Gene Symbol: Mhc
Description: Myosin heavy chain
Alias: Bsh, CG17927, DROMHC, Dm II, DmMHC, Dmel\CG17927, DroMII, FBgn0002741, Ifm(2)2, Ifm(2)RU1, MHC, MRP, Mhc36B, Mrp, MyHC, Myo, Myo6, Nup, Sht, Stp, chr2L:16765388..16765564, chr2L:16781880..16782040, ifm(2)2, ifm(2)RU1, ifm(2)RU2, l(2)36Ae, l(2)M66, l(2)k10423, mMHC, mhc, sMHC, myosin heavy chain, CG17927-PA, CG17927-PB, CG17927-PC, CG17927-PD, CG17927-PE, CG17927-PF, CG17927-PG, CG17927-PH, CG17927-PI, CG17927-PK, CG17927-PL, CG17927-PM, CG17927-PN, CG17927-PO, CG17927-PP, CG17927-PQ, CG17927-PR, CG17927-PS, CG17927-PT, CG17927-PU, CG17927-PV, Mhc-PA, Mhc-PB, Mhc-PC, Mhc-PD, Mhc-PE, Mhc-PF, Mhc-PG, Mhc-PH, Mhc-PI, Mhc-PK, Mhc-PL, Mhc-PM, Mhc-PN, Mhc-PO, Mhc-PP, Mhc-PQ, Mhc-PR, Mhc-PS, Mhc-PT, Mhc-PU, Mhc-PV, Not-upheld, Shrunken-thorax, beta-myosin heavy chain, chain, heavy chain, indirect flight muscle (2) RU1, indirect flight muscle (2) RU2, muscle myosin, muscle myosin II, muscle myosin II heavy chain, muscle myosin heavy chain, muscle myosin-II, muscle specific myosin II, myo-II heavy chain, myosin, myosin heavy, myosin heavy Chain-PF, myosin heavy-chain, myosin heavy-chain protein, myosin rod protein, myosin-heavy chain, samba, sarcomeric myosin heavy-chain, shrunken thorax, stuckup
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Mhc

Top Publications

  1. Sens K, Zhang S, Jin P, Duan R, Zhang G, Luo F, et al. An invasive podosome-like structure promotes fusion pore formation during myoblast fusion. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:1013-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies uncover a novel invasive podosome-like structure (PLS) in a developing tissue and reveal a previously unrecognized function of PLSs in facilitating cell membrane juxtaposition and fusion...
  2. Bour B, Chakravarti M, West J, Abmayr S. Drosophila SNS, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is essential for myoblast fusion. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1498-511 pubmed
    ..To these ends, we demonstrate that the presence of SNS-expressing cells is absolutely dependent on Notch, and that expression of SNS does not require the myogenic regulatory protein MEF2. ..
  3. Ruiz Gomez M, Bate M. Segregation of myogenic lineages in Drosophila requires numb. Development. 1997;124:4857-66 pubmed
    ..Numb acts to block Notch-mediated repression of genes expressed in muscle progenitor cells. Thus asymmetric cell divisions are essential determinants of muscle fates during myogenesis in Drosophila ..
  4. Swank D, Knowles A, Kronert W, Suggs J, Morrill G, Nikkhoy M, et al. Variable N-terminal regions of muscle myosin heavy chain modulate ATPase rate and actin sliding velocity. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:17475-82 pubmed
    ..assessed the function of alternative versions of a region near the N terminus of Drosophila muscle myosin heavy chain (encoded by exon 3a or 3b)...
  5. Wassenberg D, Kronert W, O Donnell P, Bernstein S. Analysis of the 5' end of the Drosophila muscle myosin heavy chain gene. Alternatively spliced transcripts initiate at a single site and intron locations are conserved compared to myosin genes of other organisms. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:10741-7 pubmed
    We have localized the transcription start site of the Drosophila melanogaster muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene and find that all forms of the alternatively spliced MHC mRNA initiate at the same location...
  6. Reedy M, Bullard B, Vigoreaux J. Flightin is essential for thick filament assembly and sarcomere stability in Drosophila flight muscles. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:1483-500 pubmed
    ..Site-specific cleavage of myosin heavy chain occurs during this period...
  7. Yamashita R, Sellers J, Anderson J. Identification and analysis of the myosin superfamily in Drosophila: a database approach. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2000;21:491-505 pubmed
    ..Our own efforts predicted the presence of four additional partial sequences that appear to be myosin proteins which did not fall into any specific class...
  8. Becker S, Pasca G, Strumpf D, Min L, Volk T. Reciprocal signaling between Drosophila epidermal muscle attachment cells and their corresponding muscles. Development. 1997;124:2615-22 pubmed
    ..Following this binding, the muscle cells send a reciprocal signal to the epidermal muscle attachment cells inducing their terminal differentiation into tendon-like cells. ..
  9. George E, Ober M, Emerson C. Functional domains of the Drosophila melanogaster muscle myosin heavy-chain gene are encoded by alternatively spliced exons. Mol Cell Biol. 1989;9:2957-74 pubmed
    The single-copy Drosophila muscle myosin heavy-chain (MHC) gene, located at 36B(2L), has a complex exon structure that produces a diversity of larval and adult muscle MHC isoforms through regulated alternative RNA splicing...

More Information


  1. Vorbrüggen G, Jackle H. Epidermal muscle attachment site-specific target gene expression and interference with myotube guidance in response to ectopic stripe expression in the developing Drosophila epidermis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:8606-11 pubmed ectodermal cells generate long-range signals that interfere with the spatial orientation of the elongating myotubes. ..
  2. Schnorrer F, Kalchhauser I, Dickson B. The transmembrane protein Kon-tiki couples to Dgrip to mediate myotube targeting in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2007;12:751-66 pubmed
    ..Forced overexpression of Kon stimulates muscle motility. We propose that Kon promotes directed myotube migration and transduces a target-derived signal that initiates the formation of a stable connection. ..
  3. Tanaka K, Bryantsev A, Cripps R. Myocyte enhancer factor 2 and chorion factor 2 collaborate in activation of the myogenic program in Drosophila. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1616-29 pubmed
  4. Irion U. Drosophila muscleblind codes for proteins with one and two tandem zinc finger motifs. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34248 pubmed publisher
    ..1), are not muscle-specific but expressed mainly in epidermal cells, indicating a function for mbl not only in muscles and the nervous system. ..
  5. Bai J, Hartwig J, Perrimon N. SALS, a WH2-domain-containing protein, promotes sarcomeric actin filament elongation from pointed ends during Drosophila muscle growth. Dev Cell. 2007;13:828-42 pubmed
  6. Volk T, Fessler L, Fessler J. A role for integrin in the formation of sarcomeric cytoarchitecture. Cell. 1990;63:525-36 pubmed
    ..of serum or fibronectin was needed for sarcomere formation: integrin and actin became concentrated at Z-bands; myosin and actin occurred between the Z-bands...
  7. O Donnell P, Collier V, Mogami K, Bernstein S. Ultrastructural and molecular analyses of homozygous-viable Drosophila melanogaster muscle mutants indicate there is a complex pattern of myosin heavy-chain isoform distribution. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1233-46 pubmed
    ..Genetic mapping indicates that these mutations are inseparable from the known muscle myosin heavy-chain (MHC) allele Mhc1, and each mutation results in a muscle-specific reduction in MHC protein ..
  8. Leptin M. Gastrulation in Drosophila: the logic and the cellular mechanisms. EMBO J. 1999;18:3187-92 pubmed
  9. Berg J, Powell B, Cheney R. A millennial myosin census. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:780-94 pubmed
    The past decade has seen a remarkable explosion in our knowledge of the size and diversity of the myosin superfamily...
  10. Wells L, Edwards K, Bernstein S. Myosin heavy chain isoforms regulate muscle function but not myofibril assembly. EMBO J. 1996;15:4454-9 pubmed
    b>Myosin heavy chain (MHC) is the motor protein of muscle thick filaments. Most organisms produce many muscle MHC isoforms with temporally and spatially regulated expression patterns...
  11. Chen E, Pryce B, Tzeng J, Gonzalez G, Olson E. Control of myoblast fusion by a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, loner, and its effector ARF6. Cell. 2003;114:751-62 pubmed
    ..In muscle cells, this fusigenic mechanism is coupled to fusion receptors; in other fusion-competent cell types it may be triggered by different upstream signals. ..
  12. Suggs J, Cammarato A, Kronert W, Nikkhoy M, Dambacher C, Megighian A, et al. Alternative S2 hinge regions of the myosin rod differentially affect muscle function, myofibril dimensions and myosin tail length. J Mol Biol. 2007;367:1312-29 pubmed
    b>Muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) rod domains intertwine to form alpha-helical coiled-coil dimers; these subsequently multimerize into thick filaments via electrostatic interactions...
  13. Chanana B, Graf R, Koledachkina T, Pflanz R, Vorbrüggen G. AlphaPS2 integrin-mediated muscle attachment in Drosophila requires the ECM protein Thrombospondin. Mech Dev. 2007;124:463-75 pubmed
    ..Genetic interaction studies indicate that Tsp specifically interacts with the alphaPS2 integrin and that this interaction is needed to withstand the forces of muscle contractions at the tendon cells. ..
  14. Melkani G, Lee C, Cammarato A, Bernstein S. Drosophila UNC-45 prevents heat-induced aggregation of skeletal muscle myosin and facilitates refolding of citrate synthase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;396:317-22 pubmed publisher
    ..DUNC-45 displays chaperone function in suppressing aggregation of the muscle myosin heavy meromyosin fragment, the myosin S-1 motor domain, alpha-lactalbumin and citrate synthase...
  15. Kronert W, O Donnell P, Fieck A, Lawn A, Vigoreaux J, Sparrow J, et al. Defects in the Drosophila myosin rod permit sarcomere assembly but cause flight muscle degeneration. J Mol Biol. 1995;249:111-25 pubmed
    We have determined the molecular and ultrastructural defects associated with three homozygous-viable myosin heavy chain mutations of Drosophila melanogaster...
  16. Chun M, Falkenthal S. Ifm(2)2 is a myosin heavy chain allele that disrupts myofibrillar assembly only in the indirect flight muscle of Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 1988;107:2613-21 pubmed
    ..of molecular and genetic techniques we demonstrate that Ifm(2)2 is an allele of the single-copy sarcomeric myosin heavy chain gene...
  17. Elias M, Pronovost S, Cahill K, Beckerle M, Kadrmas J. A crucial role for Ras suppressor-1 (RSU-1) revealed when PINCH and ILK binding is disrupted. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3185-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this work highlights the existence of redundant mechanisms in adhesion complex assembly that support integrin function in vivo. ..
  18. Vigoreaux J. Genetics of the Drosophila flight muscle myofibril: a window into the biology of complex systems. Bioessays. 2001;23:1047-63 pubmed
  19. Ranganayakulu G, Zhao B, Dokidis A, Molkentin J, Olson E, Schulz R. A series of mutations in the D-MEF2 transcription factor reveal multiple functions in larval and adult myogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1995;171:169-81 pubmed
    ..In contrast, in the cardiac muscle lineage, morphogenesis of the dorsal vessel occurs normally but the three myosin subunit genes are not expressed...
  20. Geisbrecht E, Haralalka S, Swanson S, Florens L, Washburn M, Abmayr S. Drosophila ELMO/CED-12 interacts with Myoblast city to direct myoblast fusion and ommatidial organization. Dev Biol. 2008;314:137-49 pubmed publisher
  21. Jordan P, Karess R. Myosin light chain-activating phosphorylation sites are required for oogenesis in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:1805-19 pubmed
    ..In addition, numerous aggregates of myosin heavy chain accumulate in the sqh null cells...
  22. Fyrberg E, Beall C. Genetic approaches to myofibril form and function in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 1990;6:126-31 pubmed
    ..Molecular genetic approaches are advancing our understanding of myofibril structure and assembly, and may offer a novel and useful approach for investigating the crossbridge cycle. We review recent progress in Drosophila. ..
  23. Beall C, Sepanski M, Fyrberg E. Genetic dissection of Drosophila myofibril formation: effects of actin and myosin heavy chain null alleles. Genes Dev. 1989;3:131-40 pubmed
    ..We find that heterozygotes for actin (Act88F) or myosin heavy chain (Mhc36B) null alleles have complex myofibrillar defects, whereas Mhc36B-/+; Act88F-/+ double heterozygotes ..
  24. Zhang Y, Featherstone D, Davis W, Rushton E, Broadie K. Drosophila D-titin is required for myoblast fusion and skeletal muscle striation. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 17):3103-15 pubmed
    ..We propose that D-Titin is instrumental in the development of the two defining features of striated muscle: the formation of multi-nucleate syncitia and the organization of actin-myosin filaments into striated arrays.
  25. Grabbe C, Zervas C, Hunter T, Brown N, Palmer R. Focal adhesion kinase is not required for integrin function or viability in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:5795-805 pubmed
    ..Despite this, overexpressed Fak56 is a potent inhibitor of integrins binding to the extracellular matrix, suggesting that Fak56 may play a subtle role in the negative regulation of integrin adhesion. ..
  26. Gisselbrecht S, Skeath J, Doe C, Michelson A. heartless encodes a fibroblast growth factor receptor (DFR1/DFGF-R2) involved in the directional migration of early mesodermal cells in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1996;10:3003-17 pubmed
    ..These studies establish that Htl signaling provides a vital connection between initial formation of the embryonic mesoderm in Drosophila and subsequent cell-fate specification within this germ layer. ..
  27. O Donnell P, Bernstein S. Molecular and ultrastructural defects in a Drosophila myosin heavy chain mutant: differential effects on muscle function produced by similar thick filament abnormalities. J Cell Biol. 1988;107:2601-12 pubmed
    We have determined the molecular defect of the Drosophila melanogaster myosin heavy chain (MHC) mutation Mhc and the mutation's effect on indirect flight muscle, jump muscle, and larval intersegmental muscle...
  28. García Zaragoza E, Mas J, Vivar J, Arredondo J, Cervera M. CF2 activity and enhancer integration are required for proper muscle gene expression in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2008;125:617-30 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it may also be a more general mechanism to control the correct levels of gene expression during development in each cell type. ..
  29. Hastings G, Emerson C. Myosin functional domains encoded by alternative exons are expressed in specific thoracic muscles of Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1991;114:263-76 pubmed
    The Drosophila 36B muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene has five sets of alternatively spliced exons that encode functionally important domains of the MHC protein and provide a combinatorial potential for expression of as many as 480 MHC ..
  30. Sevdali M, Kumar V, Peckham M, Sparrow J. Human congenital myopathy actin mutants cause myopathy and alter Z-disc structure in Drosophila flight muscle. Neuromuscul Disord. 2013;23:243-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Using Drosophila to study actin mutations may help aid our understanding of congential myopathies caused by actin mutations. ..
  31. Kronert W, Melkani G, Melkani A, Bernstein S. Alternative relay and converter domains tune native muscle myosin isoform function in Drosophila. J Mol Biol. 2012;416:543-57 pubmed publisher
    Myosin isoforms help define muscle-specific contractile and structural properties. Alternative splicing of myosin heavy chain gene transcripts in Drosophila melanogaster yields muscle-specific isoforms and highlights alternative domains ..
  32. Vigoreaux J. Alterations in flightin phosphorylation in Drosophila flight muscles are associated with myofibrillar defects engendered by actin and myosin heavy-chain mutant alleles. Biochem Genet. 1994;32:301-14 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the myosin heavy-chain gene that prevent thick filament assembly block accumulation of all flightin variants except N1, the ..
  33. Nishimura M, Inoue Y, Hayashi S. A wave of EGFR signaling determines cell alignment and intercalation in the Drosophila tracheal placode. Development. 2007;134:4273-82 pubmed
    ..cells in the rows align to form a smooth boundary (;boundary smoothing'), accompanied by a transient increase in myosin at the boundary and cell intercalation oriented in parallel with the cellular rows...
  34. Mar n M, Rodr guez J, Ferr s A. Transcription of Drosophila troponin I gene is regulated by two conserved, functionally identical, synergistic elements. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:1185-96 pubmed publisher
    ..are required for full expression levels in vivo as indicated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays...
  35. Frommer G, Vorbrüggen G, Pasca G, Jackle H, Volk T. Epidermal egr-like zinc finger protein of Drosophila participates in myotube guidance. EMBO J. 1996;15:1642-9 pubmed
  36. Gajewski K, Wang J, Schulz R. Calcineurin function is required for myofilament formation and troponin I isoform transition in Drosophila indirect flight muscle. Dev Biol. 2006;289:17-29 pubmed
    ..Genetic and molecular analyses indicate a severe reduction of myosin heavy chain gene expression in calcineurin B2 mutants, which accounts at least in part for the muscle collapse...
  37. Miller M, Lekkas P, Braddock J, Farman G, Ballif B, Irving T, et al. Aging enhances indirect flight muscle fiber performance yet decreases flight ability in Drosophila. Biophys J. 2008;95:2391-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Small-angle x-ray diffraction indicates that myosin heads move increasingly toward the thin filament with age, accounting for the increased transverse stiffness via ..
  38. Kim S, Shilagardi K, Zhang S, Hong S, Sens K, Bo J, et al. A critical function for the actin cytoskeleton in targeted exocytosis of prefusion vesicles during myoblast fusion. Dev Cell. 2007;12:571-86 pubmed
    ..These studies reveal a surprising cell-type specificity of Sltr-mediated actin polymerization in myoblast fusion, and demonstrate that targeted exocytosis of prefusion vesicles is a critical step prior to plasma membrane fusion. ..
  39. Anant S, Roy S, Vijayraghavan K. Twist and Notch negatively regulate adult muscle differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:1361-9 pubmed myoblasts, of activated Notch causes continued twist expression and failure of differentiation as assayed by myosin expression. The gain-of-function phenotype of Notch is very similar to that seen upon persistent twist expression...
  40. Michelson A, Gisselbrecht S, Buff E, Skeath J. Heartbroken is a specific downstream mediator of FGF receptor signalling in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:4379-89 pubmed
    ..A strong heartbroken allele also suppresses the effects of hyperactivated FGF but not EGF receptors. Thus, heartbroken may contribute to the specificity of developmental responses elicited by FGF receptor signalling. ..
  41. Nongthomba U, Clark S, Cummins M, Ansari M, Stark M, Sparrow J. Troponin I is required for myofibrillogenesis and sarcomere formation in Drosophila flight muscle. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:1795-805 pubmed
    ..We show in this paper that neither sarcomeric myosin nor actin are required for myoblast fusion or the subsequent morphogenesis of muscle fibres, i.e...
  42. Edwards K, Kiehart D. Drosophila nonmuscle myosin II has multiple essential roles in imaginal disc and egg chamber morphogenesis. Development. 1996;122:1499-511 pubmed
    ..The nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain (MHC encoded by zipper is required for cell sheet movements in Drosophila embryos...
  43. Littlefield K, Swank D, Sanchez B, Knowles A, Warshaw D, Bernstein S. The converter domain modulates kinetic properties of Drosophila myosin. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003;284:C1031-8 pubmed
    ..common to all molecular motors, was proposed to modulate the kinetic properties of Drosophila chimeric myosin isoforms...
  44. Rozek C, Davidson N. Drosophila has one myosin heavy-chain gene with three developmentally regulated transcripts. Cell. 1983;32:23-34 pubmed
    We have isolated overlapping genomic clones that contain a single-copy myosin heavy-chain gene of Drosophila melanogaster. By the criteria of hybridization under nonstringent conditions, this is the only myosin heavy-chain gene of the fly...
  45. Jani K, Schock F. Zasp is required for the assembly of functional integrin adhesion sites. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:1583-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, Zasp interacts genetically with integrins, showing that it regulates integrin function. Our observations point to an important function for Zasp in the assembly of integrin adhesion sites both in cell culture and in tissues. ..
  46. Swank D, Bartoo M, Knowles A, Iliffe C, Bernstein S, Molloy J, et al. Alternative exon-encoded regions of Drosophila myosin heavy chain modulate ATPase rates and actin sliding velocity. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:15117-24 pubmed
    To investigate the molecular functions of the regions encoded by alternative exons from the single Drosophila myosin heavy chain gene, we made the first kinetic measurements of two muscle myosin isoforms that differ in all alternative ..
  47. Ruiz Gomez M, Coutts N, Price A, Taylor M, Bate M. Drosophila dumbfounded: a myoblast attractant essential for fusion. Cell. 2000;102:189-98 pubmed
    ..duf encodes a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of proteins that is an attractant for fusion-competent myoblasts. It is expressed by founder cells and serves to attract clusters of myoblasts from which myotubes form by fusion. ..
  48. Bloemink M, Dambacher C, Knowles A, Melkani G, Geeves M, Bernstein S. Alternative exon 9-encoded relay domains affect more than one communication pathway in the Drosophila myosin head. J Mol Biol. 2009;389:707-21 pubmed publisher
    ..the biochemical and biophysical properties of one of the four alternative regions within the Drosophila myosin catalytic domain: the relay domain encoded by exon 9...
  49. Fyrberg E, Bernstein S, Vijayraghavan K. Basic methods for Drosophila muscle biology. Methods Cell Biol. 1994;44:237-58 pubmed
  50. Shishido E, Ono N, Kojima T, Saigo K. Requirements of DFR1/Heartless, a mesoderm-specific Drosophila FGF-receptor, for the formation of heart, visceral and somatic muscles, and ensheathing of longitudinal axon tracts in CNS. Development. 1997;124:2119-28 pubmed
    ..DFR1 mutant phenotypes were partially mimicked by the targeted expression of activated Yan, thus demonstrating the MAP kinase pathway to be involved in differentiation of mesoderm. ..
  51. Subramanian A, Wayburn B, Bunch T, Volk T. Thrombospondin-mediated adhesion is essential for the formation of the myotendinous junction in Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:1269-78 pubmed
  52. Llorens J, Navarro J, Martínez Sebastián M, Baylies M, Schneuwly S, Botella J, et al. Causative role of oxidative stress in a Drosophila model of Friedreich ataxia. FASEB J. 2007;21:333-44 pubmed
    ..We propose that in FA, the oxidative mediated inactivation of aconitase, which occurs normally during the aging process, is enhanced due to the lack of frataxin. ..
  53. Mogami K, O Donnell P, Bernstein S, Wright T, Emerson C. Mutations of the Drosophila myosin heavy-chain gene: effects on transcription, myosin accumulation, and muscle function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:1393-7 pubmed
    Mutations of the myosin heavy-chain (MHC) gene of Drosophila melanogaster were identified among a group of dominant flightless and recessive lethal mutants (map position 2-52, 36A8-B1,2). One mutation is a 0...
  54. Bernstein S, Hansen C, Becker K, Wassenberg D, Roche E, Donady J, et al. Alternative RNA splicing generates transcripts encoding a thorax-specific isoform of Drosophila melanogaster myosin heavy chain. Mol Cell Biol. 1986;6:2511-9 pubmed
    Genomic and cDNA sequencing studies show that transcripts from the muscle myosin heavy-chain (MHC) gene of Drosophila melanogaster are alternatively spliced, producing RNAs that encode at least two MHC isoforms with different C termini...
  55. Cammarato A, Dambacher C, Knowles A, Kronert W, Bodmer R, Ocorr K, et al. Myosin transducer mutations differentially affect motor function, myofibril structure, and the performance of skeletal and cardiac muscles. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:553-62 pubmed
    Striated muscle myosin is a multidomain ATP-dependent molecular motor. Alterations to various domains affect the chemomechanical properties of the motor, and they are associated with skeletal and cardiac myopathies...
  56. Bahri S, Choy J, Manser E, Lim L, Yang X. The Drosophila homologue of Arf-GAP GIT1, dGIT, is required for proper muscle morphogenesis and guidance during embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 2009;325:15-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that dGIT and dPak are part of a complex that promotes proper muscle morphogenesis and myotube targeting during embryogenesis. ..
  57. Epstein H, Bernstein S. Genetic approaches to understanding muscle development. Dev Biol. 1992;154:231-44 pubmed
    ..We discuss examples of each of these genetic approaches as well as the developmental and evolutionary implications of the results. ..
  58. Miller B, Nyitrai M, Bernstein S, Geeves M. Kinetic analysis of Drosophila muscle myosin isoforms suggests a novel mode of mechanochemical coupling. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50293-300 pubmed
    ..was addressed by measuring transient kinetic parameters of naturally occurring and chimeric Drosophila muscle myosin isoforms...
  59. Michelson A, Gisselbrecht S, Zhou Y, Baek K, Buff E. Dual functions of the heartless fibroblast growth factor receptor in development of the Drosophila embryonic mesoderm. Dev Genet. 1998;22:212-29 pubmed
    ..Finally, parallels between requirements for FGFR signaling in Drosophila and vertebrate mesoderm development are considered. ..
  60. Royou A, Sullivan W, Karess R. Cortical recruitment of nonmuscle myosin II in early syncytial Drosophila embryos: its role in nuclear axial expansion and its regulation by Cdc2 activity. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:127-37 pubmed
    ..The cellular mechanisms driving this process, called axial expansion, are unclear, but myosin II activity is required...
  61. Soler C, Daczewska M, Da Ponte J, Dastugue B, Jagla K. Coordinated development of muscles and tendons of the Drosophila leg. Development. 2004;131:6041-51 pubmed
    ..This leads to a stereotyped pattern of multifibre muscles that ensures movement of the adult leg. ..
  62. Cripps R, Becker K, Mardahl M, Kronert W, Hodges D, Bernstein S. Transformation of Drosophila melanogaster with the wild-type myosin heavy-chain gene: rescue of mutant phenotypes and analysis of defects caused by overexpression. J Cell Biol. 1994;126:689-99 pubmed
    We have transformed Drosophila melanogaster with a genomic construct containing the entire wild-type myosin heavy-chain gene, Mhc, together with approximately 9 kb of flanking DNA on each side...
  63. Bernstein S, Milligan R. Fine tuning a molecular motor: the location of alternative domains in the Drosophila myosin head. J Mol Biol. 1997;271:1-6 pubmed
    ..To examine how myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform diversity could affect physiological function, we studied the locations of structural ..
  64. Naimi B, Harrison A, Cummins M, Nongthomba U, Clark S, Canal I, et al. A tropomyosin-2 mutation suppresses a troponin I myopathy in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:1529-39 pubmed
    ..The effects of S185F are compared with those of two mutations in residues 175 and 180 of human alpha-tropomyosin 1 which cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). ..
  65. Clyne P, Brotman J, Sweeney S, Davis G. Green fluorescent protein tagging Drosophila proteins at their native genomic loci with small P elements. Genetics. 2003;165:1433-41 pubmed
    ..This technology allows the generation of GFP-tagged reagents on a genome-wide scale with diverse potential applications. ..
  66. Collier V, Kronert W, O Donnell P, Edwards K, Bernstein S. Alternative myosin hinge regions are utilized in a tissue-specific fashion that correlates with muscle contraction speed. Genes Dev. 1990;4:885-95 pubmed
    By comparing the structure of wild-type and mutant muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) genes of Drosophila melanogaster, we have identified the defect in the homozygous-viable, flightless mutant Mhc10...
  67. Schuster C, Davis G, Fetter R, Goodman C. Genetic dissection of structural and functional components of synaptic plasticity. I. Fasciclin II controls synaptic stabilization and growth. Neuron. 1996;17:641-54 pubmed
    ..Fas II can also control synaptic growth; various FasII alleles lead to either an increase or decrease in sprouting, depending upon the level of Fas II. ..
  68. Beall C, Fyrberg E. Muscle abnormalities in Drosophila melanogaster heldup mutants are caused by missing or aberrant troponin-I isoforms. J Cell Biol. 1991;114:941-51 pubmed
    ..can be prevented by eliminating thick filaments from flight muscles using a null allele of the sarcomeric myosin heavy chain gene...
  69. Hakeda S, Endo S, Saigo K. Requirements of Kettin, a giant muscle protein highly conserved in overall structure in evolution, for normal muscle function, viability, and flight activity of Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:101-14 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, embryos lacking kettin activity cannot hatch nor can adult flies heterozygous for the kettin mutation fly. ..
  70. Walsh E, Brown N. A screen to identify Drosophila genes required for integrin-mediated adhesion. Genetics. 1998;150:791-805 pubmed
    ..Thus several of these loci are good candidates for genes encoding cytoplasmic proteins required for integrin function. ..
  71. Bloemink M, Melkani G, Dambacher C, Bernstein S, Geeves M. Two Drosophila myosin transducer mutants with distinct cardiomyopathies have divergent ADP and actin affinities. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:28435-43 pubmed publisher
    Two Drosophila myosin II point mutations (D45 and Mhc(5)) generate Drosophila cardiac phenotypes that are similar to dilated or restrictive human cardiomyopathies...
  72. Mogami K, Hotta Y. Isolation of Drosophila flightless mutants which affect myofibrillar proteins of indirect flight muscle. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;183:409-17 pubmed
    ..IFM myofibrils of these mutants are either abnormal or absent in homozygotes as well as in heterozygotes. ..
  73. Kramer S, Kidd T, Simpson J, Goodman C. Switching repulsion to attraction: changing responses to slit during transition in mesoderm migration. Science. 2001;292:737-40 pubmed
    ..A few hours after migration, these same cells change their behavior and require Robo to extend toward Slit-expressing muscle attachment sites. Thus, Slit functions as a chemoattractant to provide specificity for muscle patterning. ..
  74. Hess N, Singer P, Trinh K, Nikkhoy M, Bernstein S. Transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila melanogaster muscle myosin heavy-chain gene. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:413-22 pubmed
    We show that a 2.6kb fragment of the muscle myosin heavy-chain gene (Mhc) of Drosophila melanogaster (containing 458 base pairs of upstream sequence, the first exon, the first intron and the beginning of the second exon) drives ..
  75. Nongthomba U, Ansari M, Thimmaiya D, Stark M, Sparrow J. Aberrant splicing of an alternative exon in the Drosophila troponin-T gene affects flight muscle development. Genetics. 2007;177:295-306 pubmed
  76. Swank D, Knowles A, Suggs J, Sarsoza F, Lee A, Maughan D, et al. The myosin converter domain modulates muscle performance. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:312-6 pubmed
    b>Myosin is the molecular motor that powers muscle contraction as a result of conformational changes during its mechanochemical cycle...
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