, Kehle J, Clapier C, Imhof A, Eberharter A, et al. dMi-2 and ISWI chromatin remodelling factors have distinct nucleosome binding and mobilization properties. EMBO J. 2000;19:4332-41 pubmed..We have compared the remodelling activity of recombinant Drosophila Mi-2 (dMi-2) with that of recombinant ISWI...
- Stielow B, Sapetschnig A, Krüger I, Kunert N, Brehm A, Boutros M, et al. Identification of SUMO-dependent chromatin-associated transcriptional repression components by a genome-wide RNAi screen. Mol Cell. 2008;29:742-54 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that MEP-1, Mi-2, and Sfmbt are part of a common repression complex established by DNA-bound SUMO-modified transcription factors. ..
- Neely K, Workman J. The complexity of chromatin remodeling and its links to cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1603:19-29 pubmed..Their subunit composition and brief overview of their functional properties will be discussed. Also, current links between human chromatin-remodeling complexes and cell growth and cancer will be presented. ..
- Knoepfler P, Eisenman R. Sin meets NuRD and other tails of repression. Cell. 1999;99:447-50 pubmed
- Lusser A, Kadonaga J. Chromatin remodeling by ATP-dependent molecular machines. Bioessays. 2003;25:1192-200 pubmed..In this review, we provide an overview of chromatin-remodeling enzymes and discuss two possible mechanisms by which these factors might act to reorganize nucleosome structure. ..
- Varga Weisz P, Becker P. Regulation of higher-order chromatin structures by nucleosome-remodelling factors. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:151-6 pubmed..Recent observations support roles for nucleosome-remodelling factors at the supra-nucleosomal level. ..
- Mills A. Throwing the cancer switch: reciprocal roles of polycomb and trithorax proteins. Nat Rev Cancer. 2010;10:669-82 pubmed publisher..Recent work highlights the dynamic interplay between these opposing classes of proteins, providing new avenues for understanding how these epigenetic regulators function in tumorigenesis. ..
- Smith E, Winter B, Eissenberg J, Shilatifard A. Regulation of the transcriptional activity of poised RNA polymerase II by the elongation factor ELL. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:8575-9 pubmed publisher..Consistent with a role in elongation, dELL knockdown reduces the levels of phosphorylated Pol II at heat-shock loci. This study implicates dELL in the expression of loci regulated by Pol II elongation. ..
- Cherry C, MATUNIS E. Epigenetic regulation of stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis via the nucleosome-remodeling factor NURF. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;6:557-67 pubmed publisher..Because three additional ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers (ACF, CHRAC, and dMi-2/NuRD) are dispensable for stem cell maintenance in the testis, epigenetic regulation of stem cells within this ..
- Mathieu E, Finkernagel F, Murawska M, Scharfe M, Jarek M, Brehm A. Recruitment of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler dMi-2 to the transcribed region of active heat shock genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:4879-91 pubmed publisherThe ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler dMi-2 can play both positive and negative roles in gene transcription...
- Brehm A, Tufteland K, Aasland R, Becker P. The many colours of chromodomains. Bioessays. 2004;26:133-40 pubmed
- Fasulo B, Deuring R, Murawska M, Gause M, Dorighi K, Schaaf C, et al. The Drosophila MI-2 chromatin-remodeling factor regulates higher-order chromatin structure and cohesin dynamics in vivo. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002878 pubmed publisherb>dMi-2 is a highly conserved ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factor that regulates transcription and cell fates by altering the structure or positioning of nucleosomes...
- Ahringer J. NuRD and SIN3 histone deacetylase complexes in development. Trends Genet. 2000;16:351-6 pubmed..The emerging picture is that these complexes have specific functions in development, rather than being required for most cellular processes. ..
- van Lohuizen M. The trithorax-group and polycomb-group chromatin modifiers: implications for disease. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:355-61 pubmed..This is illustrated by recent mechanistic insights that link Polycomb repression with histone deacetylases and the identification of new target genes that provide a connection to cell cycle control and tumorigenesis. ..
- Anderson A, Galko M. Rapid clearance of epigenetic protein reporters from wound edge cells in Drosophila larvae does not depend on the JNK or PDGFR/VEGFR signaling pathways. Regeneration (Oxf). 2014;1:11-25 pubmed..Taken together, our results suggest that clearance of chromatin modifying factors may enable wound edge cells to rapidly and comprehensively change their transcriptional state following tissue damage. ..
- Wilson C, Pearson R, Bellen H, O Kane C, Grossniklaus U, Gehring W. P-element-mediated enhancer detection: an efficient method for isolating and characterizing developmentally regulated genes in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1301-13 pubmed..Therefore, the enhancer detection system is an efficient method of screening for genes primarily on the basis of their expression pattern and then rapidly analyzing those of particular interest at the molecular and genetic levels. ..
- Moshkin Y, Chalkley G, Kan T, Reddy B, Ozgur Z, van Ijcken W, et al. Remodelers organize cellular chromatin by counteracting intrinsic histone-DNA sequence preferences in a class-specific manner. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:675-88 pubmed publisher..We conclude that the cellular nucleosome landscape is the result of the balance between DNA sequence-driven nucleosome placement and active nucleosome repositioning by remodelers and the transcription machinery. ..
- Bajpe P, van der Knaap J, Demmers J, Bezstarosti K, Bassett A, van Beusekom H, et al. Deubiquitylating enzyme UBP64 controls cell fate through stabilization of the transcriptional repressor tramtrack. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1606-15 pubmed..We conclude that the balance of TTK ubiquitylation by SINA and deubiquitylation by UBP64 constitutes a specific posttranslational switch controlling cell fate. ..
- Holmqvist P, Boija A, Philip P, Crona F, Stenberg P, Mannervik M. Preferential genome targeting of the CBP co-activator by Rel and Smad proteins in early Drosophila melanogaster embryos. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002769 pubmed publisher..We conclude that CBP occupancy in Drosophila embryos preferentially overlaps factors controlling dorso-ventral patterning and that CBP binds silent genes without causing histone hyperacetylation. ..
- Nakayama T, Shimojima T, Hirose S. The PBAP remodeling complex is required for histone H3.3 replacement at chromatin boundaries and for boundary functions. Development. 2012;139:4582-90 pubmed publisher..3 replacement to execute boundary functions. Our results provide new insight into the function of the trithorax group during development. ..
- De Vaux V, Pfefferli C, Passannante M, Belhaj K, von Essen A, Sprecher S, et al. The Caenorhabditis elegans LET-418/Mi2 plays a conserved role in lifespan regulation. Aging Cell. 2013;12:1012-20 pubmed publisherThe evolutionarily conserved nucleosome-remodeling protein Mi2 is involved in transcriptional repression during development in various model systems, plays a role in embryonic patterning and germ line development, and participates in DNA ..
- Li G, Zhou L. Genome-wide identification of chromatin transitional regions reveals diverse mechanisms defining the boundary of facultative heterochromatin. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67156 pubmed publisher..However, boundary-associated insulator binding sites are distinctively flanked by nucleosome destabilizing sequences, which correlates with significantly decreased nucleosome density and increased binding of co-factors. ..
- Yamasaki Y, Nishida Y. Mi-2 chromatin remodeling factor functions in sensory organ development through proneural gene repression in Drosophila. Dev Growth Differ. 2006;48:411-8 pubmed..No morphological mutant phenotype of Drosophila Mi-2 (dMi-2) had been reported previously; however, we found that rare escapers develop into adult flies showing an extra ..
- Polo S, Almouzni G. Chromatin assembly: a basic recipe with various flavours. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:104-11 pubmed..New data highlight the importance of histone dimers as deposition entities for de novo nucleosome assembly and identify dedicated machineries involved in histone variant deposition. ..
- Barlow A, van Drunen C, Johnson C, Tweedie S, Bird A, Turner B. dSIR2 and dHDAC6: two novel, inhibitor-resistant deacetylases in Drosophila melanogaster. Exp Cell Res. 2001;265:90-103 pubmed..Consistent with this, recombinant dHDAC1 coimmunoprecipitates with components of the Drosophila NuRD complex and dHDAC3 with an as yet unknown 45-kDa protein. ..
- Thompson E, Travers A. A Drosophila Smyd4 homologue is a muscle-specific transcriptional modulator involved in development. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3008 pubmed publisher..Repression of transcription by dSmyd4 and the involvement of this protein in development suggests that aspects of Smyd protein function are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates. ..
- Schneiderman J, Sakai A, Goldstein S, Ahmad K. The XNP remodeler targets dynamic chromatin in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14472-7 pubmed publisher..Thus, the XNP focus appears to be a functional genetic element that can contribute to gene silencing throughout the nucleus. ..
- Zhang W, Aubert A, Gomez de Segura J, Karuppasamy M, Basu S, Murthy A, et al. The Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase Complex NuRD Is Built from Preformed Catalytically Active Sub-modules. J Mol Biol. 2016;428:2931-42 pubmed publisher..complex shows that it consists of a stable core of subunits, while others, in particular the chromatin remodeler CHD4, associate transiently...
- Nikalayevich E, Ohkura H. The NuRD nucleosome remodelling complex and NHK-1 kinase are required for chromosome condensation in oocytes. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:566-75 pubmed..We further show that NHK-1 is important for chromosome condensation during mitosis as well as in oocytes. ..
- Marhold J, Brehm A, Kramer K. The Drosophila methyl-DNA binding protein MBD2/3 interacts with the NuRD complex via p55 and MI-2. BMC Mol Biol. 2004;5:20 pubmed..Our data provide novel insights into the association between Drosophila MBD2/3 and NuRD proteins. Additionally, this work provides a first analysis of the architecture of the Drosophila NuRD complex. ..
- Feller C, Prestel M, Hartmann H, Straub T, Söding J, Becker P. The MOF-containing NSL complex associates globally with housekeeping genes, but activates only a defined subset. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:1509-22 pubmed publisher..We conclude that the regulatory capacity of the NSL complex is highly context-dependent. Activation by the NSL complex requires a particular promoter architecture defined by combinations of chromatin regulators and core promoter motifs. ..
- Perrin L, Bloyer S, Ferraz C, Agrawal N, Sinha P, Dura J. The leucine zipper motif of the Drosophila AF10 homologue can inhibit PRE-mediated repression: implications for leukemogenic activity of human MLL-AF10 fusions. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:119-30 pubmed..These data reveal new properties for the leucine zipper domain and thus might provide new clues to understanding the mechanisms by which AF10 fusion proteins in which the PHD domain is lost might trigger leukemias in humans. ..
- Kim J, Lu C, Srinivasan S, Awe S, Brehm A, Fuller M. Blocking promiscuous activation at cryptic promoters directs cell type-specific gene expression. Science. 2017;356:717-721 pubmed publisher..cell lineage that a spermatocyte-specific zinc finger protein, Kumgang (Kmg), working with the chromatin remodeler dMi-2 prevents transcription of genes normally expressed only in somatic lineages...
- Carrera P, Abrell S, Kerber B, Walldorf U, Preiss A, Hoch M, et al. A modifier screen in the eye reveals control genes for Krüppel activity in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:10779-84 pubmed..The results indicate that the Kr gain-of-function mutation If provides a tool to identify genes that are active during eye development and that a number of them function also in the control of Kr-dependent developmental processes. ..
- Koe C, Li S, Rossi F, Wong J, Wang Y, Zhang Z, et al. The Brm-HDAC3-Erm repressor complex suppresses dedifferentiation in Drosophila type II neuroblast lineages. elife. 2014;3:e01906 pubmed publisher..Thus, the Brm-HDAC3-Erm repressor complex suppresses dedifferentiation of INPs back into type II neuroblasts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01906.001. ..
- Wade P, Wolffe A. Transcriptional regulation: SWItching circuitry. Curr Biol. 1999;9:R221-4 pubmed..How they do so is still mysterious, but recent studies indicate that they can be targeted to the nuclear infrastructure and to particular genes, where they cooperate with other enzymes to activate or repress transcription. ..
- Smulders Srinivasan T, Szakmary A, Lin H. A Drosophila chromatin factor interacts with the Piwi-interacting RNA mechanism in niche cells to regulate germline stem cell self-renewal. Genetics. 2010;186:573-83 pubmed publisher..These results reveal a novel epigenetic mechanism involving Corto and Piwi that defines the fate and signaling function of niche cells in maintaining GSCs. ..
- Halbach T, Scheer N, Werr W. Transcriptional activation by the PHD finger is inhibited through an adjacent leucine zipper that binds 14-3-3 proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:3542-50 pubmed..PHD-type plant homeodomain proteins consequently may represent potential targets of 14-3-3 signalling. ..
- Yokoyama H, Nakos K, Santarella Mellwig R, Rybina S, Krijgsveld J, Koffa M, et al. CHD4 is a RanGTP-dependent MAP that stabilizes microtubules and regulates bipolar spindle formation. Curr Biol. 2013;23:2443-51 pubmed publisher..We identify a chromatin-remodeling ATPase, CHD4, as a RanGTP-dependent microtubule (MT)-associated protein (MAP)...
- Kon C, Cadigan K, da Silva S, Nusse R. Developmental roles of the Mi-2/NURD-associated protein p66 in Drosophila. Genetics. 2005;169:2087-100 pubmed..By co-immunoprecipitation, p66 associates with dMi-2, a known NURD complex member.
- Abrell S, Carrera P, Jackle H. A modifier screen of ectopic Krüppel activity identifies autosomal Drosophila chromosomal sites and genes required for normal eye development. Chromosoma. 2000;109:334-42 pubmed..Owing to the bias of the screening system applied, these modifier genes will be expressed and are likely to be required during Drosophila wild-type eye development. ..
- Fouix S, Martin Lannerée S, Sanial M, Morla L, Lamour Isnard C, Plessis A. Over-expression of a novel nuclear interactor of Suppressor of fused, the Drosophila myelodysplasia/myeloid leukaemia factor, induces abnormal morphogenesis associated with increased apoptosis and DNA synthesis. Genes Cells. 2003;8:897-911 pubmed..We propose that dSu(fu) and dMLF act together at the transcriptional level to coordinate patterning and proliferation during development. ..
- Bellen H, O Kane C, Wilson C, Grossniklaus U, Pearson R, Gehring W. P-element-mediated enhancer detection: a versatile method to study development in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1288-300 pubmed..In light of our results, we discuss the diversity and complexity of cis-acting regulatory elements in the genome and the general applications of the enhancer detector method for the study of Drosophila development. ..
- Wang Y, Brock H. Polyhomeotic stably associates with molecular chaperones Hsc4 and Droj2 in Drosophila Kc1 cells. Dev Biol. 2003;262:350-60 pubmed..However, unlike in PRC1, Psc, TAF(II)62, Modulo, dMI-2, or Rpd3/HDAC1 do not associate with F-PHP-HA...
- Hirose F, Ohshima N, Kwon E, Yoshida H, Yamaguchi M. Drosophila Mi-2 negatively regulates dDREF by inhibiting its DNA-binding activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:5182-93 pubmed..Biochemical analyses revealed that the C-terminal region of Drosophila Mi-2 (dMi-2) specifically binds to the DNA-binding domain of dDREF...
- Cugusi S, Kallappagoudar S, Ling H, Lucchesi J. The Drosophila Helicase Maleless (MLE) is Implicated in Functions Distinct From its Role in Dosage Compensation. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2015;14:1478-88 pubmed publisher..We have documented this association in selected examples that include the spliceosome complex, heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins involved in RNA Processing and in Heterochromatin Protein 1 deposition, and the NuRD complex. ..
- Demakov S, Vatolina T, Babenko V, Semeshin V, Belyaeva E, Zhimulev I. Protein composition of interband regions in polytene and cell line chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:566 pubmed publisher..generally characteristic of the "open" chromatin (RNA polymerase II, CHRIZ (CHRO), BEAF-32, BRE1, dMI-2, GAF, NURF301, WDS and TRX)...
- Merzetti E, Hackett J, Clark D. Transcriptional regulation of the purine de novo synthesis gene Prat in Drosophila melanogaster. Gene. 2013;518:280-6 pubmed publisher..Finally, the genes Distal-less, Mi-2 and dMyc, which influence Dref activity, do not appear to affect Prat transcription. ..
- van Vugt J, de Jager M, Murawska M, Brehm A, van Noort J, Logie C. Multiple aspects of ATP-dependent nucleosome translocation by RSC and Mi-2 are directed by the underlying DNA sequence. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6345 pubmed publisher..This conceptual framework helps resolve the apparent paradox between the high abundance of ATP-dependent remodelers per nucleus and the relative success of sequence-based predictions of nucleosome positioning in vivo. ..